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IV. I 





JVo. 

Division 
Range 
Shelf. 

Received 187 



PRESENTED TO THE 



I Library of the University of California, 

J 



o 



\ 



THE 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



WAR OF THE REBELLION, 

(1861-65.) 



PREPARED, IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACTS OF CONGRESS, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

Surgeon General JOSEPH K, BARNES, United States Army, 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1870. 



> -*-.. , 

7?. 



WAR, DEPARTMENT, 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

November 12, 1870. 

In the first year of the War it became evident that the form of Returns of 
Sick and Wounded, then in use, were insufficient and defective; and, on May 21, 

1862, measures were taken by the then Surgeon General of the Army, Wm. A. 
Hammond, to secure more detailed and exact reports of sick and wounded, by 
important modifications in the returns from medical officers. On June 9, 1862, 
the intention to prepare for publication a Medical and Surgical History of the 
Rebellion was announced to the Medical Staff, in a Circular from the Surgeon 
General s Office. On July 1 , 1 863, a Consolidated Statement of Gunshot Wounds, 
by Surgeon J. H. Brinton, U. S. Volunteers, then in charge of the Surgical 
Records, and Curator of the Army Medical Musuem ; and on September 8, 

1863, a Report on Sickness and Mortality of the Army during the first year of 
the War, prepared by Assistant Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. Army, in charge 
of the Medical Records, were published by this Office. 

The necessity for a thorough revision of the Returns of Sick and Wounded 
becoming apparent, a Medical Board was assembled for this purpose, in July, 
1862, and subsequently the following order was promulgated: 

[CIRCULAR No. 25.] 

GENERAL ORDERS ] WAR DEPARTMENT, 

ADJUTANT. GENERAL S OFFICE. 
No, 355. Washington, November, 4, 1863. 

Medical Directors of Armies in the field will forward, direct to the Surgeon General, 
at Washington, duplicates of their reports to their several Commanding Generals, of the 
killed and wounded, after every engagement. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

(Signed:). E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. C., Nov. 11, 1863. 

To carry out the intentions of the above order, Medical Directors of Armies in the 
field will detail suitable officers, who will, under their instructions, collate and prepare for 
transmission to this office, all obtainable statistics and data in connection with past and 



IV PREFATORY. 

future operations of those armies, which may be essential or useful in the accurate 
compilation of the Medical and Surgical History of the War. 

Particular attention is called to the following points: The morale and sanitary 
condition of the troops; condition and amount of medical and hospital supplies, tents, 
ambulances, etc.: the points at or near the field where the wounded were attended to: 
degree of exposure of wounded to wet, cold, or heat ; adequacy of supplies of water, food, 
stimulants, etc. : mode of removal of wounded from field to field hospitals; to what general 
hospitals the wounded were transferred, by what means and where; the character and 
duration of the action, nature of wounds received, etc. When practicable, separate 
casualty lists will be made of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
privates. The attention of all medical officers is earnestly directed to the importance of 
this subject; without their cooperation no reliable record can be preserved the vast 
experience of the past will remain with individuals, and be lost to the service and the 
country. 

J. K. BARNES, 

Medical Inspector General, 
Acting Surgeon General. 

To facilitate the collection and preservation of all important information, 
medical officers serving with regiments in the field were furnished, in January, 
1864, with a compact and portable Register of Sick and Wounded, and the 
following instructions were issued : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. G., January 20. 1864. 

The Register of Sick and Wounded hitherto in use in the U. S. A. General Hospitals 
is hereby discontinued. In lieu thereof will be substituted two Registers for each General 
Hospital, viz. : 

1. A Register of Sick and Wounded. 

2. A Register of Surgical Operations. 

. In the former the appropriate entries will be made whenever a patient is admitted 
into hospital, and during his subsequent stay therein; and, to assist in the preparation of 
this Register, a new form of Bed-Cards has been adopted. 

In the "Register of Surgical Operations," will be entered, minutely and in detail, the 
particulars of all operations performed, or treated in hospital. These entries should be 
made by the medical officers in charge of wards. 

The above Registers and Bed-Cards are now in the hands of the Medical Purveyors, 
ready for issue, and you are directed to make immediate requisition for the same, adopting 
them as soon as received. 

J. K. BARXES, 

To the Surgeon-in-charge of Acting /Surgeon General. 

U. S. A. General Hospital. 



PREFATORY. V 

In February, 1864, separate Reports were ordered to be made for Sick and 
Wounded Rebel Prisoners of War, and for White and Colored Troops, in order to 
obtain with greater facility the sickness and mortality rates of each. 

A Classified Return of Wounds and Injuries received in Action, a Report 
of Wounded, and a Report of Surgical Operations, were adopted in March, 1864, 
and distributed with the following circulars : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. O., March 23, 1864. 

Medical Directors of Armies in the field will issue the "Classified Return of Wounds 
and Injuries received in Action," to the Chief Medical Officers of Corps and Divisions, 
who will see that they are properly distributed. 

This form, correctly filled up by the Senior Medical Officer of the command engaged, 
will be transmitted, in duplicate, through the proper channel, to the Medical Director of 
the Army within three days after every action. 

The Medical Director of the Army will, as soon as possible, forward to the Surgeon 
General a Consolidated Return of all Casualties, according to the same form. He will, at 
the same time, transmit one copy of all Duplicate Returns received from his subordinate 

Medical Officers. 

J. K. BARNES, 

Acting Surgeon General. 



[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. O., March 28, 1864. 
SIR: 

You are hereby directed to fill up the accompanying " Report of Wounded" and 
" Report of Surgical Operations " for the months of January, February, and March, 1864. 

The Report of Wounded will consist of an accurate and legible copy of all cases of 
wounded entered on the Hospital Register during the quarter. 

The Report of Surgical Operations will consist of a correct copy of the Register of 
Surgical Operations for the same period. 

A list of wounded remaining under treatment on the 31st December, 1863, in the 
hospital under your charge, and on furlough, is enclosed ; you are directed to fill up the 
column " Result and Date," opposite the respective names. 

Additional details for the present quarter, of "Surgical Operations remaining under 
treatment December 31, 1863," you will report on appended slips of paper. 

Blank sets of Reports on Secondary Haemorrhage, Tetanus, and Pya3mia, are also 
enclosed. These you will fill up in the usual manner. Should no such cases have occurred 
in the hospital under your charge during the time specified, you will so state in your letter 
of transmission. 



VI PREFATORY. 

All of the reports above alluded to will, when compiled, be forwarded directly to the 
Acting Surgeon General. 

By order of the Acting Surgeon General : 

C. H. CRANE, 

Medical Officer in charge of- Surgeon U. S. Army. 

U; S. A. General Hospital. 

Contemporaneously with the establishment of a more accurate system of 
Medical and Surgical reports, a pathological collection was commenced, which, 
under the charge of Surgeon J. H. Brinton, U. S. Volunteers, and Assistant 
Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. Army, became the basis of the Army Medical 
Museum, itself, as it now exists, an eloquent and instructive history of the Medicine 
and Surgery of the War, and without which no history could have been com 
pletely illustrated. 

The announcement of this project was cordially responded to by Medical 
Officers throughout the service ; and the list of contributors comprises the names 
of many most eminent for zeal and ability in the discharge of their duties under 
the Government, whose honorable records are identified with this work. 

The following Circular was published more to secure a certain class of 
specimens, than to stimulate the liberality with which most valuable pathological 
material was being forwarded : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SURGEON GENERAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. C., June 24, 1864. 

Medical Officers in charge of Hospitals are directed to diligently collect and preserve 
for the Army Medical Museum, all pathological surgical specimens which may occur in 
the hospitals under their charge. 

The objects which it is desired to collect for the Museum may be thus enumerated : 

Fractures, compound and simple ; fractures of the cranium. 

Excised portions of bone. 

Diseased bones and joints. 

Exfoliations ; especially those occurring in stumps. 

Specimens illustrative of the structure of stumps, (obliterated arteries, bulbous nerves, 

rounded bones, etc.) 

Integumental wounds of entrance and of exit, from both the round and conoidal ball. 
Wounds of vessels and nerves. 

Vessels obtained subsequent to ligation, and to secondary haemorrhage. 
Wounded viscera. 
Photographic representations of extraordinary injuries, portraying the results of 

wounds, operations, or peculiar amputations. 



PREFATORY. VII 

Models of novel surgical appliances, and photographic views of new plans of dressing. 

Plaster casts of stumps and amputations, and models of limbs upon which excisions 
may have been performed. 

It is not intended to impose on Medical Officers the labor of dissecting and preparing 
the specimens they may contribute to the Museum. This will be done under the super 
intendence of the Curator, 

In forwarding such pathological objects as compound fractures, bony specimens, and 
wet preparations generally, obtained after amputation, operation, or cadaveric examination, 
all unnecessary soft parts should first be roughly removed. Every specimen should then 
be wrapped separately in a cloth, so as to preserve all spicuke and fragments. A small 
block of wood should be attached, with the name of the patient, the number of the specimen, 
and the name of the medical officer sending it, inscribed in lead pencil. The inscription will 
be uninjured by the contact of fluids. The preparation should be then immersed in diluted 
alcohol or whiskey, contained in a keg or small cask. When a sufficient number of objects 
shall have accumulated, the cask should be forwarded directly to the Surgeon General s 
Office. The expenses of expressage will be defrayed in Washington. The receipt of the 
keg or package will be duly acknowledged by the Curator of the Museum. 

In every instance, a corresponding list or history of the cases should, at the same 
time, be forwarded to this office. In this list the number and nature of every specimen 
should be clearly specified, and, when possible, its history should be given. The numbers 
attached to the specimens themselves, and the numbers on the list forwarded should always 
correspond, and should be accompanied by the name and rank of the medical officer by 
whom sent. Every specimen will be duly credited in the Catalogue to the medical officer 

contributing; it. 

J. K. BARNES, 

Acting Surgeon General. 



In order to perfect the returns under examination, as far as possible, the 
following Circular was issued : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SUKGEON GEK SEAL S OFFICE, 

Washington, D. C., February 2, 1865. 

Medical Directors of Armies in the field or of detached commands are instructed to 
transmit to this Office copies of all reports in their possession from the Recorders of Division 
or other Field Hospitals, and in future, copies of such reports will be forwarded to the 
Surgeon General within twenty days after every engagement. 

Medical Directors of Departments will forward to this Office copies of all reports of 
individual cases of gunshot injury antecedent to the adoption of the present system of 
registration of wounds, (October 1, 1863,) which are on file in their offices. 

By order of the Surgeon General ; 

C. 11. CRANE, 

Surgeon U. $. Army. 



VIII . PREFATORY. 

On April 6, 1866, a letter was addressed to each Medical Director, requiring 
that all Registers of Hospitals, Consolidated Registers of Soldiers treated, and all 
information in their possession pertaining to the Sick, Wounded, Discharged, 
and Dead during the war, should be transferred to this Office. Careful revision of 
the material accumulated up to that date, had established its immense value to 
the civilized world, and it seemed to be demanded that, in justice to humanity, 
and to the national credit, it should, at once, be made available by publication. 

By authority of the Secretary of War, Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Circular 
No. 6, A Report upon the Extent and Nature of the Materials available for the 
preparation of a Medical and Surgical History of the War, was published, and 
an edition of seven thousand five hundred copies distributed. 

Encouraged by the approbation of Secretary Stanton, who took the deepest 
interest in its success, and aided by his powerful influence, an application was 
made to Congress, and an appropriation was granted June 8, 1868, for the 
purpose of preparing for publication, under the direction of the Secretary of War, 
five thousand copies of the First Part of the Medical and Surgical History of the 
Rebellion, compiled by the Surgeon General, and on March 3, 1869, by a Joint 
Resolution of Congress, the number of copies mentioned above was authorized to 
be printed at the Government Printing Office. 

Assistant Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. Army, who had been in charge 
of the Medical Records since June 9, 1862, and Assistant Surgeon George A. 
Otis, U. S. Army, who was assigned to the charge of the Surgical Records, 
October 3, 1864, were directed to prepare the work for publication; the zeal and 
intelligence of these Officers having been already fully established. 

No work of this character, of equal magnitude, had ever been undertaken; 
the Medical and Surgical History of the British Army which served in Turkey 
and the Crimea during the war against Russia in 1854/1855, and 1856, and the 
Medico-Chirurgical Report of Doctor J. C. Cheuu upon the Crimean Campaign, 
published by the French Government in 1865, being the only national publica 
tions on military medicine and surgery. 

It was not considered advisable to follow the classification of either of these 
works, and a plan was determined on which it is believed will be found adapted 
to the preservation of the great mass of facts collected, in a form for convenient 
study. Through the liberality of the Government, in its beneficent pension laws, 
it has been found practicable to obtain accurate histories of many thousand 
wounded or mutilated men for years subsequent to their discharge from service. 



PREFATORY. IX 

The success which has attended this effort to ascertain the ultimate results 
of operations or conservative measures, employed in the treatment of the wounded 
in the late war, is largely owing to the cordial cooperation of the Surgeons 
General and Adjutants General of States, the Examining Surgeons of the Pension 
Bureau, and very many private Physicians throughout the country. As in the 

official returns of the casualties of the French and English Armies in the Crimean 

~ 

War, the cases were dropped when the men were invalided, pensioned, or 
discharged from service, this information was considered peculiarly desirable. 
In carrying out the intentions of Congress, it has.been my earnest endeavor 
to make this Medical and Surgical History of the War, not only a contribution to 
science, but an enduring monument to the self-sacrificing zeal and professional 
ability of the Volunteer and Regular Medical Staff, and the unparalleled liberality 
of our Government, which provided so amply for the care of its sick and wounded 
soldiers. To the Medical Officers connected more immediately with this work, 
for most cordial assistance and unceasing industry; to those who, at the close of 
the war, returned to civil life ; to the members of the Medical Staff of the Army 
and Officers of the various Bureaux of the War Department, for the courtesy and 
promptness with, which requests for information have invariably been responded 
to, I am deeply indebted. My thanks, and those of every possessor of these 
volumes, are especially due to the Superintendents of the Government Printing 
Office, and their skilled assistants, who have spared no pains in making the 
typography and execution of this publication worthy of the Government and the 

Nation it represents. 

JOSEPH K. BARNES, 

Surgeon General U. S. Army. 



9* 



THE 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

PART I. 
VOLUME II. 

SURGICAL HISTORY. 



Prepared, under ihe direction of JOSEPH K, BARNES, Surgeon General United States Army, 

BY GEORGE A. OTIS, ASSISTANT SUKGEON UNITED STATES ARMY. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In the preparation of the surgical portion of the Medical and Surgical History of 
the War of the Rebellion, it was at first proposed to treat of the surgery in connection 
with the military operations in the several battles and campaigns. Surgeon John H. 
Brinton, U. S. V., originally assigned to the task,* prosecuted his work on this plan. 
After giving a general account of a campaign, enumerating the troops engaged, the mode 
of transporting the injured, and the available hospital accommodations, the wounds and 
operations of each engagement were discussed, the reports of medical directors, and all 
other reliable sources of information being brought into requisition. Among these were 
observations personally made in the base and field hospitals of the armies of the Potomac 
and of the West, after the great battles, where much valuable surgical material was 
collected, including admirable illustrations of the graver injuries, pathological specimens, 
and a series of excellent surgical drawings. Such a plan was adapted to the outset of the 
War, when its extent and protracted duration was anticipated by no one ; but toward the 
close of the year 1864, it became apparent that a plan susceptible of wider generalization 
must be adopted, for the clerical force then at the disposition of the Surgeon General was 
hardly sufficient to classify the immense returns from the hospitals and battle-fields of the 
Army of the Potomac alone. During that year there were no less than two thousand 
skirmishes, actions, or battles, and to have given a correct analysis of the casualties from 
the returns from the field and base hospitals would have been impossible. For the num 
ber of wounded received at the Washington hospitals alone, during the quarter ending 
June 30th, 1864, was over thirty thousand, and the total number of wounded reported by 
all the general hospitals exceeded eighty thousand. 

Therefore, in 1865, it was suggested, in the report of materials available for a Surgical 
History of the Warf that the wounds and operations be classified according to regions, 
important cases being described at length, and brief abstracts or numerical tabular state 
ments being furnished of the less important cases. 

It was decided that this plan should be adopted, and that the reports of medical 
directors and others, relating to the field service, should be published as "appended docu 
ments" to the Medical and Surgical History. They are bound in Volume I, Part I. 

In the preliminary surgical report in Circular No. 6, S. G. 0., 1865, the materials 
available for a complete surgical history are fully described, and in the introduction to the 
medical volume of Part I, of the Medical and Surgical History, the form of the monthly 
report of sick and wounded required of each hospital, post, regiment, or detachment at 
the beginning of the war, and the various modifications made in the blanks during its 
progress are clearly explained, and the causes of discrepancies and probabilities of errors 
plainly pointed out. It remains only to advert briefly to some other sources of information 
of an exclusively surgical nature. Though, from the beginning, it had been customary for 

* See Circular No. ">, Surgeon Gem-nil s OtKce, Juno Uth, 18(>2. t Circular o , S. G. O., 18t>5. 



XIV 



INTBODUCTION. 



medical directors to forward to the Surgeon General lists of the killed and wounded after 
each engagement, it was not until late in 1863,* that these returns were made obligatory 
and rigorously exacted. They were of the greatest utility in furnishing the means of 
tracing patients to base or general hospitals, where their histories were more fully detailed. 
The lists were on forms, twelve by sixteen inches, ruled as follows : 



List of Wounded in the 



of. 



Brigade, Division, 

on the day of 



Corps, Army of 
....,186 



., at the Battle 



NUMBER. 


NAMES. 


RAKK. 


1 COMPANY. 


REGIMENT. 


CORPS. 


Missile or 
Weapon. 


INJURY. 


TREATMENT. 


RESULT 
AND DATE. 


REMARKS 


Surname. 


Christian 
name. 


Seat of. 


Nature of 
(slight 
or severe.) 

























NOTE I. This List will be made with the strictest accuracy, and will be 
transmitted by the Medical Directors of Corps to the Medical Director of the 
Army, ivithin seven days after an engagement. The names of all men treated 
in the Hospital will be entered upon this List. When men are transferred to 
or from other Division Hospitals, the fact of the transfer and the date will be 
noted in the " Remarks." 

NOTE II. It is enjoined upon Medical Officers to state in the column 
"Nature of Injury," whether the wound is a flesh-wound or a fracture or a 
penetrating wound of a cavity. 



Surgeon in Chief Division, Corps. 



The pocket field register, five and one-half by eight and one-fourth inches, referred 
to by the Surgeon General on page IV of his prefatory remarks, as issued to regimental 
surgeons, answered a like useful purpose. It was ruled as below. Only about five 
hundred were transmitted to the Surgeon General s Office at the close of the war 



Register and Prescription Boole of Regiment 



















No. 


NAME. 


RANK. 


REO T. 


COMP. 


DISEASE. 


IN HOSPITAL 
OU QUAKTEKS. 


PRESCRIPTION AND REMARKS. 




















* See GENERAL ORDERS No. 355, War Department, Adjutant General s Office, November 4th, 1863 . 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



It was found, as the troops were massed in a few large armies, that it was requisite 
to obtain more prompt information of the aggregate of casualties than was afforded by the 
nominal returns Hence the following form was employed. It appears to have been 
filled out with great fidelity: 

o v 

Classified Return of Wounds and Injuries received in action on the day of , 186 , 

at Division Corps, Army of 



REGION OF BODY WOUNDED. 


Total number wounded. 1 


Deaths. 


NATURE OF MISSILE ou 
WEAPON. 


OPERATIONS AND DEATHS. 


Chlorofonn administered 
in. 


Deaths from. 


REMARKS. 


Cannon Ball. 


"3 


Bullet, 


Sword. 


Bayonet. 

Other or undeter 
mined means. 


Amputations. 
Deaths following. 


Excisions. 


Deaths following. 


Other Operations. 


Deaths following. 


FLUSH , 
WOUNDS. 

PENE- ( 

TRATING 

WOUNDS. 
ARM. 

FOREARM. < 

THIGH. < 
LEG. 

Wounds w 
arteries, i 
cases of c 

Wounds w 
nerves, n 
cases of c 


Head 










































Abdominal Parietes 




Perineum, Genital, and ? 
Urinary Organs 3 
































Fracture, upper 3d 


Fracture, middle 3d 




, Flesh Wound 








Toes 


th direct injury of large 
lot being at the same time 


th direct injury of large 
->t being at the same time 




1 


OTAL 

































Surycon, 
Division, 



Corps, 



Army of 



NOTE. This statement will be transmitted, in duplicate., by the Medical Directors of Army Corps to the Medical Director of the Army within 

! received for failure in its trunsniittal within the time hero directed. 



fire days after an engagement. No excuse will be i 



JOSEPH K. BARNES, 

Actiltij S>irt/rmi General. 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



en up 



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parative pe 



of co 



an hosp 



oon as practicab 



being transferred as 



ng for 



The wounded man 
both of the follow 



Report of Wounded U. S. A. General Hospital for the months of 186 


REMARKS. 

Here state cause of death, of 
discharge, or of transfer to 
Veteran Reserve Corps. 




NOiuiasaci HO Honoi -S 
Hn.ii MOTH uaxxiwuv-3H ^ 




RESULT. 


q Ba [ 4 




^ TSS^a | 




P^-a 1 




paq^notan^ "g 




iBjidsojj iBjauao e 




^ssss 1 




.fynp o) paiunjoji " 




IN SURGICAL CASES ONLY. 


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H 111} 




pJOAlS 

^auoXeq ;oqs pi[os 
jai[nqit30iuoo ao panojj 

JJOJV3AA HO 




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w c3^ M 

6 .- % Z 

Q |5 ~. 




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aoanos nanxo XVHAY KOH.J 




son ivaaxao XVHAY KOHJ 




aaxxiway NSHM 




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aaawnN IVXMSOH 





INTRODUCTION. 



XVII 



That a continuous record might be kept, the names and military descriptions of all 
surgical patients remaining under treatment at the conclusion of the quarter, were copied, 
at the Surgeon General s Office, from the quarterly reports of wounds and of operations, 
upon folio blanks of the form following. These lists were mailed to the hospitals, where 
the progress or result of each case was recorded, and the paper thence returned with the 
succeeding quarterly reports : 

List of Wounded remaining under treatment at U. S. A. Hospital, at 

the beginning of the quarter which ends , 186 

f NOTE. This form, with the column Result and Date" properly filled up, will be returned by the Medical Officer in charge to the Surgeon General, U.S. A. J 



HOSPITAL 

NfMliEK. 


NAME. 


CO. 


REGIMENT. 


DIAGNOSIS. 


RESULT AND DATE. 















Prior to the adoption of the quarterly reports of .wounded and of operations, patients 
were supplied with descriptive lists, on foolscap, ruled and lettered in the following form. 
Except in cases of transfer, these were not filled out with much fidelity, but occasionally 
they furnished important facts and even histories of grave cases that would otherwise 
have escaped notice: 



MEDICAL DESCRIPTIVE LIST. 



Ward , Bed . 

Name , Age 



General Hospital at 
, Rank , Co. , Regiment 



Disease or Injury, _. 



( Name of attending Medical Officer.) 



f Admission, 
Return to duty, cured, 

\ Furlough, 

DATE OF ^ ^.. , V . "" 

] Discharge from service, 

Transfer to another Hospital; 
Death, 



NOTE. When a patient is first received into a General Hospital, the entries on this Descriptive List will be commenced. All important changes 
in his condition will be noted on it (in ink), from time to time, by the Surgeon in charge of the Ward. When the patient has been wounded, the date 
and character of the wound will be stated, the nature of the operation (if any), and, above all, the result. In case of transfer, this list will be sent, 
through the officer in charge of the transportation, or failing one, by mail, to the Surgeon in charge of the Hospital receiving the patient. When this 
medical history shall have been completed, by the cure, discharge, furlough, or death of the patient, it will, with the treatment and result carefully 
noted, be transmitted directly to the Surgeon General. 



DATE. 


TREATMENT. 


DIET. 


REMARKS AS TO CONDITION OF PATIENT, &c. 











There was the following endorsement: 



Name of Hospital, 

Name of Patient, 

Disease or Injury, 

Result, 

Date of Transmission, 



XVIII INTRODUCTION. 

The entries on bed-cards sometimes supplied missing links, in tracing the chain of 
evidence of important cases. These cards were printed on thick paper or card-board, five 
and one-half by three and one-half inches, and were classified and transmitted to the 
Surgeon General s Office when the hospital closed. The form of the cards used (face and 
back) may be seen below : 

Form of Bed-card used in the United States General Hospitals. 

HOSPITAL NUMBER 



Xa me 

Aye , Nativity 

Married or Siivjle 

Residence 

Post-Office address of 

wife or nearest relative 



f\ 

ii>e, $ 



Bank , Co. , Regiment 



When admitted 
From what source 



Diagnosis : (In surgical cases state explicitly seat and character of wound 
or injury.) 



On what occasion wounded 

Date 

Nature of missile or weapon 



TREATMENT. 

[ HERE NOTE IMPORTANT COMPLICATIONS AND ALL OPERATIONS.] 



RESULT AND DATE. 



It was anticipated that much information would be derived from the discharge papers 
for physical disability, but, after a laborious examination it was found that the surgical 
certificates were generally brief and vague, and comparatively useless for statistical 
purposes. The rolls of soldiers transferred to the Invalid Corps were searched with nearly 
the same result, the surgical memoranda being practically worthless. The objects in view 
in the formation of this corps were perverted, many sound, healthy soldiers being trans 
ferred to suit the convenience of officers who took them from the ranks to serve as clerks, 
cooks, nurses, or other attendants, and it became necessary that the corps should be 
reorganized. This was effected by discharging and pensioning the utterly disabled men, 
and dividing the remainder, according to the extent of their disabilities, into two battalions 
of " Veteran Reserve Corps," the second battalion being composed largely of men maimed 
by the loss of a limb. The entries were useless in a surgical point of view, being as 
concise as: "amputation/ or "amputated leg," or "excised elbow." When, in 18^6, four 
regiments* of Veteran Reserves were incorporated with the Regular Army, the Surgeon 
General instructed the examining surgeons, at the recruiting stations, to take careful notes 
of all extraordinary cases ot injury or mutilation presented to them. Through this channel 
much valuable material was obtained. 

The numerous survivors of grave wounds and mutilations who have visited Wash 
ington to prosecute their pension claims, or to solicit places under Government, or to 
obtain orders for artificial limbs, generally visit the Army Medical Museum, and the writer 
has thus had the opportunity of personally examining such cases, and of preparing six 
quarto volumes of photographs of the more remarkable examples f The Museum also 

* The 42d, 43d, 44th, and 45th United States Infantry. 

t Sets of these volumes have been distributed, by the Surgeon General s direction, to the principal medical colleges and learned societies of the 
country. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

possesses fourteen quarto volumes of contributed photographs, and a vast number of card- 
size pictures, indexed and classified, but not bound. 

The formal reports of medical directors of armies give a general view of the operations 
of the Medical Department. For the Army of the Potomac, the reports of Medical 
Directors King, Tripler, Letterman, and McParlin furnish a connected narrative of the 
services rendered by the medical staff For the western armies, the reports of Medical 
Directors McDougall, Murray, Mills, Cooper, Swift, Perin, Moore, J. H. Brinton, and 
Hewit afford similar information. These papers depict an outline of the surgery of the 
war, and place in evidence the immensity of the task that devolved on the Medical 
Department, and vindicate its achievements, in showing the extent of the succor given to 
the wounded in despite of almost incredible obstacles. Besides these authoritative docu 
ments, there are on file in the office, to serve as supplementary reports, individual narratives 
of observations in active service from each member of the regular or volunteer medical 
staff. Such portions of these reports as appeared to possess historical interest are printed 
in the Appendix to Part I of this work. 

Much important and otherwise unattainable information regarding the ulterior conse 
quences of the more important and rare injuries has been collected by private correspond 
ence with invalided soldiers and their surgical advisers. More than fifteen hundred cases 
have been examined in this way. 1 

Several interesting cases and valuable pathological specimens have been contributed 
by officers of the medical staff of the United States Navy. 2 

Many of the former medical officers of the Confederate army have aided in the 
prosecution of the work by contributing histories of cases, pathological specimens, statis 
tical data, and facts concerning the terminations of the major injuries and operations. It 
may be permitted to express the hope that the claims of these gentlemen, with those of all 
others who have contributed largely to the materials available for their preparation, will 
be favorably considered by Congress, in the distribution of these volumes. 3 

But the principal sources from which the remote results of wounds, injuries, and 
operations were ascertained, were the reports of pension examiners, and communications 
from the surgeons general and adjutants general of States. The cordiality and zeal with 
which all of these officials have responded to every enquiry of this office, and facilitated 
its researches in many ways, have been acknowledged, but cannot be too highly appreciated. 4 

1 Not infrequently the addresses of survivors of rare injuries or operations were unknown, and resource was had to various expedients by advertising 
in the secular press and elsewhere. Thus the ultimate results of Dr. Read s case of successful excision at the knee-joint and Dr. Corrpton s primary 
amputation at the hip-joint were determined. 

2 See .Specs. 5884 and 2273, Sect. I, Army Medical Museum, for cases of coxo- femoral exarticulations by Surgeon W. E. Taylor, U. S. N., and 
Surgeon A. 0. Oorgas, U. S. N., and Spec. SGb x. 1 , presented by Passed Assistant Surgeon R. J. Tryon, U. S. N., for a fracture of the leg produced by a 
torpedo explosion. Dr. Tryon also communicated a number of surgical memoranda from his private case-book. 

3 Among the large number who have thus contributed, I may enumerate the following, with whom I had the pleasure of personal correspondence : 
Dr. THOMAS WILLIAMS, formerly medical director of the Army of Northern Virgiuia; Professor HUNTEH McGumE, late medical director of General 
Jackson s Corps; Dr. J. F. GlLMORE, late chief medical officer of General MoLaws s Division of General Longstrcet s Corps ; Dr. JOHN D. JACKSON, 
late surgeon P. A. C. S.; Dr. W. W. COMPTO.N, of Holly Springs, Mississippi ; Dr. CLAUDE II. MASTIN, late medical inspector C. S. A ; D. J. F. GlUXT, 
of Pulaski, Tennessee ; Dr. W. L. BAYLOR, of Petersburg, Virgiuia ; Professor J. J. CmsHOLM, of Baltimore, Maryland ; Professor MILES, of Baltimore, 
Maryland; Dr. H. L,. THOMAS, of Richmond, Virginia; Dr. T. G. RlCHAUDSON, of New Orleans; Dr. J. R. BUIST, of Nashville, Tennessee; Dr. A. 
C. CKYMKS, Fort Browder, Alabama ; Dr. A. M. FATNTLEROY, of Hunton, Virginia. 

4 Where all cooperated cheerfully, according to the opportunities at their command, it is hoped that it may not be deemed invidious to advert 
particularly to the pains tnken by the successive adjutants general of New York and Pennsylvania to trace the histories of invalids unaccounted for on 
the national records, and to the kind and constant interest shown in the work by Surgeon General W. J. Dale, of Massachusetts, Surgeon General James 
E. Pomfret, of New York, formerly surgeon of the 7th New York Artillery, and Surgeon General H. H. Smith, of Pennsylvania. Among the pension 
examiners, of whom many, fortunately for all concerned, were formerly military surgeons, cordial and discriminating assistance has been received from 
Drs. F. Salter and T. B. Hood, late staff -surgeons of volunteers, and Dr. A. L. Lowell ; from Dr. A. N. Dougherty, late medical director of the Second 
Corps; from Drs. G. Derby and S. A. Green, of Boston, Drs. II. S. Heivit and George Suckley, of New York, lute medical directors of the Armies of 
the Ohio and of the James; from Drs. George C. Harlan and H. E. Goodman, of Philadelphia, Prof. F. Bacon, of New Haven, Dr. 1). W. Maul], of 
Wilmington, Drs. T. W. Wishnrt, and G. MeCook, of Pittsburg, Dr. H. M. Dean, of Litehficld, Dr. J. M. Woodworth, late medical inspector of the 
Army of the Tennessee, Dr. C. S. Wood, of New York, Dr. T. H. Squire, of Kliuirii, and many others. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the great facilities afforded by the unrivalled collec 
tions of the Army Medical Museum. 1 It is sufficient to say that it possesses over six 
thousand surgical preparations, affording illustrations of the primary, intermediary, and 
remote effects of most of the injuries incident to war, and of the morbid processes, which 
characterize the different stages of most surgical diseases. It contains, also, a collection 
of weapons and projectiles, a good series of dissections and studies in topographical 
anatomy, many wax, plaster, leather, and papier-mache casts of the results of operations, 
and a large number of specimens, models, and drawings illustrating the materia chirurgica 
and methods of transport for the wounded. 

The various manuals and systematic treatises on military surgery and the numerous 
contributions on the subject published in periodicals during the war, or since its conclusion, 
have been carefully and often advantageously consulted. 2 

Another and a very valuable store of information was added, at the close of the war, 
in the shape of portions of the Confederate Hospital Records. These comprised the 
consolidated monthly reports of sick and wounded of the Army of Northern Virginia 
from July 21st, 1861, to May 3d, 1863 ; two hundred and thirty-three hospital registers ; 
one hundred and sixty case books ; fifty-two diet and prescription books ; seventy-eight 
order and letter books, and a number of records of clothing issues and other administra 
tive matters. There were also many books of miscellaneous memoranda,* and a large 
collection of monthly and quarterly sick reports, discharge papers, muster and pay-rolls, 
reports of boards of survey, and the like. 

i Of osteological preparations of the results of injuries of the head there are 422 specimens ; of wet preparations of lesions of the soft parts, casts 
of plastic operations, etc., 72 specimens ; of specimens of injuries and diseases of the spine, 128 ; of preparations of all kinds illustrating wounds and 
injuries of the chest, there are 210 specimens, and of similar preparations belonging to the abdomen, 82 ; 1,340 specimens illustrate the amputations and 
1,200 specimens the excisions, and there are l ,570 preparations of the different degrees of destruction or repair in the injuries of the bones of the extremities. 

"Among them an exceedingly interesting volume containing the correspondence between a benevolent society, entitled the " Association for the 
Relief of Maimed Soldiers," of which Dr. W. A. Carrington, 0. S. A., was secretary, and a cooperative association in England, presided over b3 - Lord 
"VVharncliffe. From this volume the details of many cases of amputations and excisions have been gleaned, which will appear in their proper places in 
this History. 

J Among the American books and papers on military surgery, that have been consulted, the following may be enumerated. The foreign medico- 
military bibliography will be referred to further on : JONES, J., Plain, Concise, Practical Remarks on the Treatment of Wounds and fractures, with 
an Appendix on Camp and Military Hospitals, Principally designed for the use of young Military and Naval Surgeons in North Americi, Philadelphia, 
1776; RUSH, Medical Inquiries and Observations, Philadelphia, .1793-04, Vol. I of his works; BAUTON, A Treatise on Marine, Flying, and Military 
Hospitals, Philadelphia, 1817 ; MANN, J., Medical Sketches of Campaigns, 1812-1814, Dedham, 1816 ; PARSONS, U., Prize Dissertations on Inflammation 
of the Periosteum, Eneuresis Irritata, Cutaneous Diseases, Cancer of the Breast, Malaria. 2d ed., Providence, 1849; POKTKK, J. B., Medical and 
Surgical Notes of Campaigns in the War with Mexico, during the years 1845, 1846, 1847, and 1848, Am. Jour. Mod. Sci., Vols. XXIII, XXIV, XXV, 
and XXVI, January, 1852, to January, 1853 ; WRIGHT, J. J. B., Ore a Gunshot Perforation of the Chest ( in Dr. F. H. Hamilton s Pract. Treat, on Mil. 
Surg., 1861, p. 157); jARVis, N. S., Am. Jour. Med. Sci.; HuLSE, G. W., Gunshot Wound of the Head, New York Jour, of Med. and Surg., January, 
1841 ; HENDKHSON, T., Topography of Madison Barracks, Am. Jour. Med. Sci., April, 1841 ; Vol. I, N. S. p. 337; LAWSON. T., Meteorological Register 
for the years 1826 to 1830, inclusive, From observations made by the surgeons of the, army and others at the military post of the IT. .9. Army, To which is 
appended the Meteorological Register for the years 1822 to 182,5, inclusive, by Joseph Lovell, Philadelphia, 1840; FORRY, S., Statistical Researches on 
1 ulmonary and Rheumatic Diseases, based on the Records of the Medical Department, U. S. Army, Am. Jour. Med. Sci., Vol I, N. S., 1841, p. 13 ; 
TKIPLEK, 0. S., Manual of the Medical Officer of the Army of the United States, Part I, Cincinnati, 1858; TKIPLKR, C. S., and BLACKMAN, G. C., 
Handbook for the Military Surgeon, Cincinnati, 1861 ; CHISHOLM, J. J., A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of Surgeons in the Confederate 
States Army, 3d ed., Columbia, 1864; HAMILTON, F. H., A Practical Treatise on Military Surgery, New York, 1864; and A Treatise on Military 
Surgery and Hygiene, New York, 18U5; GKOS8, S. D., A Manual of Military Surgery, Philadelphia, 1861 ; WARREN, E., An Epitome of Practical 
Surgery for Field and Hospital, Richmond, 1853 : Manual of Military Surgery, Prepared for the use of the Confederate States Army, by order of the 
Surgeon General, Richmond, 1863; SMITH, S., Handbook of Surgical Operations, 3d ed., New York, 1862; SMITH, S., Statistics of the Operation of 
Amputation at the Hip-Joint, in New York Journal of Medicine, Sept., 1852, p. 93; COOI.IDGE, R. H., Statistical Report on the. Sickness and Mortality 
in the Army of the United States, Compiled from the Records of the Surgeon General s Office, Embracing a period of sixteen years, from January, 
1839-55, Washington, 185f>; the same, Embracing a period of five years, from January, 1855-60, Washington, 1860; WARREN, J. M., Surgical Obser 
vations, with Cases and Operations, Boston, 1867; NOTT, J. C., Contributions to Bone and Nerve Surgery, Philadelphia, 1866; ScHUFrEUT, M., A 
Treatise on Gunshot Wounds, Written for and dedicated to the Surgeons of the Confederate States Army, New Orleans, 1861 ; ANDRKWS, E., Complete 
Record of the battles fought near Vicksburg, December, 1862, Chicago. 1863; BAHTHOI.OW, R., A Manual of Instruction for enlisting and discharging 
soldiers, Philadelphia, 1864; BowDlTCH, H. I., A brief plea for an Ambulance System for the Army of the United States, Boston, 1863; and On 
Pleuritic Effusions, and the necessity of Paracentesis for th ir removal, Am. Jour. Med. Sci., Vol. XXIII, 1852, p. 320 ; BKLNTON, J. H.. Consolidated 
Statement of Gunshot Wounds, Washington, 1863; BECKER, A. R., Gunshot Wounds, Particularly those caused by newly invented missiles, li?65 ; 
BUCK, G., History of a Case of Partial Reconstruction of the Face, Albany, 1864 ; and, Case of destruction of the body of the Lower Jaw and extensive 
disfiguration of the Face, from a Sliell Wound, Albany, 1866 ; and, Description of an Improved E.rtinsion Apparatus for the treatment of Fracture of 
the. Thigh, New York, J8(i7 ; DKIJHV (J., The L,ssons of the War to the Medical Profession, Muss. Mod. Sec. Pub. Vol. 2, Boston, 1867 ; EI.I.IS, T. T., 
Leaves from the Diary of an Army Surgeon, New York, 1863; GliEEN, J., On Amputation of the Thigh. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., Juno, 1863; 
EVE, P. F., A Contribution to the History of the Hip-Joint Operations Performed during the Irrte Civil War, in Transactions Am. Med. Association. 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

The bulk of these documents were received from the officer entrusted with turning 
over public property under the convention between General Sherman and General John 
ston, April 26th, 1865. Other fragmentary portions were obtained from defeated and 
retreating forces, or from captured places. It is greatly to be deplored that many more of 
these precious documents were destroyed than were preserved, being burned or scattered 
to the winds wantonly, or in ignorance of their value. It must be admitted further, that 
a few of the volunteer medical officers retained, for their private use, medical documents 
and pathological preparations that came into their possession. It is difficult to understand 
such dereliction of duty, in view of the certainty of detection, since the publication or the 
exhibition of such data alone would involve an admission of disobedience of orders. 

The Confederate medical records in the possession of this Office appear, as a general 
rule, to have been kept with commendable exactness, and it is remarkable that physicians 
called suddenly from civil practice should have so speedily mastered the intricacies of 
military routine. The forms were, in nearly all instances, identical with those employed 
prior to the war in the United States Army, and the medical regulations were almost 
literally the same, with the exception, in both cases, of the substitution of the words 
Confederate States for United States, wherever the latter occurred. The organization of 
the medical hierarchy was very similar to that of the Union Army. There was a Surgeon 
General, assisted by Medical Directors and Medical Inspectors, assigned to military depart 
ments or to armies in the field; a regular staff, composed chiefly of officers who had 
withdrawn from the old army or navy, who signed as Surgeons or Assistant Surgeons, 
C. S. A., a corps analogous to the Staff Surgeons of Volunteers of the Union Army, its 
members being addressed as Surgeons or Assistant Surgeons P. A. 0. S.;* regimental 
surgeons and assistant surgeons, and physicians employed by contract. The inspections 
appear to have been frequent and thorough, and special commissions were sometimes 
instituted to enquire into the prevalence of hospital gangrene, erysipelas, tetanus, scurvy, 
and various epidemics.^ 

Among the means adopted in the Confederate army for collecting information on 
special subjects in military medicine, surgery, and hygiene, was the organization of a 
society of surgeons of the army and of the navy at Richmond. The following circulars 



Vol. XVIII, pp. 256, 263; GAY, G. H., A few Remarks on the Primary Treatment of Wounds received in buttle, Boston, 1862; GOLDSMITH, M., A 
Report on Hosjrital Gangrene, Erysipelas, and Pystmia, as observed in the Departments of the O/i. o and Cumberland, I/ouisville, 1863 ; HoDGEX, J. T., 
Wound of Brain, St. Louis Med. and Sur. Jour., Vol. V, 1868, p. 405; Surgeons Reel and Artery Forceps, St. Louis Med. and Surg. Jour., Vol. IV, 
1867, p. 151 ; and On Fractures, St. Louis Med. and Surg. Jour., Vol. VII, 1870 ; HUDSON, E. D., Save the Arm, Remarks on Exsection, etc., New York, 
1864; and Mechanical Surgery, New York, 1871; HAKWITZ, P. T., Report of Casualties from Gunshot Wounds in the IT. S. Navy, from April 2d, 
1861, to June 30th, 1865, Washington, 1866; LETTERMAN, J., Medical Recollections of the Army of the Potomac, New York, 1866 ; LlDK.LI,, J. A., A 
Memoir on Osteo-myelitis, New York, 1866; and, On the Wounds of Blood -Vessels, etc.; On the Secondary Traumatic Lesions of Bone, etc.; and. On 
1 yxmia, New York, 1870; MOTT, V., Hfemorrhage from Wounds and the best means of Arresting it, New York, 1863; MITCHKLL, .S. W., Injuries of 
Nerves and Their Consequences, Philadelphia, 1872; MOSES, I., Surgical Notes of Gunshot Injuries occurring during the advance of the Army of the 
Cumberland, 1863, Am. Jour. Mod. Sci., Vol., XLVII, p. 324, 1864 ; McGlLL, G. M., Observation Book, National and Hicks IT. S. A. General Hospitals, 
Baltimore. Maryland, Baltimore, 1865-66 ; ORDHON.VUX, J., Manual of Instructions for Military Surgeons, on the Examination of Recruits and 
Discharge of Soldiers, New York, 1863 ; OTIS, G. A., Surgical Part of the Reports on the Nature and Extent of the Materials available for the Prepa 
ration of a Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion, being Part I, of Circular 6, S. G. O., 1865 ; and A Report on Amputation at the Hip-Joint in 
Military Surgery, Circular 7, S. G. O., 1867; and A Report on Excision of the Head of the Femur for Gunshot Injury, Circular No. 2, S. G. O., 1869 ; 
and A Report of Surgical Cases treated in the. Army of the United States from 1865 to 1871, Circular No. 3, S. G. O., 1871 ; PACKARD, J. II., A Handbook 
of Operative Surgery, Philadelphia, 1870; SMITH, II. H., Principles and Practice of Surgery, Philadelphia, 1863; SMITH, N. R.; Treatment of Frac 
tures of the lower extremity by the use of the Anterior Suspensory Apparatus, 8vo., Baltimore, 1867; SMITH, D., Experiences in the Practice of Military 
Surgery, Am. Med. Times, 1862, Vol. IV, p. 331 ; SMITH, G. K, The Insertion of the Capsular Ligament of the Hip-Joint, and its Relation to Intro- 
Ciipsular Fracture, New York, 1862; THOMSON, W., Report of Cases of Hospital Gangrene treated in Douglas Hospital, Washington, D. C., Am. 
Jour. Med. Sci., Vol., XLVII, 1864, p. 378; WAOXICR, C., Report of Interesting Surgical Operations, Performed at the U. S. Army (Sonera! Hospital, 
Hcverly, New Jersey, 1864 ; WoomVAHD, Report on the Causes and Pathology of Pyxmia, Trans. Am. Med. Assoc., Vol., p. 172, 1866; READ, J. B., 
Report on Wounds of the large Joints, Southern Med. nnd Snrg. Journal, July and October, 1866. 

Provisional Army of the Confederate States. 

f Some of these reports, on gangrene, typhoid fever, and the mortality of prisoners at Andersonville, have been published by the Sanitary Com 
mission : Memoirs of tin- }\ nr ,,f tin- Rebellion, Vol. I, 1867, Vol. II, 1H71, New York, llurd and Hougliton, 8 vo. pp. CUV, r.i-0, with colored plates. 



XXII INTRODUCTION. 

will indicate the general scope of their inquiries. Reference is frequently made in this 
work to the printed and unpublished proceedings of this society : 

"8m: With the view of reaching- the individual experience and opinions of surgeons and 
assistant surgeons on debatable points in surgical pathology, based upon their observations in this 
Avar, an "Association of Army and Navy Surgeons" has been organized, and your co-operation 
in carrying out the successful fulfilment of its purpose is solicited. 

Questions proposed by the president will be forwarded, and as early a reply as practicable 
will be necessary in order that a majority vote may be taken in the decision. 

The following are the questions : 

I. In gunshot wounds, do such differences exist between the orifices of en trance and exit as to indicate them with certainty f 

II. Have gunshot wounds, in your experience, ever assumed the appearance of incised wounds and healed by first intention ? 

III. When suppurating, which orifice seems to heal first? 

SAM L PRESTON MOORE, 

Pres t Ass n A. $ N. Surgeons. 

SIR: 111 replying to questions, and in essays or papers sent to the association, a resume is 
requested, coming to some conclusion, in order to facilitate taking the vote in the decision on the 
subject. 

The following questions are proposed: 

I. Any DEATH from chloroform in YOUR practice? give particulars of the case, if any. Is this agent always used? 

II. 1st. Does SHOCK postpone YOUR surgical interference? At what period of time, after injury, are YOU usually 
able to operate ? 2d. Any relation between the CHARACTER of the injury and the GRAVITY of the shock ? 3d. Any death, in your 
practice, from shock alone? 

III. Do CICATRICES from gunshot wounds furnish YOU information as to the nature of the missile which caused the injury, 
and the probable ENTRANCE and EXIT of the same ? 

Further particulars on these subjects, with accounts of any remarkable course which balls may 
have taken in transit through the body, in your own practice, are solicited. 
Third series of questions : 

V. What NUMBER of cases have been followed by SECONDARY haemorrhage after ligation of artery ABOVE the wound ? 
Mention vessel, part of artery wounded, and the point ligated. 

VI. In arresting haemorrhage, has local deligation, or ligature ABOVE the wound proved the safer method in YOUR hands ? 
In how many cases have you resorted to the one or the other? mention vessels injured. 

VII. Have haemostatics proved of any avail in YOUR experience ? How have they been used? 

VIII. How many cases of GANGRENE have followed ligation for PRIMARY haemorrhage and how many for SECONDARY 
haemorrhage ? " 

The replies to these enquiries, and the discussions on the subjects to which they relate, 
furnished much interesting material, which has been partly compiled and published in the 
first volume of the Confederate States Medical and Surgical Journal, and as the fourteen 
numbers of that work that were published are now very rare, no hesitation has been felt 
in reproducing, with due acknowledgment, the reports of cases, clinical records, debates, 
and discussions, in which the surgical experience acquired by the Confederate medical 
officers is partially set forth. The general conclusions will be found to corroborate, in 
most instances, those accepted by the surgeons of the Union Army. This is conspicuously 
true in regard to the relinquishment of depleting measures in the treatment of gunshot 
wounds of the chest, in the sound practice that gradually came to prevail in the treatment 
of wounds of arteries, and in the estimates formed of the applicability of the special 
excisions, and the limits to be assigned to conservative measures. On one point, the 
closing of gunshot flesh wounds after their conversion into incised wounds, with the hope 
of healing by first intention, a procedure warmly advocated by the Confederate surgeons 
Chisholm and Michel, the theory and practice were alike rejected by the Union surgeons. 
The plan was tried in the New Zealand war, by instructions of the English Director- 
General, but the reports of Inspector (leneral Mouat, and of Staff-surgeon A. D. Home, 
though not decisive, were unfavorable. 



INTRODUCTION. XXIII 

Since the conclusion of our own struggle, two great wars have convulsed Europe, 
the Austro-Prusso-Italian, or "Six Weeks War" of 1866, and the German-French War of 
1870-71. It has been sought to compare our results with those set forth in the already 
numerous publications of the German and French military surgeons. 1 I have also contin 
ually referred to the reports of the antecedent or contemporaneous or subsequent wars in 
Algeria, 2 in Schleswig-Holstein (184S-50), 3 in the Crimea ( 1 854-56), 4 in Italy (1859), 5 
in the Prusso-Danish War of 1864, 6 in the Sepoy Mutiny, 7 and the English and French 
expeditions to China, 8 the New Zealand War (1863-65), 9 and the Abyssinian invasion 
(1868). 10 

1 DOYON, A., Notes ct Souvenirs d /rn Chirurgien D Ambulance, Paris, 1872 ; GHELLOIS, E., Histoirc Medicate dn Blocus De Mctz, Metz, 1872; 
CHIPAULT, A., Fractures par Armcs a Fe/t, Expectation, Resection sous-Periostee, Evidcment-Amputation, Armfe de la Loire, Paris, 1872 ; VASLIN, L., 
Etude sur les flairs par Armcs a Feu, Paris, 1872; FISCHER,. H., Kricgschirurgische Eifahrungcn, Erlangon, 1872; LE FORT, L., La Chirurgie 
Militaire ct les Societes de. Sccours en France it a I Etranger, Paris, 1872; MACCORMAC, W., Notes and Recollections of an Ambulance Surgeon, 
London, 1871 ; MACDOWALL, C. J. F. S., On a New Method of Treating Wounds (Gruby s System) and the Medical and Surgical Aspects <f the Siege 
of Paris, London, 1871; BlLLROTH, T., Chirurgische Brief e aus den Kriegs-Lnzartthen in Wcissenburg und Mannheim, 1870, Berlin, 1872; DESPRKS, 
A., Rapport sur les Travaitx de la "Seme Ambulance a I Armee du R/tin et & I Armee dc la Loire, Paris, 1871 ; SAZARIN, M. C., Clinique Chirurgicale de 
I llopittil Militaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 1870 ; SCHATZ, J., Etude sur Its Hopitaux sous Tentcs, Paris, 1870; BONNAFOXT, J. P., Du Fonctionne- 
ment des Ambulances Civil s it Internationales sur le Champ de, Bataille, Paris, 1870 ; LANGFNBKCK, B., Ueber der Schusswunden der Gelenke und ihre 
BthaniUung, Berlin, 188; PASSAVANT, G., Iternerkungen aus dem Gebietc der Kriegschurgie, Berlin, 1871; IWANOFF, Bcricht ucber die Besichtigung 
der Mill tar -Sanitlitanstalten in Dcvtschland, Lothringtn and Elaass in Jahre 1870, von N. Pirogoff, Leipsig, 1871 ; Rui PRECHT, L.., Militdrurztliche 
Eifahr/ingen wiihrcnd des Frnnzochcn Kriegcs in Jahre 1870-71, Wiirzburg, 1871; ECKHAHT, Gescli ich te des k. b. Aufnams-Feldspitals XII, im Kriege 
gegen Frankreich 1870-71, Wiirzburg, 1871 ; BECK, Kriegs- Chirurgische Erfarhungen rvdhrend der Fcldzuges 18()6 in Siiddentscheland, Freiburg, 1867 ; 
SIMON, G., Mittheilungcn aus der Chirurgischen Klinik, Prag, 18G8 ; ROALDES, A. W. DE, DCS fractures compliquees de la cuisse par Armes dc guerre, 
Paris, 1871 ; COUYBA, Des Troubles trophiqucs consccutifs aux Lesions traumatiquel de la Motile et des Nerfs; CHHISTOT, F., Du Drainage dans les 
Plaies par Armcs dc Guerre, Paris, 1871 ; Qt ESXOY, F., Campagne. dc 1870, Armec du Rhin, Camp de Chalons, Horny, Rczonviilc on Gravelotte, Blocus 
de Metz, Paris, 1871 ; LATOUK, A., Journal du bombardement de Chdtillon, Paris, 1871 ; JOULIN, Les caraeancs d un chirurgicn d ambulanccs, Paris, 1871. 

- BEKTHEUAND, A., Campngncs dc Kabylic, Paris, 1862; BAUDEXS, Clinique dis Plaies d Armes & Feu, Paris, 1836; BAUDENS, Relation 
Historique de I Expcdition de Tagdempt, Paris, 1841 ; AlUIAND, A., L Algeric Medicals, Paris, 1854 ; VINCENT, Expose, clinique des Maladies des Kabyles, 
Paris, 1862; Si : :niLl.OT, C., Campagncs de Constantine de 1837, Paris, 1838; MARIT, Hygiene, de I Algerie, Paris, 1862; LECERC, Une Mission Medicale 
en Kabylic, Paris, 1864. 

3 STKOMEYKK, L., Maximcn der Krirgshcilkunst, Hannover, 1855; ESMAUCH, F., Beschreibunij einer Rcfcctionsschienc. Eiu Bcitrag zur Conser- 
vativcn Krirgshcilkunst, Mil Ftitif Holzschnitten, Kiel, 1859, and Ueber Rcscctionen nach Schusswunden, Kiel, 1851; SCHWARTZ, II., Bcitragc zur Lchre 
von den Schusstf undcn : Gcsammclt in den Feldziigen der Jahre 1848-50, Sclileswig, 1854; GURLT, E., Militd/r- Chirurgische Fragmcnte, Berlin, 1864; 
LOHMEYEK, Die Schusswunden und ihre behandlung, Goettingen, 1859 ; LCEFLER, Grundsartze und Ri gelnfiir die Bihandlung der Schusswunden in 
Kriege, Berlin, 1859; BECK, Die Schusswunden, Heidelburg, 1850; STKOMEYER, Ueber die bei Schusswunden vorkommenden Knochen-Ve.rlctzungen, 
Freiburg, 1850. 

4 The principal authorities on the Surgery of the Crimean War are : MATTHEW, T. P., Surgical Part of the Medical and Surgical History of the 
British Army in the Crimea, during the War against Russia, in the years 1855 and 185G, London, 1858, Vol. II, p. 253; CllENU, J. C., Rapport an, 
Coiitr.il de Saute des Armces sur les Resultats dn Service Medico- Ghirurgieol aux. Ambulances de Crimee et aux Hopitaux Militaircs Franqais en Turquie 
pendant la Campagne D Orient en 1854-1856, Paris, 1865; PlROGOFK, N., Grundzugc der Allgemeincn Kriegschirurgie nach Reminisccnztn aus den 
Kriegen in der Krim und in dcm Kaukasus, Leipzig, 1864; SCRIVE, G., Relation Mcdico-Ctiirnrgical de la Campagne d Orient, Paris, 1857; BAL DENg, L. 
La Guerre de Crimee, les Cumpcme.nts, les Ahris, les Ambulances, les Hdpitaux, i-tc., etc., etc., Deuxieme edition, Paris, 1858 ; FliASEli, P., A Treatin 
upon Penetrating Wounds of the Chest, London, 1859; LEGOUKST, L., Traite de Chirxrgie d Armec, Paris, 1863 ; SALLEUON, M., In Recueil dc Mi m. de 
Mcel. el. dc Chir. Mil., 2d Serie, T. 21, 1858, p. 320; LAWSON, On Gunshot Wounds of the Thorax, London ; ARMAND, A., Histoire M&dico-Ckirurgicale, 
de la Guerre de Crimee, 1 aris, 1858; Bl.EXKINS, On Gunshot Wounds, in 8th ed. of Cooper s Dictionary, London, 1869; BAUDEXS, L., Souvenirs d une 
Mistion Medicale a VArmee d Orient, Paris, 1857 ; MACLEOD, G. H. B., JVotcs on the Surgery of the War in the Crimea, London, 1858 ; CAZALAS, L., 
Maladies de. I Armee d Orient, Paris, 1860; POKTA. Delia Disarticulazione del Co ile, Milano, 1860; MARROIN, Histoire Medicale de la Flotte Franc^ain 
dans le Mer Noire pendant le Guerre de Crimee, Paris, 1861. 

sCiiKXV, J. C., Statisliijiie. Medico- Chirurgicale dc la Cimpagne d ltalie en 1859 et 1860, Paris, 1869; RODOLFI, R., Campagna Chirurgica del 
1866, Osfcrrazimii Clinichc, Milano, 1867; GlIEIUXI, A., J ade Mecum per le Ferite D Anna da Fuoco, Milano, 1866; GRITTI, R., Dell Fralturc del 
Fcmore per Arma da Fuoco, Milano, 1866 ; Roux, J., De L Osteomyelile ct des Amputations Sccondaires a la Suite des Coups dc Feu, Paris, 1860 ; APPIA, 
P. L., The Ambulance. Surgeon, Edinburgh, 1862; DKJIME, H., Studicn Allgemcine Chirurgie der Kricgswwtden, Wiirzburg, 1861; STROMEYEIl, 
Erfuhrungen ucbcr Schusswunden in Jahcr 1865, Hannover, 1866; LOHMEYEK, C. F., Die Schusswunden und ihre Bchandlung, Kurz bearbcitct, Gottin- 
gen, 1859; BlLLUOTH, T., Historische Studien iiber die Keurtheilutig und Bckandlung der Schusxwunden rom 15 Jahrltundert bis auf die ncueste Zcil, 
Berlin, 1859; BERTHERAXD, Campagne d ltalie, Paris, 1860; BRUCE, A., Obscrva ions in the Military Hospitals of Dresden, London, 1666 ; MAAS, H., 
Krir.eschtnirgische Ilcitrdgeaus dem Jahre 1866, Breslau, 1870 ; GURLT, E., Der Internationale Schutz der im Fclde Vcrwnndetcn und Erkrankten Kricgcr, 
etc., Berlin, 1869 ; BOUD1N, J. C. M., Souvenirs de la Campagne d ltalie, Paris, 1861 ; EVANS, T. \V., Les Institutions Sanitaircs pendant le Conjlit 
Austro-Priifsien-ltalien, Paris, 1867; NEUDOllFER, Handbuch der Kriegschirurgie, Leipsig, 18G4 ; CAZAI.AS, Maladies de VArmees d ltalie, Paris, 1864. 

I HAXXOVKR, A., Das Endresultat der Rfneclionen im Kriege 1864, in den Unterklasaen der Ddnischen Armee, und Die Ddnischcn Inraliden aus 
dim Kriege 1864, Berlin, 1870 (from von Langenbcck s Arch. f. k. ch. B. XII, II. 2); LOU LKR, P., General- K cricht iiber den Gcsundhcitsdienst im Feld- 
zuge gegen Ddnemark, 1864, Berlin, 1867; HEINE, C., Die Schussverletaungen der unteren Extremitaten, Berlin, 1866; OCHWADT, Xrugschirurgischc 
Eifahrungin, Berlin, 1865 ; RESSEL, J., Die. Kriegshospitdler des St. Johannitir-ordetis im Ddnischen Feldzugc von 1864, Breslau, 1866. 

7 WILLIAMSON, G., Military Surgery, London, 1863; PAYRER, J., Clinical Surgery in. India, London, 1865; COLE, J. J., Military Surgery or 
Erptrit uc c (if a Field Practice in India during the years 1848 and 1849, London, 1852; GORDON, C. A., Experiences of an Army Suigeon in India, 
London, 1872. 

HCA8TANO, F., L Expedition de Chine, Paris, 1864; DlDIOT, Delation Mldico-Chirurgicale de L Expedition dc Cochinchine, Paris, 1865; LAURE, 
Histoire midicalc dc. la Marine Frangtise, pendant les Exp dition de. Chine et de Cochinchine, Paris, 1864. 

Moi AT, J., Social llci-ort on Wounds and Injuries Received in Battle, Extracted from the Medical and Surgical History of the New Zealand 
War, London, 1867. 

" General NAPIEU W Official Report, London, 1869 ; Papers connected with the. Abyssinian Expedition, presented to both Houses of Parliament, 1867. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

In arranging the surgical data of the American war, it has been thought wisest to 
proceed from particulars to generals, and to begin with an account of the special wounds 
and injuries. Several advantages are secured by this arrangement. Thus the returns to 
the Adjutant General, Quartermaster General, and Surgeon General differ in their 
aggregates of killed in battle, and there are discrepancies in the reports of wounded in 
action made to the Adjutant General and to the Surgeon General, These statistics are 
still undergoing revision, and it may reasonably be anticipated that near approximations 
will be ultimately attained. Although the memoranda of 205,235 cases of wounds and 
injuries, including 39,163 operations, have been examined and compared and placed upon 
the permanent registers, yet many thousands of cases, belonging chiefly to classes not 
considered in the first volume, remain to be investigated and entered. Hence general 
izations on the relative frequency of wounds according to regions, would be premature. 
The influence of climate and other hygienic conditions on the state of health of the troops, 
and consequently on the results of wounds, can be more readily appreciated when the 
Tables in the Medical Volume of Part I, shall have been discussed. Deductions derived 
from the vital statistics of the Provost Marshal General s Bureau, from the Census returns, 
and from the reports of the Commissioner of Pensions, will afford further data for general 
conclusions. From these, and other considerations, it has been decided to postpone the 
general observations to a later portion of the work. 

A chronological table of engagements and battles, compiled from official sources where 
practicable, but often from popular estimates that appeared to be honest attempts at fair 
approximations, and sometimes from almost any statement available that was not 
obviously false such a table, in which completeness rather than unattainable accuracy is 
sought, is introduced to indicate the actions that were fought during the period of four years 
during which the war was protracted, from April, 1861, to April, 1865. The surgical 
history proper follows, and is continued through five chapters, the first chapter being 
devoted to wounds and injuries of the head, the second to those of the face, the third to 
those of the neck, the fourth to those in which injury of the spinal column was the most 
prominent feature, and the fifth to wounds and injuries of the chest. The operations 
performed are considered in connection with the injuries of each region, an arrangement 
much more difficult than a distinct classification, but affording many advantages, in 
avoiding repetitions and in presenting each subject as a whole. In the second volume, 
now nearly ready for the press, the wounds and injuries of the abdomen, pelvis, and genito 
urinary organs, the upper and lower extremities with the amputations and excisions, are 
discussed ; and in the third volume, gunshot wounds in general, with the complications of 
pyaimia, gangrene, tetanus, and secondary haemorrhage will be considered, and also the 
materia chirurgica, the transportation and field supplies of the wounded. 

It has been mentioned that the cases belonging to the regions which will come first 
under consideration, have been examined with especial care, and there are here probably 
few omissions, the aggregates being even larger than called for by the returns on the 
monthly reports, doubtless because of the number of Confederate cases included. Yet 
among these few omissions, it must be anticipated that some cases of especial interest 
may be included. Wounded officers, for example, were often treated in private quarters, 
and in many or most instances, it has been difficult to procure precise narratives of 
their cases. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



The preliminary reports and the prefatory and introductory matter in the medical 
volume and in this, sufficiently place in evidence the impossibility of compiling a satisfac 
tory surgical history of the war by the simple consolidation of data derived from any 
consecutive series of reports in existence. The inadequacy of the entries in the class 
thanatici of the monthly report of sick and wounded was early acknowledged, and it was 
officially declared that previous to September, 1862, "the surgical statistics of the war 
were absolutely worthless," and that "the only information procurable is such as can be 
derived from the examination of a mass of reports, all of which present merely certain 
figures under the vague and unsatisfactory heading, Vulnus sclopeticum* After the 
revision of the forms of reports and the addition in June, 1862, of the "tabular statement 
of gunshot wounds and operations," the consolidations for the first two quarters of 1863 
were found to abound in errors to such an extent that it was deemed inexpedient to print 
them. The quarterly reports of wounded and of surgical operations (ante p. xvi) and 
the nominal lists of casualties in battle were required in September and November, 
1863; the classified return of wounds and injuries received in action was instituted in 
March, 1864. 

The following is a consolidation of the aggregates of entries in Class V, of the 
monthly reports of sick and wounded, from May 1st, 1861, to June 30th, 1865, as printed 
in tables of the Medical Volume of Part I : 



CLASSIFICATION. 


WHITE TROOPS. 


COLOltED TROOPS. 


TOTAL. 


Cases. Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
10 


Burns . 


9,487 
44,323 
873 
61 


94 
161 
193 
17 
672 

3 

9 

53 
61 
378 
32,731 
186 
459 
191 
93 
1,003 


613 
2,649 
49 


4 

11 

22 


10,100 
46,972 
922 
61 


98 
172 
215 
17 
797 
3 
10 
53 
76 
397 
33,653 
189 
467 
199 
110 
1,075 


Contusions .... 




Compression of I3raint ...... ................ 






125 


Sprains ...... ..... ..... .. ............ 


38,387 
2,908 
1,287 
4,215 
1,316 
229,119 
21,444 
14,153 
5,285 
3,087 
13,099 


4,317 

108 


42,704 
3,016 
1,287 
4,346 
1,371 
235,585 
22,749 
14,748 
5,784 
3,154 
15,273 


Dislocations 


1 


Fractures ...... 


Simple Fractures 


131 
55 
6,466 
1,305 
595 
499 
67 
2,174 


15 

19 
922 
3 

8 
8 

17 
72 


Compound Fractures 


Gunshot Wounds 


Incised Wounds 


Lacerated Wounds . ... 


Punctured Wounds 


Poisoning .... 


Other Accidents and Injuries 






Airereijates. . 


389,044 


36,304 


19,028 


1,227 

I 


408,072 


37,531 


1 



* Circular No. 9, S. G. O., July 1st, 18C3. Consolidated Statement of GintsJwt Wounds. By Surgeon J. If. BlilNTOX. IT. S. V. 
t After June 30th, 18C3, this class was omitted, as it was found that depressed fractures of the skull were sometimes entered. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

The aggregate of 235,583 gunshot wounds here given, with the resulting mortality of 
33,653, or 14.2 per cent., is explained, in the introduction to the medical volume, to repre 
sent the total returned from about nine-tenths of the mean strength of the Union Army, 
and to be exclusive of the injuries of those killed in action. The latter category embraces, 
according to the Adjutant General, not less than 44,238 ; according to the alphabetical regis 
ters of the Surgeon General s Office, 35,408 ; according to the Chronological Summary, 
59,860.* 

However useful these approximations may be for many purposes, any anticipation 
that they may afford reliable guidance, or much assistance in framing a surgical history of 
the war, must evidently prove illusory. But the consolidation of the data of the detailed 
quarterly surgical reports might be justly expected to furnish a very complete record of 
the surgical practice in the Union Army during the latter two years of the war; and for 
the last year, the classified return of wounds received in action should serve as a nearly- 
accurate check-list. 

The clinical histories contained in the quarterly surgical reports were provisionally 
classified in the order specified on page 6 of the Introduction to the surgical report in 
Circular No. 6, S. G. , 1865. It has been severely criticised.f and would be open to 
graver objections than have been offered, had it been designed as a nosological system. It 
was simply a nomenclature for a series of blank books, in which surgical facts derived from 
a variety of sources might be entered for facility of reference, and has been modified as 

/ O t/ 

frequently as convenience dictated. It has been found to answer the purpose for which it 
was intended reasonably well. As the presentation of the naked statistics of the monthly 
reports of sick and wounded, as consolidated on the preceding page, would have been 

* The Chronological Summary, compiled by the faithful and indefatigable chief clerk of the Surgical Division, Mr. FREDEUICK K. SrAUKS, 
indicates the following losses: Union Troops, killed 59,860, wounded 280,040. missing 184,791; Confederate Troops, killed 51,4i!5, wounded 227,871, 
missing 384,281. The last aggregate includes tho armies surrendered. Allowing for many exaggerations and omissions, the errors appear to balance 
remarkably, and the results to correspond with statistics derived from entirely different sources. 

t In the fifty -fourth volume of the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions is an article of fifty-two pages, by Deputy Inspector-General T. Longmore, 
C. B., on the classification and tabulation of injuries and surgioal operations in time of war. in which he claims that some of the best established rules of 
field surgery, especially as regards gunshot injuries, have been attained by the collection of the statistical results of expectant and operative treatment ; 
describes the classification adopted in the British army and those of other countries; considers how far those statistics are comparable ; discusses which 
system ensures the greatest accuracy and completeness, with the greatest economy of labor and cost in compilation ; advocates an international congress 
for the adoption of a uniform system, and concludes that the British system is the best. I cannot follow him through this discussion, but must correct 
several serious errors in his description of the "collection and classification of surgical statistics of war injuries in the United States." After premising 
that the figures of our tabular statements are "almost practically worthless," Dr. Longmore remarks that "the vast amount of labor and time " expended 
in their compilation was such that "as the documents successively arrived at the Surgeon General s Office in Washington, a large number of medical 
officers and clerks were occupied in classifying and transcribing their contents" (p. 223) ; and elsewhere, more specifically (p. 243), "the labor on the 
American system is so great that an American friend once informed me that when he was in Washington there were two hundred intelligent clerks 
employed at the Surgeon General s Office in collecting and arranging the surgical statistics of the war, for the preparation and publication of which a 
very large sum of money had been liberally granted by Congress." I am sure that Dr. Longmore will wish to correct these misrepresentations. The 
maximum force employed, at any time, at the Surgeon General s Office, upon the surg ical statistics of the war, has been one medical officer, one clerk, 
and sixteen hospital stewards, occasionally aided by one acting assistant surgeon ; and the "very large sum of money " ((i,000), voted for the preparation 
of five thousand copies of the medical and surgical volumes of the First Part of the Medical and Surgical History of the War, only subserved its purpose 
because nearly all those occupied with the work were already in Government employ. I will not complain of the unfairness of contrasting the results of 
the preliminary report in Circular No. 6 with the perfected histories of Dr. Matthew and M. Chenu ; but I do complain of an " American System " being 
described and unfavorably contrasted with the classification of Inspector-General Taylor, when, as I have shown, there was no complete series of surgical 
reports in the Army of the United States, and information was of necessity to be derived from heterogeneous data. "The surgeons in the field on the 
American system * * make no distinction between the various kinds of cranial fractures. * * Where all such injuries are tabulated together, as they 
are in the primary American returns, what useful information can be obtained from a table showing, for example, the results of the operation of trephining (" 
(p. 240). I cordially concur in the warm praise accorded to the histories of the Crimean and Italian campaigns by M. Chenu. I will observe that in his 
latter work he very materially modifies the classification employed in the former. In the history of the surgery of the Italian War, he reports nine cases 
of trephining; in his Crimean history Dr. Matthew reports twenty-six cases. I shall record two hundred and twenty cases, and shall be disappointed if 
their results afford no useful information. Dr. Taylor s classification may be excellent for the British army, with its corps of trained medical officers ; it 
could not have been advantageously introduced in our service, chiefly attended by surgeons hastily called from civil life. Dr. Longmoro says (p. 235) 
that in Germany "no fixed classification exists." This is quite true, yet the statistical work of General-Artz Dr. Loeffler is a marvel of accuracy and 
completeness to those who occupy themselves with these studies; and the extended treatises of Drs. H. Fischer, Socin, and Klebs, following so soon upon 
the conclusion of the Franco-German war, arc monuments of well-directed industry. I think that in war " systems " must be made to conform to the 
exigencies of the occasion and to national habits and organizations. There are certain great rules to which all nations will conform ; the details must be 
adapted to varying circum stances. The British system may be best for Britain ; but not necessarily for all other countries. On peut etre plus sage qu un 
gens, mais point quo tons les gens. 



INTRODUCTION. XXVII 

barren, as there was no other consecutive series of reports, and as it was undesirable to 
sacrifice the information collected in the earlier period of the war, a plan was adopted 
which permitted the endeavor to group together data from any quarter, from case books, 
from field registers, from nominal casualty lists, from numerical classified returns, from the 
memoranda accompanying pathological specimens, from the careful clinical records of 
hospitals, and the hasty pocket-book memoranda of field surgeons. From a surgical point of 
view, there was no motive to exclude information that could be obtained of the Confederate 
wounded, le vrai chirurgien ne regardepas I uniforme. Estimates of the ratio of wounded 
to the forces engaged, and other attempts at approximations to unattainable numerical 
precision, were held to be very subordinate to the accumulation of the greatest possible 
number of practical surgical facts. 

In dealing with these large bodies of facts, I have thought best, commonly, to 
imitate the practice of the legal profession, and to set forth all the evidence regarded as 
important, on each particular subject, with as little interruption as possible, and to append 
the argument or discussion. As nearly as practicable, the wounds and injuries and surgical 
diseases of each region of the body have been arranged together, as the simplest and most 
natural order that could be adopted. The most interesting clinical histories have been 
printed in full, or in abstracts including the attainable essential details, and the remaining 
cases, or sometimes the whole number of cases of the class, are set forth in tabular 
statements. In many cases the result could not be ascertained, yet the proportion of 
undetermined cases, as indicated by the aggregates in the tables, was much smaller -than 
could have reasonably been anticipated.* In the earlier part of the work, the number of 
histories, and especially of very brief histories, that are printed, may appear unnecessarily 
large ; but it was desired to give some insight into the method by which cases were traced 
and followed to their termination, with the hope that the reader, on being assured that 
many of these brief memoranda presented a digest of the results of a search through half 
a dozen reports, perhaps, and that the cases represented numerically only had undergone 
precisely similar investigation, would entertain a reasonable confidence in the accuracy of 
the statistical conclusions. In the later portions of the work, the typical cases are more 
elaborated and fewer are selected to be printed in full. In stating in the abstracts that a 
case is reported by a medical officer whose name is given, it is not designed to intimate 
that he is responsible for the language employed. Very possibly some details are taken 
from several field or hospital reports or registers, each supplying some facts omitted in the 
others. It is simply designed to ascribe whatever merit belongs to the abstract to the 
surgeon giving the fullest account, or to give the history the authority of his name. 
Wherever the surgeon s own language is employed quotation marks are used, and whenever 
complete histories have been furnished by a single observer, they have been preferred, and 
printed in the reporter s own words. The classification adopted has rendered it necessary 
to encounter first in order the most obscure and complicated subjects, and the writer has 
been keenly sensible of the difficulties involved in this arrangement. On wounds of the 
extremities, on amputations, excisions, and conservative measures in fractures and wounds 
of joints, and almost all matters demanding prompt active interference, the materials at 
his disposition have been very extensive, and the means of illustration almost unlimited ; 
for the army surgeons showed great diligence in preserving statistical details on these 

* In computing percentages, the undetermined cases are not included. 



XXVIII INTRODUCTION. 

subjects, and freely expressed their opinions on the relative merits of different methods of 
treatment, while admirable drawings and specimens of recent injuries were early secured, 
and preparations showing their progress and results were largely accumulated. On wounds 
of the trunk, the materials were also abundant ; but the obstacles to satisfactory analysis 
and exposition were great. Generally, the medical officers were very concise in reporting 
on wounds of the head, of the chest, and of the abdomen, often failing to record all 
important points of professional interest, and commonly refraining from critical discussion 
or comment. It was not easy to obtain good pictorial representations of these injuries, 
their progress and results.* Whether the obscurity attending them, or the comparative 
inadequacy of therapeutical resources against them, renders them less attractive to surgeons, 
it is certain that less real reliable information relating to them is to be found than in 
regard to those in which brilliant operative dexterity may be displayed. In regard to 
injuries of the head,f it may be that writers are deterred from enlarging on them by doubt 
of their ability to add to the knowledge imparted by the great teachers of the past ; but 
the conditions the elder authors had in view were not identical with those observed by the 
moderns, and the latter cannot be exonerated from the duty of collecting facts with which 
to judge the conflicting views of their predecessors, or of applying to these difficult problems 
the more refined means of investigation that the advances of science have placed at their 
command. The obscurity which attends wounds of the head, and renders their pathology 
so ambiguous, does not, as Hennen observes, exist in an equal degree in those of the 
thorax; yet Dr. Fraser, inpreparing his monograph on the subject, was able to find but one 
treatise especially devoted to penetrating wounds of the chest, that by Dr. Mayer, of 
St. Petersburg.^ As to wounds of the abdomen, it may be that their extreme fatality and 
brevity of the period through which, commonly, they remain under observation, deprive 
them of the interest with which they would otherwise be regarded ; for, as Sir Charles 
Bell has remarked, although wounds of the belly are common enough immediately after a 
battle, bearing a fair relative proportion to other wounds, yet a few days suffice to remove 
them, so- that, by the end of the first week, there is scarcely one to be seen. 

That the experience acquired during the war should have added largely to every 
subject connected with military surgery was not to be anticipated. But it may be safely 
asserted that, in many directions, it has advanced the boundaries of our knowledge. Even 
in the very difficult field of investigation presented by the wounds and injuries of the 

*The gifted artist, Mr. STAUCH, whose services Surgeon Brinton had fortunately secured, after preparing many water-color drawings of recent 
injuries, at the field hospitals, died from pernicious fever contracted before Petersburg, without completing the exquisite studies of embolism, cranial 
abscess, false aneurism, osteomyelitis, and gangrene, which he had drawn from dissections made at the Museum. 

"Injuries of the head affect ing the brain are difficult of distinction, doubtful in character, treacherous in their course, and, for the most part, fatal 
in their results. The symptoms which appear especially to indicate one kind of accident are frequently prevalent in another. It may be even said that 
there is no one symptom which is presumed to demonstrate a particular lesion of the brain, which has not been shown to have taken place in another of 
a different kind. Examination after death has often proved the existence of a most serious injury, which had not been suspected ; and deatli has not 
unfrequently ensued immediately, or shortly after the most marked and alarming symptoms, without any adequate cause for the event being discovered 
on dissection. Such are the deficiences in our knowledge of the complicated Junctions of the brain, that although we think we can occasionally point 
out where the derangement of structure will be found, which has given rise to a particular symptom during life, the very next case may probably show 
an apparently sound structure n ith the same derangement of function. One man shall lose a considerable portion of his brain without its being productive 
at the moment, or even after his restoration to health, of the slightest apparent functional inconvenience ; whilst another shall fall and shortly die 
without an effort at recovery, in spite of any treatment which may be bestowed upon him, after a very much slighter injury inflicted apparently on the 
same part." GUTHIME, OH Injuries of the Head nffc.cthig the Jlrain, 4to, London, 1842. " Of all the accidents met with in field practice, these are, 
beyond doubt, the most serious, both directly and remotely the most confusing in their manifestions, and the least determined in their treatment, 
although they have engaged the attention of the master minds of all ages and countries from the time of the old surgeon of Cos down to the present 
day." MACLEOD, Notes, etc. (op. cit., p. 175). 

* Dr. Fraser justly remarks (up. rit., p. 2) that " while Army surgeons have displayed great care and attention on matters relating to statistics ; 
while they have laboriously discussed the relative merits of excisions and disarticulations, and have displayed consummate skill in the treatment of 
wounds of the joints and extremities, in a word, on all matters which demand active, and truth must out showy manual ability, the less attractive, 
because more obscure, but not the less important subject of wounds of the head, chest, and abdomen, appears to have elicited only passing and imperfect 
notice." 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

head, we have learned something. Surgeons have been schooled to deal with the most 
ghastly injuries of the face without dismay, to obtain unexpected results, and to accomplish 
favorably reparative operations from which, formerly, they would have recoiled ; and 
they have been taught the futility of tying the great arterial trunks of the neck for 
hoemorrhage from face-wounds. The true principles of treatment of wounded arteries in 
the neck is now generally understood; and while, before the war, there were few surgeons 
who chose to undertake operations on the great vessels, there are now thousands who know 
well when and how a great artery shall be tied. Our information respecting injuries of the 
vertebral column has been augmented; and, passing to the wounds of the chest, we find a 
complete revolution in theory and practice. Without further illustration, we may claim 
that the additions to surgical knowledge acquired in the war are of real and practical value. 
On those topics in which the materials at his disposition merely corroborated or confirmed 
views already generally entertained, the editor has sought to be concise, and to enlarge 
on those subjects to which some material addition to our knowledge has been brought 
by the observations made during the war, either because of novelties in nature or in 
treatment, or through the large number of rare or of analogous cases permitting the 
occasional presentation of crucial instances, and the more frequent application of the 
theories of averages and of probabilities/" Though the labor upon matters of detail, 
inseparable from carrying out instructions to regard the "preservation of the great mass 
of facts collected, in a form for convenient study," as the chief object in view, has 
generally confined the editor s attention to the arrangement and grouping and illustration 
of the observations, he has sought, whenever time and opportunity permitted, to facilitate 
the stude-nt s enquiries by analyses, and summaries, and references to the surgical results 
of other wars, without abstaining from critical comments; but censuring bad practice, 
intending no discourtesy to individuals, nor violation of the homines amare, errores immolare 
precept of St. Augustine. The learned historian of the inductive sciences has not included 
pathology and therapeutics in his outline, and we must perhaps be content to wait until 
some genius as sublime as Newton s shall explain the laws of life by a generalization as 
simple and perfect as the law of gravitation, before the physiological sciences shall be 
recognized among the strictly exact sciences. But, meanwhile, the tendency among 
surgeons to seek to establish, by inductive methods, at least those less general and more 
complicated rules to which the name of " empirical laws " has been given, cannot be 
gain say ed.f Though unable yet to aim at establishing laws of cause and effect, they are 
constantly seeking to determine by statistical calculation the influence exerted by different 
modes of practice, and thus to open the way for framing inductions ; and as these less 
general relations require a very much larger number of cases than are needed to establish 
laws of causation, they continually resort to the numerical method. This is peculiarly 
applicable to military surgery; for some of the variable circumstances which contribute to 



* LA PLACE, Essni philosoph ique sur le calcul ilcs probability, page 220, says tliat the mathematical theory of probabilities is, fundamentally, only 
" le ban sens reduit an calcul. It has so often been misapplied in medical enquiries, that PEISSIC (La Medecinc et Its Meclccins, Paris, 1857, Vol. I, p. 
175) profanely suggests that the inverse operation might often be profitably instituted, and "cyphering 1 put in accord with common sense.." 

t Arx tula in observationibus, said an ancient master. Those who deride the numerical method as an absurd caricature of the inductive or experi 
mental method in philosophy, say that in observatione would bo better, and censure the unfortunate plural, as having- promoted the introduction of the 
statistical system into the medical eminiries. MOKGAOXl .s famous Non niimernndic sed pcrpendendm suiit observationes is often cited against thenumer- 
ists; but those who do not relish so formidable an adversary ma}-, with Bouillaud (Exsai sur la philosophic medicale, P:iri:i, ISIiti, p. 186), write the 



aphorisi 



Sur ih< 



Von sol. I M numerandee SEU K HAM perpendendx sitnt observationes. For more serious observations on tins most important subject, consult : 
KT, J rhtripis r/enf rales de f!tatistii/>ie Mhlicalr ; LAYCOCK, Medical Observation and Jir.srarch ; (llV, On the bfft Method of collecting and 
g Facts, in Jour, of Stat. . - oc. of London, Vol. Ill; IJAIUXAY, Medical Errors, London, 18(i4 ; Tonn. The Book of Analysis; QCETETET, 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

the production or modification of the result, and which cannot well be eliminated from 
ordinary statistics, are here excluded for example, sex, age, and bodily vigor, within 
certain limits while there is comparative uniformity in the external circumstances of food, 
air, nursing, and attendance. The simple rehearsal of cases would be a very profitless 
addition to our knowledge, unless, through their agency, we sought for analogies and 
relations that may establish rules of practice. 

The surgical lessons of the war, like its other good results, were only obtained at the 
expense of great sacrifices. The army surgeon is not only exposed to the dangers arising 
from excessive fatigue, and constant contact with disease, but to the fatalities directly 
incident to war. I have not the names of the numerous Confederate medical officers 
whose devotion to duty cost their lives, nor space for the long list of Union surgeons who 
perished from diseases strictly consequent upon the nature of their avocations, but will, at 
least, record the names of the latter who fell in battle. The following officers of the 
medical staff of the regular and volunteer forces of the Union Army were killed in action : 

Surgeon SAMUEL EVERETT, U. S. V., at Shiloh, April 6th, 1802. 

Surgeon W. J. H. WHITE, U. S. A., at Antietam, September 17th, 1862, while placing the field 
hospitals of the Sixth Corps, of which he was medical director. (Sec APPENDIX, p. 100.) 

Assistant Surgeon A. A. KENDALL, 12th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Antietain, September 
17th, 1862. (See APPENDIX, p. 100.) 

Assistant Surgeon EDWARD II. R. REVERE, 20th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Antietam, 
September 17th, 1862. (See APPENDIX, p. 100.) 

Surgeon J. I). S. HASLETT, 50th Illinois Volunteers, at Perryville, October 8th, 1862. 

Surgeon J. FOSTER HAVEN, 15th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Fredericksburg, December 
13th, 1862. (See APPENDIX, p. 104.) 

Assistant Surgeon JOHN HURLEY, 60th New York Volunteers, April 15th, 1863. 

Surgeon CHARLES A. HARTMAN, 107th Ohio Volunteers, at Chaucellorsville, May 2d, 1863. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon A. HIGHBORN, at Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1863. 

Surgeon E. L. WATSON, 1st California Volunteers, near Fort Craig, New Mexico, July 10th, 1863. 

Surgeon J. S. WEISER, 1st Minnesota Cavalry, near Big Mound, Dakota Territory, in a fight 
with Sioux Indians, July 24th, 1863. 

Surgeon THOMAS JONES, 8th Pennsylvania Reserves, at Spottsylvania, May 14th, 1864. 

Surgeon II. S. POTTER, 105th Illinois Volunteers, near Ackworth, Georgia, June 2d, 1864. (See 
APPENDIX, p. 308.) 

Assistant Surgeon A. S. FRENCH, 114th Illinois Volunteers, at Guntown, June 10th, 1864. 

Surgeon L. B. SMITH, 7th Minnesota Volunteers, at Tupelo, Mississippi, July 13th, 1864. 

Surgeon J. C. STODDARD, 56th U. S. Colored Troops, Wallace s Ferry, Arkansas, July 26th, 1864. 

Surgeon CHARLES J. LEE, llth United States Colored Troops, near Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
August 24th, 1864. 

Surgeon W. H. RULISON, Oth New York Cavalry, medical director of the cavalry of the Middle 
Military Division, at Smithfield, Virginia, August 20th, 1864. (See APPENDIX, p. 226.) 

Assistant Surgeon FREDERICK WAGNER, 3d Tennessee Cavalry, at Sulphur Branch Trestle, 
Alabama, September 25th, 1864. 

The following officers of the medical staff, while in the discharge of their duty, were 
killed by partizan troops or assassinated by guerrillas or rioters : 

Surgeon II. X. GREGORY, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, June Oth, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon F. L. HUNT, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, November 18th, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon JARED FREE, 83d Pennsylvania Volunteers, December 10th, 1863. 

Surgeon SIIUBALL YORK, 54th Illinois Volunteers, Charleston, Illinois, March 28th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon S. A. FAIROIIILD, 6th Kansas Cavalry, Stone s Farm, April 6th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon J. A. JONES, 115th Illinois Volunteers, July Oth, 18(54. 

Assistant Surgeon ELI M. HEWITT, 15th U. S. Colored Troops, July 24th, 1864. 

Surgeon J. B. MOORE, 5th Tennessee Cavalry, September 5th, 1864. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon F. M. OSBORNE, September 22d, 1864. 

Surgeon J. B. COOVER, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, September 27, 1864. (See APPENDIX, p. 226.) 

Assistant Surgeon JOHN B. PORTER, 80th Indiana Volunteers, November 1st, 1864. 

Surgeon J. L. SIIERK, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, at Bardstown, Kentucky, December 20th, 1864. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon SAMUEL FAIINESTOCK, April 13th, 1864. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

The following medical officers died of wounds received in action : 

Assistant Surgeon S.ALEXANDER, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry, died November 29th, of wounds 
received at Drainesville, Virginia, on November 20th, 18(51. 

Assistant Surgeon ,T. E. HILL, 19th Massachusetts Volunteers, died of wounds received at 
Fairfax, Virginia, on September llth, 1802. 

Assistant Surgeon AV. S. MOORE, Olst Ohio Volunteers, died of wounds received at Gettysburg 
on July 2d, 18(5. ). 

Acting Assistant Surgeon AV. 1>. GARY, died of wounds on January 20th, 1804. 

Assistant Surgeon HEZEKLYII FISH, 15th Iowa Volunteers, died August 19th, of wounds 
received near Atlanta on August 17th, 1804. 

Surgeon OTTO SCIIENK, 40th New York Volunteers, died on August 21st, 1804, of wounds 
received near Petersburg, August 20th, 1804. (Sec APPENDIX, p. 175.) 

Acting Assistant Surgeon EMIT, OIILENSCIILAGER, died October 8th, of wounds received in 
action on October 8th, 1804. (Sec APPENDIX, p. 220.) 

Surgeon THOMAS J. SHANNON, 110th Ohio Volunteers, died October 20th, of wounds received 
at Cedar Creek on October 19th, 1804. (See APPENDIX, p. 220.) 

The following medical officers died through accidents occurring in the line of duty : 

Surgeon FREDERICK S. WELLS, 9th New Jersey Volunteers, drowned at Hatteras Inlet, 
January 15th, 1802, in the courageous and perilous attempt to land to procure food and water for 
the famine-stricken regiment, its transport being driven off shore in a terrific storm. 

Assistant Surgeon W. M. KNOX, 78th Pennsylvania Volunteers, April 27th, 1802. 

Assistant Surgeon JESSE J. THOMAS, 10th New Jersey Volunteers, May, 1802. 

Assistant Surgeon CHARLES JOHNSON, 10th Tennessee Volunteers, killed by a fall, April 5, 1803. 

Surgeon GEORGE HAMMOND, U. S. A., drowned in the Mississippi River, August 14th, 1803. 

Assistant Surgeon W. B. WITT, G9th Indiana Volunteers, drowned at Saluria Bayou, Texas, 
March 13th, 1804. 

Assistant Surgeon S. C. FERSON, 74th Illinois Volunteers, at Varnell, October 7, 1804. 

Surgeon WILLIAM K. SADLER. 19th Kentucky Volunteers, shot by a soldier, December 2d, 1804. 

Assistant Surgeon A. F. MARSH, 50th Illinois Volunteers, lost at sea, on the steamer General 
Lyon, March 31st, 1805. 

If the above sad mortuary record, proportionately larger than that of any other staff 
corps, is insufficient to correct the popular fallacy that, in time of battle, the post of the 
medical officer is one of comparative safety, that false impression may be removed by the 
following list of medical officers wounded in action : 

Surgeon J. MARCUS RICE, 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Roauokc Island, February 7th, 1862. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon W. A. KITTREDGE, Fort Fillmore, New Mexico, June 25th. 1862. (See APPENDIX, p. 353.) 
Surgeon A. A. EDMESTON, 92d New York Volunteers, at Savage s Station, June 27th, 1862. 
Assistant Surgeon G. M. McGiLL, U. S. A., at Beverly Ford, Virginia, October 22d, 1863. 
Assistant Surgeon W. M. NOTSON, U. S. A., at Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Surgeon J. M. STEVENSON, 3d Maryland Cavalry, at Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Surgeon CHARLES ALEXANDER, 16th Maine Volunteers, at Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. 
Assistant Surgeon E. B. HECKEL, 27th Pennsylvania Volunteers, at Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Assistant Surgeon JOSEPH D. STEWART, 74th New York Volunteers, Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. 
Surgeon F. II. GROSS, U. S. V., at Chickamauga, September 19th, 1863. (See APPENDIX, p. 270.) 
Surgeon J. R. WEIST, 4th Ohio Cavalry, wounded in 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon A. II. LAXDIS, 35th Ohio Volunteers, at Chickamauga, September 19th, 1863. 

Surgeon E. A. MEKRIFIELD, 44th Illinois Volunteers, at Chickamauga, September 19th, 1863. (See APPENDIX, p. 277.) 
Assistant Surgeon \V. H. FORWOOD, U. S. A., at Brandy Station, October 8th, 1863. 

Surgeon N. R. DERBY, U. S. V., on Cane River, Louisiana, April 21st, 1864. Permanently maimed and pensioned. 
Assistant Surgeon ROBERT FKXWICK, 146th New York Volunteers, by a shell fragment, at the Wilderness, May 8th, 1864. 
Surgeon T. E. MITCHELL, at Winchester, May 25th, 1861. (See APPENDIX, p. 230.) 
Assistant Surgeon W. A. BARRY, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Wildeniess, May 6th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon R. S. VlCKERY, 2d Michigan Volunteers, Petersburg, July 30th, 1864. Femoral artery ligated. 
Assistant Surgeon ISAAC SMITH, 26th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Opequan, September 19th, 1864. He is a pensioner. 
(See APPENDIX, p. 226.) 

Surgeon JOHN T. SCEARCE, llth Indiana Volunteers, at Cedar Creek, October 19th, 1864. (See APPENDIX, p. 226. 

Assistant Surgeon PRESTON B. ROSK, 5th Michigan Volunteers, Hatcher s Run, October 27th, 1864 He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon C. C. V. A. CRAWFORD, 102d Pennsylvania Volunteers, Petersburg. July 12th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon THOMAS HELM, 148th New York Volunteers, Petersburg, September, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon AUSTIN MANDKVILLE, 169th New York Volunteers, Dutch Gap, August 13th, 1864. He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon D. W. RICHARDS, 14. r >th Pennsylvania, Volunteers, June 2d, 1864. 

Surgeon W. A. SMITH, 103d New York Volunteers, Suffolk, May 3d, 1863. He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon SAMUEL B. SH EPARD, 7th Connecticut Volunteers, captured, June 2d, 1864. 

Surgeon ISAAC WALHURN, 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry, at Beverly Ford. June 9th, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon II. T. WHITMAN, 5th Pennsylvania Volunteers, at Bethesda Church, Virginia, May 30th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon L. BARNES, 6th United States Colored Troops, explosion of magazine at Fort Fisher, January 16th, 1865. 

Surgeon M. M. MANLY, 2d United States Colored Troops, at Fort Darling, Virginia, May 14th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon G. V. R. MERRILL, 6th United States Colored Troops, at Petersburg, June, 1864. 



XXXII INTRODUCTION. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon SAMUEL H. BOONE, January 17th, 1865. 

Surgeon J. T. STEWART, 64th Illinois Volunteers, Atlanta, July 19th, 1864, 

Assistant Surgeon A. G. PICKET, 50th Illinois Volunteers, at Allatoona, October 5th, 1864. 

Surgeon A. N. DOUGHERTY, U. S. V., Wilderness, May 6th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon JAMES ALLEN, 89th New York Volunteers, Petersburg, September, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon O. H. ADAMS, 8th New York Cavalry, at Lacy s Springs, December 21st, 1864. (See SURG. HIST. p. 2.) 

Assistant Surgeon JACOB C. BARR. 1st Ohio Volunteers, Wauhatchie, Tennessee, October 29th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon JULIUS BRAY, 25th Missouri Volunteers, at Shiloh, April 6th, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon JAMES BROWN, 4th Tennessee Cavalry, Franklin, Tennessee, September 23d, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon G. B. BAILKY, 9th West Virginia Cavalry, at Guyandotte, November 10th, 1861. 

Assistant Surgeon CHARLES BUNCE, 59th Illinois Volunteers, July, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon A. T. C. CONNER, 9th New York Cavalry, Woodville, Virginia, May, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon D. O. CROUCH, 13th Pennsylvania Reserves, Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862. 

Surgeon J. W. GREEN, 95th Illinois Volunteers, Spanish Fort, Alabama, April 8th, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon T. GILFILLAN, 59th Massachusetts Volunteers, Petersburg, July 8th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon JOSEPH GARDNER, 24th Kentucky Volunteers, near Atlanta, August 5th, 1884. He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon C. E. GOLDSBOROUGH, 5th Maryland Volunteers, Petersburg, August 5th, 1864. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon RALPH C. HUSE, January 16th, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon LEVI JEWETT, 14th Connecticut Volunteers, Reams Station, August 28, 1864. (8e? APPENDIX, p. 173.) 

Assistant Surgeon DAVID D. KENNEDY, 57th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862. 

Surgeon JAMES A. MORRIS, 117th New York Volunteers, Fort Fisher, January 16th, 18G5. 

Assistant Surgeon EDWIN W. MAGANN, 9th Indiana Cavalry, Sulphur Branch Trestle, Alabama, September 25th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon THOMAS L. MORGAN, 10th Missouri Volunteers, April, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon PETER M. MURPHY, 134th New York Volunteers, Resaca, Georgia, May 15th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon GEORGE A. MUNROE, 3d Rhode Island Cavalry, on a scout, November 29th, 1864. 

Surgeon CHARLES NEWHAUS, 29th New York Volunteers, second Bull Run, August 29th, 1862. He is a pensioner. 

Surgeon WILLIAM D. NEWELL, 28th New Jersey Volunteers, Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862. 

Surgeon FOWLER PRENTICE, 73d New York Volunteers, August, 1864. 

Surgeon HENRY ROOT, 58th New York Volunteers, May, 1863. 

Surgeon PETER E. SICKLER, 8th New York Cavalry, Petersburg, April, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon GEORGE R, SULLIVAN, 15th New Jersey Volunteers, Fredericksburg, May 9th, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon THOMAS S. STANWAY, 102d Illinois Volunteers, Nashville, December 22d, 1863. 

Surgeon WILLIAM P. THURSTON, 1st Rhode Island Artillery, Fairfax, June 28th, 1862. 

Surgeon JAMES WILSON, 99th New York Volunteers, Suffolk, April 24th, 1863. 

Surgeon A. A. C. WILLIAMS, Second United States Sharpshooters, Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1863. 

Surgeon ARVIN F. WHELAN, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters, Petersburg, August 3d, 1864. 

Asststant Surgeon CHARLES A. W T HEELER, 12th Massachusetts Volunteers, Wilderness, May 6th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon T. W. C. WILLIAMSON, 24th Indiana Volunteers, Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon J. S. WAGGONER, 84th Pennsylvania Volunteers, in May, 1863. 

Surgeon JOHN DiCKSON, lllth United States Colored Troops, at Sulphur Branch Trestle, Alabama, September 25th, 1864. 

I had hoped to complete, in this first part of the Surgical History of the War, the 
discussion of the Wounds and Injuries of the Head and Trunk. But the preliminary 
matter that has been included occupies so much space, that it is necessary to reserve many 
of the general observations upon the Injuries of the Head, Spine, and Blood-vessels, and 
the consideration of Wounds and Injuries of the Abdomen and of the Pelvis, and to place 
the latter at the commencement of the succeeding surgical volume. 

GEORGE A. OTIS. 



A. M. M. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY 



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olunteers, one conipai 
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XXXVIII 



CHEOKOLOGIOAL SUMMARY OF 





MARKS AND REFERENCES. 


! 


r statement, 
port of Colonel Harvey Brown, U. S. A. 

Record, Vol. Ill, page 46. 
r statement. 


Record, Vol, III. page 47. 

;port of Major C. Wright. Also known 
jhai, Henrytown, and Monday s Hollow. 

ualties, File A, 556, S. G. O. 
port of Major C. Wright. 

port of Colonel J. W. Geary, 28th Penn- 
Volunteers. 

Ronnr,] Vnl TTT T> X.1 


c 
i v- 

i: ? 

< < 

~ a 

> 1 


>f casualties, S. G. O. Appendix, Part I, 
and Surgical Histoiy of the War, pages 
5. Official Report of Major General 
in. Acting Brig. General E. D. Baker 
d. Also known as Edward s Ferry, Har- 
land, and Leesburg. 

laities, Pile A, No. 556 and 588, S. G. O. 
Rnort of Colonel .T. B. Plummer. llth 


Volunteers, commanding. Including 
lish at Jronton. 


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tatement. 

sports of Majors Zagonyi and Wright. 
)wn as JOagonyi s Cliarge. 

port of Brigadier General B. P. Kelley, 
ling. Also known as Mill Creek Mills. 

Uliutant General of Illinois. Vol. I. n. 344. 




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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


20th Indiana Volunteers . . . 


Flemingsburgh Home Guards 

6th New York Volunteers, detachments of C 
1 . S. Artillery, Co. H, 2d U. S. Artillery, ; 
C and E, 3d U. S. Infantry. 

Major James Cavalry 
39th Indiana Volunteers 

79th New York Volunteers 


Lieutenant Tuft s detachment of cavalry 

10th and 6th Missouri Cavalry and Fremont ; 
Cavalry. 

Forty men of 38th Illinois Volunteers 
6th Missouri Cavalry and 13th Illinois Volunte 

Detachments from 2Sth Pennsylvania, 3d W 
and 13th Massachusetts Volunteers. 


18th Missouri Volunteers... 


15th and 20th Massachusetts, 40th New York, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Battery B 
Island Artillery. 

33d Indiana, 14th and 17th Ohio Volunteers, 1 
tucky Cavalry, and 1st Ohio Battery. 

Company A, 1st Missouri Light Artillery, llth 


and 17th, 20tb, 21st, 33tl, and 38th Illinois Vol 
1st Indiana Cavalry, and 8th Wisconsin Voli 


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and 1st Ohio Artillery. 
Detachment of the 6th Indiana Volunteers. - - - 
Fremont Body-guard, White s Prairie Scouts. 

4th and 8th Ohio and 7th West Virginia Vol 
2d Regiment of Potomac Home Brigade, J! 
Volunteeis, and Ring-gold (Pa.) Cavalry Bat 

9th Illinois Volunteers . . . 










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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



XXXIX 



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CHKONOLOGUCAL SUMMARY OF 









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REMARKS AND REFERENCE 


ork Herald, December 7. 
erate Newspapers. 
\ Adjutant General s Report, Vol. 1 
iper statements. 


iper statements. 

casualties, File A, No. 34, S. (i. 
n as Buffalo Mountain. 

Reports of Brigadier General Bu 
ml Major (ieneral Hardee, C. S. A. 
djutant General of Indiana, Vol. 1 
known as Mumfordsville and Wooi 

Rm-xirt of M;iinv General H. W. 


landing-. Also known as Shawne 
Jlackwater. 

casualties in the Confederate Ar 
o. 58i). Official Reports of Brigad 
. O. C. Ord, commanding. 

on Record, Vol. Ill, page 117. 
iper statements. 


a 

_ 

- 


80. 

Report of Brigadier General B. M. 
landing. Casualty List, S. G. O. 

casualties. File F. No. 201. S. (i. 


x, Part I, Medical and Surgical 1 
Var, page 233. 

ial. 

of Adjutant General of Indiana, Vol 

of Adjutant Genoral of Illinois, Vol 
includes skirmishes at Great Cacapi 
10 Station, and Hancock. 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


1st Division, Mnjor General J. A. McClernan< 
Division, Major General C. F. Smith ; lid Dh 
Brigadier General Lewis Wallace ; 4th Div 
Brigadier General S. A. Hurlburt: 5th Dh 
Brigadier General W. T. Sherman ; and fith 


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and 4th Illinois Cavalry. 

75th Ohio Volnntpnrs nnd 1st West. Virrnnin Hnv 




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2d Missouri Militia Cavalry 
Two companies of 1st Iowa Cavalry 

1st California Cavalry 




8th Miclligan Volunteers and Battery of Rhode 
Light Artillery. 

3d, 4th, and (ith Vermont Volunteers, 3d New 
Battery, and Battery of 5th U. S. Artillery. 



















































































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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



XLV 




XL VI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



XLVII 



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ENGAGEMENTS AKD BATTLES. 



XLIX 



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Captain Blood s mounted provost, guards ar 
Indiana Battery. 

Detachment of the 9th Illinois Cavalry 
5th LI. S. Cavalry 




46th, 47th. and 79th New York, 3d Rhode Isl 
New Hampshire, 45th. 97th, and 100th Pennsj 
Oth and 7th Connecticut, 8ch Michigan, ai 
Massachusetts Volunteers, 1st New York En; 
1st Connecticut, Batteries E, 3d U. S., an 
Rhode Island Artillery, and Company II, 1st 
chusetts Cavalry. 

U. S. gunboats Lexington, Mound City, Cor 
and M. Louis ; 43d and 46th Indiana Volunte 

7th Missouri Militia Cavalry 


Brigadier General G. W. Morgan s command. . 

16th Massachusetts Volunteers 
2d and 3:kl Ohio. 10th Wisconsin, and 24th lllin 


unteers, 4th Ohio and 4th Kentucky Cavai 
Edgarton s Battery. 

8th Vermont Volunteers 


7th Missouri Cavalry 

Hooker s and Kearney s Divisions of the Thi 
Palmer s Brigade of Couch s Division of the 
and part of Richardson s Division of the 
Corps. 

50th Ohio Volunteers guarding railroad train.. . 
4th Iowa Cavalrv... 


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Fifth Corps, and McCalPs Division of the First 
Army of the Potomac, Major General Fi 
Porter. 

21 at Indiana Volunteers 


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Old Church, Virginia.. - 
.lames Island. South Cur 


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Raceland, near Algiers, 


Raytown, Missouri 
Oak Grove, Virginia .. . 

Germautown, Tennessee 
Little Red River. Arkan 


Vicksburtr. Mississinni.. 


Mechanicsville. Virginia 
Williams Bridge, Amite I 
















: : 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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Major General B. Huger s Division., 
Major General B. Magruder s Division. 
Major General J. Longstreet s Division. 
Major General A. P. Hill s Division. 
Major General T. J. Jackson s Division. 
Major General T. H. Holmes s Division. 
Major General J. E. B. Stuart, com g Cavalry. 
Brig. General W. N. Pendelton, Chief of Artillery. 


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UNION TROOPS ENG 


First Corps, Brigadier General McC 
Second Corps, Major General E. V. S 
Third Corps, Major General S. P. He 
Fourth Corps, Major General E. D. ; 
Fifth Corps, Major General Fitz-Joh 
Sixth Corps, Major General \V. B. F 
Cavalry, commanded by Brigadier C 
Engineers 


Army of the Potomac, Major Genera 
commanding. 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LI 



1 





R3, page 854. 






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casualties 
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nt General 


the War, 


the War, 


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on Record, 


Adjutant G 


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U. S. gunboats Perry, Ceres, and Shawseen, e 


New York Volunteers. 
24th, 34th, 43d, and4fith Indiana Volunteers, eon 


ed by Colonel Fitch, 4b th Indiana Volunteers 
3d Pennsylvania Cavalry 
Detachment of 1st Wisconsin Cavalrv. .. 




1st Iowa Cavalry and Missouri Militia 
33d Ohio Volunteers. . . 


Lebanon Home Guards and 28th Kentuckv Volu 


1st Maryland, 1st Vermont, 1st West Virginia, 
New Vork Cavalry. 

1st Marvland Cavalrv... 


9th Michigan and 3d Minnesota Volunteers ; 4t 
tucky and 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and Is 
tucky Battery. 

4th TOW.I Cnvnlrv. . 


Carondelet, Queen of the West, Tyler, and 
and 4th Wisconsin Volunteers. 


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Hamilton, North Carolina 


Aberdeen. Arkansas . . 


Tompkinsville. Kentucky 
Scatterville, Arkansas . . 


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Pleasant Hill, Missouri. . 
New Hope, Kentucky... 


Lebanon, Kentucky ... 


Near Culpeper, Virginia. 
Fairfax, near Rapidan Ra 


Virginia. 
Murfreasboro , Tennessee 

Batesville, Arktnsas . . 


Attempt to destroy the I 

Kansas. 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





REMARKS AND REFERENCES. 




gK a; 58 

Ld a ^ L ^ 

g3 * * i * 

si 1 J , tf f 

B G nJ- > "C Pi 

gC^o^Z-o, 1 " 1 - Ji 

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5 (S ~ < |1 * 

.2 "a | c g 15 .3 ^ o a a 

2 i0 * -2 H g S^SSE 
OO SPSBWiS CO 


Official Report of Colonel M. B. Walker, 31st Ohio 
Volunteers. Casualty List, File A. No. 570, S. 
G. O. 

Iowa Adjutant General s Report, 1863, page 856. 
Official. 

Official Report of Major General Pope. 


Kentucky Adjutant General s Report, Vol. 1, page 
819. 

TfAVipllinn Rpfnrrt Vnl V nno-A 48 


New Jersey and the Rehellion, pa^e 215. 

Dffinial. 


e^ 
a 

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a 
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Cv 

ll 

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lovra Adjutant General s Report, 18G3, page 85l>. 
Official. Colonel W. A. Phillins. 3d Kansas Indian 


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Co. E, 31st Ohio Volunteers 

3d Iowa Cavalry 
3d Iowa Cavalry 

Cavalry, commanded by Major Wallt 

Reconnointering expedition from ( 
Divison. 


2d Missouri Artillerj*. 

J Two companies 10th Kentucky Vol 
companies 1st Ohio Cavalry. 

Misnmiri Militin 


9th New Jersey Volunteers and 3d Ne 

1 3f1 n.nd l- tli ATi=Kr,iiri Afilitin r.n-rnlrir 





1 2d Iowa Cavalry 
1 1st. 2d. and 3d Kansas Tndian Homp 










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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LIII 



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Two companies of the 13th Missouri Volunteers 

RussellriUo Homo Guards and 70th Indiana Volunteers . 

One company of the 15th Illinois Cavalry, commanded 
by Captain J. J. Dollins. 

flth Pf.nnsvlv.nnin Cnvnlrv 


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Mount StnHinn-. Kpntiinkv... 


Bollinger s Mills, Missouri 

Russellvillo, Kentucky 
Brownsville, Tennessee 

P.-iris K-pntiinTrv 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LV 



eral J. M. Schofield, 


s 350 and 440. 




s surrendered without 


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j W. Taylor, corn- 
mortally wounded. 


nd Surgical History 


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Ohio in the War, Vol. 2, 


Massacred by Indians. 


Official Report. The p< 
an engagement. 


Official Report of Major 


Indiana Adjutant Gener 
Official. 


Fight with Indians. 


_o 

1 

I 
[3 

1 
O 


Rebellion Record, Vol. 


Unofficial. 


Rebellion Record. Vol. 


Official. 

Official Reports of Maji 
S. A., and Lieut, Ge 
Brigadier General B< 


Tennessee Adjutant Gei 
Official. 


Official. Also known nt 


Iowa Adjutant General i 


O 

d 

02 

i 

a 


Official Report of Captai 
fight. 


Rebellion Record, Vol. 


Official. 
Iowa Adjutant General ! 


Newspaper report. 


Official. Brigadier Ger 
manding Union troops 


Appendix to Parti, Med 
of the War, page ]C8. 


Ohio in the War, Vol. 2, 



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j Missouri Militia Cavalry, commanded by Maj 
Foster, 7th Militia Cavalry. 

58th and 76th Ohio Volunteers 

One company 5th Minnesota Volunteers 
71st Ohio Volunteers, commanded by Colonel I 


2d Illinois Cavah-y, commanded by Captain F 

Cavalry of Army of Virginia 
Detachment of the 50th Indiana Volunteers. . . 
1st Missouri and 13th Illinois Cavalry 
Comnanies B and C. 5th Minnesota Volunte 


Renville Rangers. 
Cavalry of Army of Virginia 

42d Illinois Volunteers 
yth Pennsylvania Cavalrv. commanded hv B 


General G. C. Smith. 
Purnell Legion (Maryland) and 1st Pennsylvan 
Army of Virginia, commanded by Major Gene 

7th Kentucky Cavalry and 3d Tennessee Volui 
12th Missouri S. M. Cavah-y 


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| Harrodsburg and Danville (Kentucky) Home ( 

llth and 12th Ohio and 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th Nev 

Volunteers. 

Major General Hooker s Division, Third Corp 
of the Potomac. 

33d Ohio Volunteers and detachment of cavalrv 


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Lone Jack, Missouri 

Capture of rebel steamer Fair F 
Milliken s Bend, Louisiana. 

Redwood, Minnesota, 
Clarksville, Tennessee 

Rienzi. Mississinci 


White Oak Ridge, near Hickn 
tucky. 

Brandy Station, Virginia 
Edgefield Junction, Tennessee 
Union Mills, Missouri 
Fort Ridgelv, Minnesota . . 


Kelly s Ford, Rappahannock 
Virginia. 

.Pinckuey Island, South Carolir 
Courtland, Tennessee 
Crab Orchard, Kentucky.- - 


Catlett s Station, Virginia .... 

Skirmishes on the Rappahar 
Waterloo Bridge, Lee Sprin 
man s Ford, and Sulphur 
Virginia. 

Big Hill, Aladisou County, Ken 
Dallas, Missouri 
Coon Creek. Missouri . . . 


Fort Donelson, Tennessee 
Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn 
New Ulm. Minnesota. . . 


Bloomfield. Missouri . . . 


Madisonville, Kentuckv... 


Rienzi and Kossuth, Mississipp 
Danville, Kentucky 
Bull Run Bridge, Virginia 

Kettle Run, Virginia 
Fort McCook, near Bridsreport 


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LVI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 









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ND REFERENCES. 


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?adier General L. T. 

s Station. 

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C-f y; C "3 




REMARKS A 


fficial. Also known 

fficial. 
ehellion RnfnrH Vn 


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Iowa Volunteers. 


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page 190. 

fficial Report of Bri 
Also known as Toon 

ohollinn T?or.,,rfl V,.1 


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10th Brigade, Army of t 
onel VV. Grose. 

4th Missouri Militia Cavf 
2d West. Vire-inia Cavalr 


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and 78th and 20th Ohk 


26th Ohio and 17th and 
8th Indiana Battery. 

6th and 7th Kentucky C 
tucky, 12th, Kith, 55th 
Volunteers ; and Batte 
lory. 

Two comnanips (ith Wes 


45th Illinois and 7th Miss 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LVII 



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i Co. F, 9th New York Volunteers, and 1st 
1st Minnesota Volunteers 




Lieutenant Colonel Foster s Cavalry .. 
. 8th Kentucky Cavalry 


. Detachment of the Gth Tennessee Volu 
1st New York Cavalry 


. 1st North Carolina and 24th Massachus 
and 3d New York Cavalry. 

IB* Miacnnri Pnvnlrv 


. 3d Indiana and 8th Illinois Cavalry 

. llth Illinois. 13th Wisconsin, and 71st O 
5th Iowa Cavalrj^ and two batteries. 

42d Illinois Volunteers 
3d Indiana and 8th Illinois Cavalry 
5th Pennsylvania Cavalry 
. 21st Indiana and 4th Wisconsin Volunte 

Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Grier 
Cavalrj-. 

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LVTII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LIX 



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. U. S. mm Otieen of tlio West, with transports and 33d 




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. Cavalry commanded by Major Foster, 3d Ohio Cavalry. 
. Colonel Granger s command. .. 


3 c 


2d Penns\ Ivania and 1st West Virginia Cavalry 

3d, (5th, and 7th Minnesota Volunteers and RcnviHo 
Guards. 

57th Ohio Volunteers 
10th West Virginia... 


CavaltT commanded bv. Colonel McLean... 


- 
r--. 


34th Ohio 
Kentucky Home Guards 

1 1st New York Mounted Rifles. . . 


1st briffailo. Army of Kans-is. 4th brigade, Missouri 
State Militia, commanded by l!ii<radier General t\ 
Salomon and Colonel G. 11. Hull, 4th Cavalry, Mis 
souri State Militia. 

I liion troops commanded by Colonel Harrison, 17lh 
Kentucky. 

4th Indiana Cnvalry, 34th Illinois and 77th Pennsvlva- 


ma Volunteers. Colonel t,. .N. Kirk s brm-adc, Anny 
of the Ohio. 

1st Tennessee Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Stokes. 

8th Illinois. 8;h Pennsylvania, and 3d Indiana Cavalry, 
and Penniug ton s batter3 . 

Carter County Home Guards 
Advance of the Army of the Ohio. . . 


Cavalry of the Army of the Mississippi ... 


| Union g unboivts, commanded by Captain FlL .sser, and 
troops, commanded by General Spear. 

McKcan s. Davies , Hamilton s, and Stanley s Divi 
sions, Army of the Mississippi, commanded by 
Majur General \V. S. Kosecrans. 

Advance of the Army of the Ohio 
Hurlbut s and Ori . s Divisions, Army of the Mississippi. 










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Wancnton Junction, Virginia.. 


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Buffalo, West Virginia 
Augusta, Kentucky 
B ackwater, Virginia 


Newtonia, Missouri 

Russellville, Kentucky 
Floj d s Fork, Kentucky 


Gallalin, Tennessee 
Shepherdstown, Virginia 

Olive Hill, Kentucky 
Mount Washing-ton, Kentucky . 


Baldwin. Mississippi 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





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Official. 


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Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
nf the War, page 251. Casualty Lists, S. G. O. 
Official Reports of Ma or General D. C. Buoll.- 
Among the casualties were Brigadier Generals 
J. S. Jackson and William R. Terrill, U. S. V., 
killed, and Wood, Cleburne, and Brown, C. S. A., 
wounded. 

Casualtv List, S. G. O. Official Reports. Also 


known as Dog Walk. 
Rebellion Record, Vol. V, page 93. 


"3 
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page ii51. 
Indian fight. 


Official. 
Official. 
Report of Adjutant General of Maine, 1862, pages 


45 and 51. 

Report of Adjutant General of Indiana, Vol. I, page 
218. Also known as Lancaster. 

Official. 
Newspaper statement. 
Rebellion Record, Vol. VI, page 3. 
Newspaper report. 
Ohio in the War, Vol. II, page 766. 
Newspaper report. 
Unofficial. 


Ohio in the War, Vol. 2, page 791. 
Rebellion Record, Vol. VI, page 5. 


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First Corps, Major General A. McD. J 
Corps, Brigailier General C. C. Gill 
Ohio, commanded by Major Gener. 


untoers, Battery II, 5th U. S. Artill 
tucky Cavalry. 

riofnnliTnoiit nf P.avalrv ft-nill Mninr 


command. 


i th Kentucky Cavalry. 


Detacbment of the 4th Iowa Cavalry 
U. S. gunboat Maratanza 


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Detachment of the 6th Ohio Cavalry 
Union troops, commanded by Colonel 
10th Missouri Militia Cavalry 








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upper juisBuiui vivei, ^xi 
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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXI 



iri 
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r General J. M. Schofield. 
ille. 


to 
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adier Generals J. M. Bran- 
S. Walker, C. S. A. Also 




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jor General B. F. Butler, 
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s Oxford Bend. 


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sbellion Record, Vol 


owspaper statement 


ewspaper report. 


fficial Report of Mn 
Also known as May 


"3 
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43 
V 


fficial Reports of Bi 
nan, U. S. V., and > 


known as l einassec 


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ebellion Record, Vo 


nofficial. 


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eport of Adjutant C 
Official Re]iort of 


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fficial. Also known 


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isualty List, File f 
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fficial Report of Maj 


fficial Report of Maj 


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1st division, Army of the Frontier, commanded by 
Brigadier General J. G. Blunt. 

4tli Ppnnav1v!ininr;ivtllrv... 


47th. SSth, and 76th Pennsylvania, 48th New York, 6th 
and 7th Connecticut, 3d and 4th New Hampshire, and 
3d Hhode Island Volunteers, 1st NewYork Engineers, 
1st Massachusetts Cavalry, and batteries D and M, 
1st U. S., and E, 3d U. S. Artillery. 

83d Illinois Volunteers 

Reconnoitering party, commanded by Col. D. Stuart, 
T>5th Illinois Volunteers. 

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23d Iowa and 24th and 2"th Missouri Volunteers, 1st 
Missouri Militia, and 12th Missouri Cavalry. 

8th New Hampshire, 12th and 13th Connecticut, and 
75th New York Volunteers, 1st Louisiana Cavalry, 
and 1st Maine Battery, commanded by Brig. General 
G. Weitzel. 

One division of the Army of the Frontier, commanded 
by Brigadier General Herron. 


Illinois Artillery. 
7th Kentucky Volunteers 
1st Kansas Colored Troops (79th U. S. C. T.) 

1st New Jersey and 2d New York Cavalry, of General 
Bayard s Cavalry Brigade. Army of the Potomac. 


Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by 
General Pleasonton. 

Cavalry advance of the Army of the Potomac, com 
manded by General Pleasonton. 

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Bloomfield and Union, Loudo 
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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


advance of the Army of the Potomc 
ed by General Plcasonton. 

d 44th Massachusetts and 9th New Jcr 


s, and New York and Marine Batteries 
unboats Kinsman. Estclle. St. Marv. C 


iana, and ^Ist Indiana Volunteers. 
Gth Missouri Cavalry 

ouri and Sth Missouri Militia Cavalry.. 
Bii;radc. advanre of the Armvof the T 


anded by General Averill. 

Brigade, Army of the Potomac, com 
ueral Pleasonton. , 

tuckj- Cavalry 

Biiji dc. advance of the Armvof the P 


andod by Goneral Bayard. 

151st Illinois, 69th Ohio.l4th Michigan, 
ylvania Volurtecrs, and 5th Tennessee 
ylvauia Cavalry. 

Ambrose Powell s command . . . 


tucky Cavalry 
as Indian Home Guards . . 


aois and two companies Missouri Militia 
th Iowa and Dth Illinois Cavalry 

Bricade, Army of the Potomac, com 
ncral Bayard. 


sas and d Iowa Cavalry 
vna Cavalry 
York. T\iiir" old. and Wnshino-tor, Cav.n 


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uckv and 4th Michic an Cavalrv. . . 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXIII 



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Official. 

TJpiir.rt nf Aflint. int P.A-inr 


as Little Washington. 
Rebollion Record, /ol. V 
Newsnancr rnnort. 


c 
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Newspaper statement. 
Official. 
Official. 

OfTlPKll. 


c 
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- 
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fort. 
Rebellion Rcecrd, Vol. V 
Official. 


Newspaper report. 
Official Report of Major G 

Report of Adjutant Gcncr 
Official. 
Official Rcnortof Genera 


Official Report of Major ( 

Official Report of Brigadi 
Kewsnaner rer.ort. 


Uebcllioii Record, Vol VI 
Official. 


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Official. 












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and Cavalry, Army ol iho Potomac 
10 llh Pennsylvania Volunteers 

: il \ T niv York f!..iv.nlrv 


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.ilst Massachusetts Volunteers 
"d Missouri Cavalry and 21st Iowa Vo 
3.1 Kansas Indian Homo Guards 

MisKmn-i T-"..iiv.llr>,l Militin 


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5lh Brigade, Sill s Division, Army of 

1st Division, Army of tho Frontier, 
Brigadier General James G. I lunt. 

Portion of thr "d Division, Sixteenth 
od Pennsylvania Cavalry 
1st Tmli.-inn fluvnlrv 


Advance Cavalry of General Grant s A 
1st Cavalry Brigade, Staliel s Divisioi 
2d Division, Twelfth Corps 

11 tli Pr-nnKvlvrmi-i P-ivnlrv 


Slh Pennsylvania Cavalry 

"d MIL <itli Arissniiri n:iv;:)rv 


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92d Ohio Volunteers 


Larnar and Holly .Spi ings, Mississippi... 


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I ayou I onteccu, near Fort Pike, La 
Beaver Creek, Texas County, Missouri. . 
Camp Babeock, Arkansas 


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Summcrvillo, Mississippi 

n.irtlino-,. Arknrc-iu 


Scrougesville ar.d La Vergr.e, Tennessee. 

Cane Hill. Boston Mountains, and Boons- 
boro , Arkansas. 

Lit .lo Bear Creek, Alabama 
Hart wood Church, Virginia 

Pnl.l \Yntor T?ivor \1 : saiciniii 


Watcrford and Lumkiu s Mills, Mis.-i 

Staliel s reeonnoissano j to Snicker s 
Ferry, and Borryvillo, Virginia. 

Charleston and Berryville, Virginia 

KVnnl.li.1 Virc-i.iin 


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LXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 







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urg-ical Hist< 
Report of Ma 
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1 John Morg 


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p 


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(D T-( 




ION TROOPS ENGAG 


Divisions of the Army o 
by Brigadier Generals J 


.5 S 
so 

* 
S3 

1-1 c 

0,2 

C i* 
rt 

c5 


list Ohio, and 8th and 
nd 7th Indiana Battery. 


Ii Kansas, and 8 1st India 
lonsin Battery. 


O 
O 

fc: 

6 
>> 
f 

a 

V 

us 

c 


anded by General Ferry 


o 

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ide of Peck s Division, 
Divisou, Department ot J 


Major General Couch, an 
1 Wilcox Right Urand " 
nipr ; First Corps, Major 


sth Corps. Major General 
)ivision, Mnjor (General I 
General Butterfield. am 
il Stoi:e:nan Centre G: 
1 Hooker ; Army of the I 
i. Burnside. 


and 85th Pennsylvania 
ivalry, and 3d New York 


ade of Peck s Division a 
des, 1st Division, Depart 


V, 17th, 23d, 24th, and 4 
ers. 3d New York Cava! 
k Batteries. 


ffi "5 
_- > 

S6 
S 

,J<! 

S 
8 > : 


i Ohio, and 2d Tennessee 

d Sth Ohio Cavalry, am 
iteers. 




K 
& 


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lobbin s Ferry, T 


rentville, Tennef 


ittle Bear Creek, 


is 
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rt 

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renton, North Ca 


ranklin, Tenness< 


oster s expeditior 
Carolina. 


redericksburg, V 




Duth-West Creek 


ingston, North C; 


ort Brown Road, 
Whitehall, North i 


O 
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1 

S 

o 


exington, Tennei 
ickson, Tennesse 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXV 










I I 



* "B -5 o 






woo 



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111 II 






g a" 

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c" n 



LXVI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OK 



a ?: .2 .5 s .- S 



.=>.= -5 -2 3 5-5 




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iK 5 



O 



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e s s o 
o o o x 



ijnissij\[ 



5 -s n 






^ 



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Conn 
unteers 
usetts, 
un, Di 



h New York, 12 
21st Indiana Vo 
and fith Mass 
gunboats Cal 



va 
K 
val 



ont, 
i M 
na 
ine 
an, 



h V 
out, 
Lou 
1st 
Kin 



5 



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3 ^^ b 



ENGAGEMENTS AND RATTLES 



LXVII 



5 ^ t S I I = = 2 s 3 tp -|^ 

r a. s s = ~ s 3 ^ -= ~ r - e y - 




- w 



"a -5 -. -: -: -: 



^: 42 j 



LXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



: 



1 I 

o" S 

o 



ss .5 



= " 
O 



S 8 
O O 



popuno^V 






y = .B 



b I 5s 4 



m 
In 



lry 
o 

lin 



Cava 
W 



* (- 



l 
irt 



III 

1 E, - 

-c 5 "5 

a 2 Q 



=5 -s 



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tu .S ~ 



H ^ 






c c - 



v "* S3 

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55 < K 



C 4C fS 

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u 



o 53 .a 



t. u. Zi. u. 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXIX 



B 

O . 




&iL "Sit; 



E ^ 

*G 3 0> 

O O C4 



5 x 
o o> > 



O O 

8 



commanded by G 
ded by Admiral 



he 
d 
ei 



enth 
igadi 



th 
d 
im 

N 



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q=^ 



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een 
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an, 
te 

ri 
v 



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k 



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LXX 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





-= .- 


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- 




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s, command 


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UNION TROOPS ENGAGKL) 


127th and Ki5th New York, 9th Connecticu 
24th Maine, and Gth Michigan Volunteers 

Detachment of 22d Wisconsin and 19th Mi< 
unteers, commanded by Colonel Bloodgoc 

4th and (ith Kentucky, 9th Pennsylvania, an 
n an Cavalry, commanded by Brigadier 
C. Smith. 

Gunboat Diana, with detachments of the 
necticut and 160th New York Volunteers 

Four companies of the 13th West Virginia \ 
I4th .iti.l 24th Maine Volunteers 


6th Illinois Cavalry 

SHi Afnhi^ :mrl (itli nnniipnt;r.nt Vnlniitpora t 


S. Colored Troops (1st South Carolina). 

5th Pennsylvania Cavalry 
riil Knnsns Inrlinn Homn Hnnrfls 


Civilians, Missouri Militia, and contrabands 

3d Wisconsin Cavalry . 

1st Kentucky and 7th Ohio Cavalry, and 44 
Ohio Mounted Volunteers. 

One company of 13th West Virginia Volun 
maiidud by Captain J. D. Carter. 

C Jth Indiana Volunteers and a detachmen 
Illinois Cavalry. 

Troops commanded by Major General Foste 


One company of the 2d Missouri Militia Ca\ 

Detachments of the 1st Vermont and 5th 
Cavalry. 

One company of the 5th Kansas Cavalry . . . 

3d and 4th Ohio Cavalry, commanded b 
Stanley. 

1st Arkansas Cavalry, commanded by Ca 
Worthington. 

3d Iowa Cavalry. . . 




S -2 


, Z. 




c ; : : : 



















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a 


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= J ^ -d S ja ^= 




s s s s s i 


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S S 






ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXI 



= 3 






= 2 a 



= - 



Us 
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c - c "" 2 r" ^ 1 J 5 ^ -^ 







^ I 1 5 x < | ^ W ;J = 
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LXXTI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



H-t <O 



o-S 



o 5 

C[ M 

e c 



c-s 
o <c 

0) . 
fcl- 



*s JU I 



T Q T; - 



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(H jTri *~* 



6< 3 SA 






i : j > 

i^la 

S | ~ - C 5 

/. S -^ - 1 -s 5 

.2 - 
13 I &5 I^ * 

1-S S AaxS 






avalr 
Colon 



5 j; 5 c 5 f 
S ^ o .9 o ^ 



a -a - s g 

> o S 3 

o !d w C 



Deta 
Vo 



,2 S 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXIII 




6 

P.S-S 

3 2 



2_-c5 Sic- 5S""a/"g o js "o ti,~ 

>s5"SH5 S5iS3 3:)H 2 It g ~ -35" a 



JS a 
t; c 
2.2 



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Ml 



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S* : : : 










c 




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ii| i lies I, i 


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ifcf 1 all . 

stsnoos^^S =: 


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e 
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on, and Lafayett 
Potomac 


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1 1 "I S 

S 1 2 a . 

. to -3 ^ 
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c C C < IK 

t i; o 13^ & 
= <2 S .-5 


^^"~> 1 e w S ( " t *- 


V. 


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^ cr 


= a 


a 


2. M C c d 


^^.Bi>sSfl "H 

c^je. r --~o3<< ^1 
S0 o-c5 > r 

f 2 S I M "3 1 5* ^ 


Alexander, 
roop of the District o 


by Brigadier General 
ortion of the Sixteont 


General G. M. Dodge 
h Illinois Cavalrv... 


t Wisconsin Cavalry 


McNeil s forces, 
etarhments of the 10 


ginia, and Virginia M 
nnboats Louisville, C 


burg, Tuscumbia, Be 
irst Corns. Armv of tl 


\ Missouri and 1st low 


!l ^ s S 

>a - 1 >; 

"B u c x i e 

ri S S 5 *" 

M S oo<2 &< 
r^S c 5 - = 

s > i; 5 

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M t, C .S = H 
-3 .S X S ~ | J 

S-S ^6 SI | 


1-1 O f~ CJ M 


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10 



LXXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 







i-^Sfci-S c Sc-S2Scrs = =| 3 

sgs-gs IbJI-llia^lli* f 


: 


s 




1 .S 

- 


S 








J 


s ^ 


^ 1 & Ifa 


c 


c &, 




oc 


hHg. = S". .Sx aE ?^r .- " ^ ^ o 





* 


2 <" i> " -" 


^; > 






w 




(5 = K & ~ 2 S rs -5 * x - "S ^ """ ~ r ^5 =" 




JH c 


S g i- AT .f 3 

^-=3 2 S.= 


C3 _C 


1 s 




REMARKS AND REFERS: 


x2jS~.Sy| |B^^6 ;3 j;-" 12 "3 -^ ? 5 1 

l^o^l^l" |^^ .^151 1 |ia v 

Sili ! 

Sl B -i > i"J2 "" >.! *-r = cK- 2 ^ = 
00 tct3 a B. 5. 2 -; bl y- 2 ? a i-< a = S * 

rfPjil ItM^I^^Nl ^ 

lii^l^l ;sli|iti|5-Jf*l 5 

s -s E . C "3 "S .S S E ^ i? * *S 6 3 5" 


icial reports, Union and Confedera 
irinish rliirino- thp sip<rn of Suffolk. 


Hay 4. 
irmish during Griersou s raid, Apri 

rmish ^iirino- StAnprmm a rm rl Am 


rxirt of Adjutant General of Main 
detachment of Stoneman s raiding 

rmish during Straight s mid, Apri 

icial. 
:cial. Skirmish during siege of Sui 

cial. Skirmish during rant s cam 
ick.slmnr. Also designated Hank 


icial. Skirmish during Stoneman 


icial Report of Major General Jou 
official, 
sort of Adjutant General of Maine 






5 o P 


; o v. 


w y 


K OB O O C 


w * 


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o o 


CO 




n 




o : 


03 


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g 8 










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O 
















S 
















Q 


papunoAV 


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NGAGED. 


ifg Sg|4|lf i 

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^11 *l,.|.^ 8 


Ogcd 

* 5-2 1 

15 


c 

(5 

c 

,e 

Ck 

c 
t 


5 ^ ? 
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f II i 

l> C - J4 CD 05 

5 12 S f 

> , M tS SH o g 




1 i > 

^ i 1 
1 ^ 
1 E 5 




W 


* H, ^j C ^^ ^ "a 


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5O 








c3 C - _ x 5 








UNION TROOP 


Igii Ktiifs f \ 


uff. 

nessee. 1st Kentucky 
and 45th Ohio and 1 
y, commanded by Br 

ew York Volunteers,. 


nois Cavalry 
1 s finvnlrv Division i 


^ aj * 55 

i i * * i 

~ jjj f . 

-^ CC cs (ft 
" ti 5 M S "b. 

C3 CO ~ ^C ^ 

e, "^o ^ g g 
1 = ? 1 O 5 


> w York Cavalry 

11 inois rn.va.lrv 


s of the Depart t of V 
Missouri and 7th Kansa 

nd 24th Maine and 17 
2 1st New York Battel 






QJ 5^2 P - Si.^fic; .2. 


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n 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES 



LXXV 



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R. T. Jacobs. 

5th Kansas and 5th Illinois Cavalry, comi 
Colonel Powell Clayton. 

6th Tennessee Cavalry, commanded by Col 
M. Brcckenridcre. 


Thirteenth Corps, Major General J. A. M 
and Fifteenth Corps Major General W. 1 
of Major General Grunt s army. 

Seventeenth Corps, Mnjor General J. B. M 
of Major General Grant s army. 

Colonel Davis s command 

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Seventeenth Corps, Major General J. B. ] 
and Fifteenth Corps, Major General W. T 
of Major General Grant s arm) 7 . 


Expedition commanded by Colonel Davis.. 


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12th and 91st Ohio Volunteers and 2d We 
Cavalry. 

Detachments of the 2d Kansas Artillery and 
(79th U. S Colored Troops) Volunteers. 




































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3d Iowa Volunteers 

170th New York Volunteers fired into by their comrades. 

Thirteenth Corps, Major General J. A. McClernand, 
Fifteenth Corps, Major General W. T.Sherman, and 
Seventeenth Corps, Major General J. 15. Mcl herson, 
commanded by Major General Grant, IT. S. A., as 
sisted by the navy on the Mississippi Kiver, com 
manded by Admiral Porter. After the assault, Lau- 
man s division, Smith s and Kimball s divisions of 
the Sixteenth Corps, two divisions of the Ninth 
Corps, Major General J. G. Parke, and a division 
from the Department of the Missouri, Major General 
F. J. Herron, were added to the besieging forces. 

Detachment of Cavalry from Milroy s command 
25th Missouri Volunteers... 


Oth Kansas and 3d Wisconsin Cavalry, and 1st, 2d, 
and 3d Kansas Indian Home Guards. 

Armv of Tennessse.-. 


8th Illinois Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
D. R. Clendenin. 

4th Michigan, 3d Indiana, 7th Pennsylvania, 3d and 
4th Ohio, and 4th U. S. Cavalry, and 39th Indiana 
Mounted Infantry, commanded by Major General 
Stanley. 

1st Division, Auger s, Nineteenth Corps 


58th Pennsylvania and 5th, 25th, 27th, and 46th Massa 
chusetts Volunteers, and Bogg s Battery, commanded 
by Colonel J. R. Jones, 58th Pennsylvania Vols. 

58th Pennsylvania and 4(ith Massachusetts Volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel J. R. Jones. 

Mississippi Marine Brigade of Cavalry and Infantry 


3d Iowa and 5th Kansas Cavalrv. . . 


41st Massachusetts Volunteers and several other regi 
ments, commanded by Colonel Chickering. 

3d Illinois Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Lafayette 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXVII 



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by Captain Gray. 

5th Indiana Volunteers and 7th Kentucky Caval 
commanded by Colonel J. P. Baird, 85th India 
Volunteers, and the 4th and 6th Kentucky, 9th Pci 
sylvania, and 2d Michigan Cavalry, 1st Brigu 
General Granger s Cavalry Division. 


3th New Jersey and 5th Vermont Volunteers, and If 
and 50th New York Engineers, supported by t 
Sixth Corps. 

d and 8th Indiana Cavalry, commanded by Coloi 
Thomas J. Harrison. 


7th Pennsylvania Volunteers 

th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery (9th Louisian 
49th U. S. Colored Troops (llth Louisiana), 51st U 
Colored Troops (1st Mississippi), and 2 3d Iowa V 
unteers, commanded by Colonel H. Leib, 5th U. 
Colored Heavy Artillery. 

rl Now Vork Artillprv .. 


d and 7th Ohio and 1st Kentucky Cavalry, and 4f 
Ohio and Jd Tennessee Mounted Infantry, co 
manded by Colonel A. V. Kautz, 2d Ohio Cavulrj 




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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


2d, 3d, and 7th Wisconsin, 2d and 33d Massachusetts, 
6th Maine, and 86th and 104th New York Volunteers; 
1st, 2d, 5th, and 6th U. S., 2d, (ith, 8th, 9th and 10th 
New York, 1st Maryland, 8th Illinois, 3d Indiana, 
1st New Jersey, 1st, (ith, and 17th Pennsylvania, 1st 
Maine, and 3d West Virginia Cavalry, Brigadier 
Generals Gregg s and Buford s Cavalry Divisions, 
Army of the Potomac. 

General Mitchell s Cavalry Division 


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by Colonel Sanders. 

Arnnr nf tV,o Ctiilf 


6th Michigan Cavalry 

13th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 87th Pennsylvania Volun 
teers, and Battery L, 5tli Artillery. 

1st Brigade, Milroy s Division, commanded by Colonel 
I.IcReynolds. 

2d, 67th, and 87th Pennsylvania, 18th Connecticut. 
12th West Virginia, 110th, 116th. 122d, and 123d 
Ohio, and 3d, 5th, and 6th Maryland Volunteers; 
12th and 13th Pennsylvania, 1st New York, and 1st 
and 3d West Virginia Cavalry ; Battery L, 5th U. S. 
Artillery, 1st West Virginia Battery, Baltimore Bat 
tery, and one company 14th Massachusetts Heavy 
Artillery, of the 2d Division, Eighth Corps. 

Kentucky Provost Guard 

106th New York and 126th Ohio Volunteers, and West 
Virginia Battery, 3d Brigade, 2d Division. Eighth 
Corps, commanded by Brigadier General Tyler. 


General Mower s Brigade and Eliot s Mississippi Ma 
rine Brig ado. 

imii onrl 14*Vi TTo.itiinVir nr.rl 7tli nnrl OtVi AT if liirrnn 


Cavalry, 15th Michigan Volunteers, and llth Michi 
gan Battery, commanded by Colonel De Courcey. 

One company of the 1 st New Mexico Cavalry 


2d and 4th New York, 6th Ohio, 1st Massachusetts, 1st 
Maine, and 1st Rhode Island Cavalry, commanded 
by Colonel Kilpatrick. 

Two companies of the 9tb Kansas Volunteers 












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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXIX 



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= 1 J lit, IPlll Jl Isl : I 


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. S. ironclad Weehawken 


ome Guards, commanded 

t Maine, 3d, 4th, and lOtl 
Pennsylvania, and u th Oh 

h Illinois Mounted Ini antr 


t New York Cavalry 
etachment of the 1st New 


g -Si 2 SS-eS 5 
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g -H S g S ~. = =5 b i! <! ^ ="C &< C 

S-s : Ell 53* I ll- .S "15s ^ t 

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fit 1 -3- ^2o5 i Q a ^j I r 
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wentieth Corps, Major Ge 
tho Army of the Cumberl 


t> 


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i; 

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r-l (M 



LXXX 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



5 1 



M -2 










Ca 
nte 



!> 8 * 



noi 
rp 



h Penn 
12th Illi 



fe . 1 

OB o 

"f, O kyl 

"I, ^ 



he Army of t 
General Grang 



5j 

>..s c 

I- C-0 
"cc &*"5s 

gg-p 
o 



C gl 

ij 

-^ 

4- C 

C S 
<U j,p 
f~. WL 



and 
n, as 



aine V 
ajor J. 



r 5 c .2>C 
I^CJJ 

O ^ L- 















ow 



<M . 

^ 

B !- 

O O 
P 

-2 ? 

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c PS 






5 i*^ -zi 

IIo^ .s 






P- ST 

f!f J 






o E 



H K 

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E O 

a . o 

<.S o 

i | 

o ^*" "a 

</2 P3 

J3 ^3 



If 



~ a 

a a 

w o 

C Q 



EH O 



ENGAGEMENTS AND RATTLES. 



LXXXI 



J, a c T-; a o o 
"ESScS S S 
a g g - 




ral of Michigan, IB 
ed Tebb s J?end. M 



M 

at: 

Cs2 



50 

^."3 



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a "3 lit 

r : : 1 


| 1 ! I 

1 1 i 


11 J -S t> 
b "3 "5 


st; | 

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it li lit I ^ 


Hobsoii. 
Portion rvf thp Sovpiitppiith Corns.. 


c 

- I 

,C 

c 
? 

* 

1 



D 

5 
f 

? 


Cavalry, 1st Kansas (79th U. S. C. 1 
Indian Home Guards. 

Portion of the Fourth Corps, comm 
General Keyes. 

Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland . . 
5th Pennsylvania Cavalry 
10th \Vnst Viro-inia Volunteers nnd 


Virginia Artillery, commanded by 
Harris. 

1st and 9th Kentucky Cavalry and 24tl 
2d Rhode Island Cavalry 
6th U. S. Cavalry 


Mounted Volunteers. 

Cth Kentucky Cavalry, commanded 
Watkins. 

Five companies of the 25th Michigan 
manded by Colonel O. H. Moore. 

Nationals, commanded by Major Gen 
man. 


One division of the Sixteenth Corps 
Major General B. M. Prentiss, assis 
gunboat Tyler. 

M Hnvnlrv Division. Kilnatrink s. Arn 


ors ^x5 :4> ^ s cL 
gg S-gxS x ^^ ^ 
2 g >| p|| . ^* 
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j 1 i| |{|| i || 

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, 














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111 

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3 ;a | |3 | 


a 

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1 1 1 1 1 IF 

x _; CH c? ~ 



1.1 



LXXXII 



CHROKOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



Z-6 




^-- ^_r3 a 



ft r-. 



O rH 



2 S 

d s 

O 
C .3 



teers 
nera 



Iowa and 48th Il 
roops commanded 



h M 
olo 



s a 

o c 

1 

BO 
>> 

^^ 



CO 

.2 o, 



aa 



gl 

E.a 

II 



Ma 
gadi 



any of the 30th I 
in Loomis. 

me Brigade a 
commanded 



S3 a 
: ^ s 



One 
b 



A 
K 

di 




OJ-Sj 

I? -, 



O o 

JD 

fe a 



-g 



Z 



H 
F 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXX1II 



b~ 


TO _ 


C; 


c 


g 


S 


S 




in 


S % 


% 




<r = 


M 


aj 


^ 


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|| 


3 
O 
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d 


II 


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1 


oc 


3 


-7 

CO 


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f I 


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O_; 


a 


o" 


o 




if 


15 


d 

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o 


1 


o 
a: 


- 


g" 5 


St5 


S 


c 3 

s 


S: r 


o 


<4H 

C 


g 


e*H 


f Colonel Ha 
2d Brigade 


nt General o 
10 designated 


s rioters wert 


to intercept 
ring took pla 


!"-> 


o 

S 
C 

J3 


S 
g 
O 


e Confederal 


int General ( 


c 


*B< 


A 


bcw 
So 


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.(5 


-5 


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O 30 


o 

8 


= 


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1J ""S S -3 


3 


| 


tH 


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ill 


5 -g a 5 

o c. c 


O 

c. 

o 


Evaciu 


I 

5. 

. 



a- 
o 



B . 
eg 



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LO OJ 


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g 




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o 








o 

o 

10 




55 




O O TO 


1 1 




8 


*> 


E 


S ci 







co c; o c 






S 




- 




3d Michigan, 2d Iowa, and 1st Tennessee Cavalry, and 

9th Illinois Volunteers. 

T>,,Ww>A j r>f Wnitvnl e n,iH firni-pr s .livisinns of thp 


Nineteenth Corps. 


105th Indiana Minute Men 

3d Cavalry Division of the Army of the Potomac, com 
manded by Brigadier General Kilpatrick. 

Advance of the Fourteenth Corps, Major General G. 
II. Thomas, Army of the Cumberland, Major Gen. 
W. S. Itosecrans. 

2d West Virginia Cavalry 

let Pr.rmpntir.nt f nx-nlrv 


od Ohio and 5th Tennessee Cavalry 

IGth Pennsylvania and 1st Maine Cavalry, commanded 
by Colonel Gregg, 1st Maine Cavalry. 


1st, 4th, and IGth Pennsylvania, 1st Maine, and 10th 
New York Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Gregg, 
1st Maine Cavalry. 


2d, 6th, and 9th Kansas Cavalry, 2d and 3d Kansas 
Batteries, find 2d and 3d Kansas Indian Home Guards, 
commanded by Major General Blunt. 

TVirtior, nf rJonoriil Shormfin s trnrms 


t 

: 
( 

C 

~\ 

- 

\ 

*> 
1 

I 


1 

: 


54th Massachusetts (colored), fith Connecticut, 48th and 
100th Ne\v York, 3d and 7th New Hampshire, 76th 
Pennsylvania, 9th Maine, and (>2d and 07 th Ohio Vol 
unteers. 

34th Ohio Volunteers and 1st and 2d West Virginia 
Cavalry, commanded by Colonel John T. Toland, 
34th Ohio Volunteers. 

2d Wisconsin, 5th Illinois, and 3d and 4th Iowa Cav- 


alrv ; 7otn unio, a,)tn ana Jlst Jowa, ana Ja. J.jth, 
and 17th Missouri Volunteers, and a battery of artil 
lery. 

3d and 12th New York and 1st North Carolina Cavalry, 
commanded by Brigadier General Potter. 

1st, 3d, 8th, 9th, llth, and 12th Kentucky, 8th, 9th and 
12th Michigan, 2d and 7th Ohio, and 5th Indiana Cav- 
alrv, 45th Ohio and 2d Tennessee Mounted Infantry, 
commanded by Brig.Generals Hobson and Shackle- 
ford, and militia and Union gunboats. 
















~ . . 












1 c 

C 


: ffl 

> H 




s 




c 

3 










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: 5 




^ . 


I*, 






1 C 

: "t 




: C 


M 




C : 

to 


2 






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c 


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: M 




2 


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, 










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"j a ", 


- < 




e S 



.5 a 2 



~ " 



r V 

*- B. 

- < B 

"23 S 

C3^ 3 

K M 



LXXXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 






2 a S 
2 M 
si* x 






o.,: 
- o 
c ts 

o s 

lo 

= 

-- J 
S3 
OjC-l 






x g 
X C 



3 






eS 
c 



papuno^Y 



O I! CO 



1! I 



rt 



l 






ota 
teer 









d 
a 



-3 

5<< 



z>& v 
sSO 



S * C 

2Sw 









s 






ssf 

-u~?3 






^ ^J 



7 2 S c 

Q -gi3& 

5 fc. P 









O *C 



* 2 



- 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXXV 



< 



i .S o 



a 3 K.5 



O 5 



i 23 

o u 



5 
C 















o 


f 













i s 













*- 


! - 







: : : 








o 






C! 





M 






: : 


) 












e, 


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o 




s 




c 


S 


- 




" 


I! C 


> C" 

r- 


5 t~ CJ 

-i 


CJ 


Cf 


* 







1 






N 


e* 


3 r-t 


3 ,-H 

H t 1 


Cl 


: : 




a A a 







t 




3 J 











a i j 






.S Ji 














! S. 








i 3 S 






- 




5 C 




o C 


3 2 


s 


F a ^ ; 




S _"c 


*"" T S ^ 


1 


e 






5 s 






5 i- S 


o 


"P."^ 5 


1 

1 
1 

\ 1 

I i 

* 
: 

I C 
\ j 

2 ~* 
" t*. 

C 

2 j 

- i 

H *" 

L ^ 

- T 

I I 


3d, 4th, 9th, and llth Illinois, 3d Michigan, 
Iowa Cavalry, and 9th Illinois Volunteer 
uianded by Colonel Phillips, 9th Illinois Voli 

i;tl, ATi^cnnri AfHitin fVivnlri- 


Union gunboats Lexington, Cricket, and Marin 
the 3~d Iowa Volunteers. 

1st New York Mounted Rifles and llth Penns 
Cavalry, commanded by Colonel B. F. Onde 


) 

J 

1 
1 



1 

\ 

) 

t 

4 


- 
C 
C 

1 

t 

Q 

c 

*< 

( 

C 
I 

C 

h- 

<* 
1 

f 

3 


by Colonel E. F. VVinslow, 4th Iowa Cavalr_ 

\,;iln,.,, .it Tirn .nr nT,o^ol nnoonpn.ii; nyniiT 


2d Massachusetts Cavalry, commanded by 
Lowell. 


Potomac. 

Detaclnnent of the 5th Missouri Militia Cavaln 


Davidson s Cavalry Division, Department of M 

Gth Missouri Militia, 3d Wisconsin and 2d Kans 
airy, and 2cl Indiana Battery. 


airy, and 3d and 8th West Virginia Voluntet 
Troops commanded by Major General Q. A. Gi 
5th Heavy Artillery (U. S. Colored Troops)... 


Davidson s Cavalry Division, Department of 1 
souri. 

,1*1, V,lf,l/lV.T f oTolr^T 


1st New York Mounted Rifles and 5th Penns 
Cavalry, commanded by Colonel B. F. Onde 

Davidson s Cavalry Division, Department of t 
souri. 

Rice s Division, Department of Arkansas 














cT 




: 





















3 






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K 


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= 




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3 

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s a-= 

= E-i-2 - 

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3 , a 
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2| ^ | > 

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br- 

S C S , 3 

<! a -5 < 



LXXXVT 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 

























S 


g 


s . 






3 2 

03 


















g 




C X 






( 
























CO 




1 























^ 







r- * 

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: 
PJ 


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W 
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JD S JH t C 

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n 


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a 


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OH 


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PI 
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W 

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: c= S S ^ T 

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a 





UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


1 

1 

- 
.- 
c 

1 

< 

~- 
- 
V 
d 
C 
_c 
-; 

5 
a 

- 

. 

c 

i 

" 
( 

< 

f. 


Major John Cryor. 

1st Arkansas Volunteers, fith Missouri Militia, 2d Kan 
sas Cavalry, and 2d Indiana Battery. 

2d Nebraska, 6th Iowa, and one company of the 7th 
Iowa Cavalry. 

Five companies of the 100th Ohio Volunteers 


" 1 
I 

j j 

1 ^ 
^ 1 

.j J 

> 1 

"w j 
! c! 


Major General Q. A. Gillmore s troops and the U. S. 
Navy. 

2d Missouri Cavalry 

Davidson s Cavalry Division, Department of the Mis 
souri. 

9d Rrio-nrin 2d Division Thirteenth Horns 




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commanded by Major General Franklin. 

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Army of the Ohio, Major General A. E. Burnside. 

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2d Kansas Cavalry and 2d Indiana Battery, commanded 
by Colonel Cloud. 

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Troops of the Department of Arkansas, Major General 
Stecle, and Cavalry Division of the Department of 
Missouri, General Davidson. 

lltli Kenturkv Mounted Volunteers, commanded bv 


Colonel Love. 
Army of the Ohio, Major General Burnsido 

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Army of the Cumberland. 
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Burnside s forces, com 

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3d Brigade, Cavalry Di 
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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXXIX 



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32d Iowa Volunteers 
70th Indiana Volunteers 

1st Division, Buford s. Cavalrv Corps. Army of the 


O 



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5th Kansas and 1st Indiana Cavalrv 
1st Kansas Indian Home Guards and 2d Indiana Bat 


tery. 

1st Division, Fifteenth Corps, commanded by Major 
General Osterhaus. 


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G. E. Spencer. 

Detachments from the 5th, fith, and 23d Kentucky 
1st, (ith, 41st, 93d, and 124th Ohio, and 6th Indian; 
Volunteers, of the 2d Brigade, Hazen s, 3d Division 
Fourth Corps, Army of the Cumberland. 

Eleventh Corps, Major General O. O. Howard, and 2c 
Division, Geary s, Twelfth Corps, commanded by 
Major General Joseph Hooker. 

3d Wisconsin Cavalry 


llth and 37th Kentucky and 112th Illinois Volunteers . 
1st Division of the Fifteentll Corps, commanded bv 


Major General Osterhaus. 


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Troops of the Thirteenth Corps, commanded bv Brio- 


General N. J. T. Dana. 
A mixed command, under Lieutenant Colonel Scullv 


lUth Tennessee Volunteers. 

3d Division, MeGinnis , and 4th Division, Burbridge s 
of the Thirteenth Corps, commanded by Major Gen 
C. C. "Washburn. 

Cavalry Brigade, Sixteenth Corps, commanded by Col 
Hatch, 2d Iowa Cavalry. 

14th Michigan Mounted Infantry 

Cavalry Brigade, Sixteenth Corps, commanded by Col 
Hatch. 2d Iowa Cavalry. 

Cavalrv of the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Gen 
Sanders. 

t Killed 


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New Madrid Bend, Tennessee 
Supply train, Tullahoma, Tennes 
Bealton and Kappahannock Bridsr 


S weetwater, Tennessee 
Colliersville. Tennessee... 


Pine Bluff, Arkansas 
Creek Agency, Indian Territory. 


Cane Creek, Alabama 

Philadelphia. Tennessee... 


Vincent s Cross Roads, Tisha 


f | 

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Leiper s Ferry, Tennessee 
Cherokee Station, Alabama . . 


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Favettcville. Tennessee 


Brazios De Santiago, Texas... 


Centreville and Pinev Factory, T 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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papuno^V 



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comm 
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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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the Cumberland 


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33d 1 . S. Colored 
manded by Caj)t 


31st Massachusetts 
Battery, comma 


1st Tennessee an 
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Alabama and Ten 
tain Brixby. 


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UNION TROOPS EN 


Johnson s Division, Fourteenth 
Division, Fit teentll Corps; and 
Twelfth Corps. 

2d Brigade. 2d Cavalry Division, 
Eli Long. 

8fh and 18th Indiana, 33d and 
34th Iowa, and 13th and 15th Mi 
Michigan and Co. F, 1st Missov 
of the 1st and 2d Divisions, Thir 

(ith Illinois Pavnlrv... 


Army of the Ohio Major General 
1-lth Kentnekv Volunteers 


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1 1-g |5 1 5| ; | | | 1 fill |^ ^ ^ 1 

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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



XCVII 



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Detachment of the 14th Illinois Cavalry, commanded 
by Major Davis. 

2d Missouri Militia Cavalry 

11<tn> Tllinnia Vnliintoora 


Detachment of the 7th Indiana Cavalry 

Reconnoissance by a part of the Second Corps, Army 
of the Potomac. 

1st Division Cavalry, Army of the Potomac, com 
manded by Brigadier General Merritt. 

6th U. S. Heavy Artillery (3d Mississippi), 64th U. S. 
Colored Troops (7th Louisiana), and 30th Missouri 
Volunteers. 

Cavalry of Major General Sherman s forces 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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commanded by Colonel E. F. Winslow, 4th I 
Cavulry. 

51st U. S. Colored Troops fist Mississippi 1 )... 


Occupied bv Maior General Sherman s forces... 


40th Massachusetts Volunteers, commanded by Cap 
G. E. Marshall. 

13th Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded bv Maior J 


Larrimer, 5th Pennsylvania Reserves. 

49th IT. S. Colored Troops (llth Louisiana) and 
gunboat Forest Rose. 

32d Wisconsin Volunteers and an Indiana rceiment 


Portion of the Seventeenth Corps 
4th Wisconsin Cavalrv . . . 


llth Missouri Cavalry and 4th Arkansas Infan 
commanded by Captain Wm. Castle, llth Miss 
Cavalry. 

4th Tennessee Volunteers 

47th, 48th, and 115th New York, 7th Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, and 40th Massachusetts Voluntf 
1st Massachusetts Cavalry, 54th Massachusetts 
ored Troops, 1st North Carolinu Colored Troops 
IT. S. Colored Troops, 1st and 3d U. S. Artillery, 
3d Rhode Island Artillery. 




Two companies of the 34th Kentucky Infantrv. . 


One company of the 91st Indiana Volunteers. . . 


9th Tennessee Cavalry 

Brigadier Generals W. S. Smith s and B. F. Griers 
Cavalry Divisions. 

Detachment of the 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, c 
manded by Captain J. S. Reed. 

1st Mississippi Marino Brijrade (Missouri Voluntee 


85th Pennsylvania and 4th New Hampshire Volunt 
Detachment o the 5th Tennessee Cavalry 


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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


5th Tennessee Cavalry 

Foraging detachments, one of the 3d Iowa i 
of the 32d Iowa Volunteers. 

Fourth and Fourteenth Corps and Cavalry C 
of the Cumberland. 

Division of cavalry, Army of the Potomac. 

7th Tfinnpssep finvnlrv . 


3d U. S. Colored Cavalry (1st Mississippi)-. 


6th New York Cavalry 

1st, 2d, 5th, and 6th U. S., 6th Pennsylvani 
York, and 1st New Jersey Cavalry, comi 
Brigadier General Custer. 

Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac 
Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac 

2d New York Cavalry, commanded by Co 
Dahlgien. 

Mississippi squadron, commanded by Re 
Porter. 

7tVi Miphin-sm nml 1st. Vprmont Tiiv-llrv __ 


Cavalry and infantry of the Mississippi Mari 
One company of the 3d Tennessee 

3d U. S. Colored Cavalry (1st Mississippi), 
Colored Troops (8th Louisiana), and the 1 
Volunteers, commanded by Colonel J. H. 
Illinois Volunteers. 

MiasUcinn; Afnrinp T5rio-:ulp 


c 

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Troops of the Army of the Tennessee, com 
Brigadier General Dodge. 

9,1 TT S Pnlnro^ Pm-alr-ir nmmnmlil Viv 


W. Cole. 
1st New York Veteran Cavalrv. . . 






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Yazoo City, Misi 

Tiorno Xnrtli Cn 


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7th Tennessee Cavalry, commander 
Colonel J. R. Hawkins. 


16th Kentuckv Cavalry, 13Gd Illinois 1 
II. S. Colored Heavy Artillery (1st 
matided by Colonel S. G. Hicks, 401 


5th Kansas and 7th Missouri Cavalry, 
sin Volunteers, commanded by Col. 


2d Kansas Cavalry 

Advance cavalry, Seventh Corps, Ma_ 
Steele, commanding. 


Portion of the 54th Illinois Volunteers 
Colonel G. M. Mitchell. 


Cth Tennessee Cavalry 

7th Missouri and 5th Kansas Cavalry, i 
sin Volunteers, commanded by Col. 


Detachment of the 118th Illinois Volu 


Cavalry of the 19th Corps, command 
General A. L. Lee. 


3d U. S. Colored Cavalry (1st Mississi 


Patrol of the 1st Connecticut Cavalry 
3d Minnesota Volunteers and 8th Miss 
















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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CIII 



isualty List, File A, No. 279, S. G. O. Official 
Report of Major General N. P. Banks, command 
ing Army of the Red Kiver expedition. Appen 
dix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History ot 
the War, page 335. 

eport of Adjutant General of Iowa, 1864, p. 1201. 
Official reports. Casualty List, S. G. O. An en 
gagement during Steeles campaign in Arkansas, 
co-operating with Banks Red River expedition. 

nsn.iltv List. S. G. O. 


fficial Report of the U. S. Senate investigating 
committee. Official Report of Major General 
N. B. Forrest, commanding Confederates. 

fficial. 


ficial Report of Major General N. P. Banks, com 
manding Red River expedition. Also desig 
nated Blair s Landing. The Confederate Gen. 
Thomas Green was killed. 

ffioial. 


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asualtvList. S.G.O. Ensracrement duriner Steele s 


campaign in Arkansas. 

eport of Adjutant General of Kentucky, Vol. 11, 
page 425. 

eport of Adjutant General of Massachusetts, 
186 4, page 646. Also designated Cherry Grove. 

eport of Adjutant General of Kentucky, Vol. II, 
page 425. 

kirmish duiintr Steele s camnaijrn in Arkansas. 


kirmish during Steele s Arkansas campaign. Re 
port of Adjutant General of Iowa, 18ti4, p. 1181*. 

usually List, S. G. O., File A, 619. General F. 
Steele s forces, co-operating with Major General 
Banks Red River expedition. 

eport of Adjutant General of Arkansas. 


(ficial. 

fficial Report of Major General John J. Peck. In- 
ludes the engBgements at Forts Gray, Wessels, 
and Williams. Lieutenant Commander C. \V. 
Flusser, U. S. N., was killed. 


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Cavalry Division, commanded by Brigadier General 
A. L. Lee ; 1st and 3d Divisions, Sixteenth Corps, 
commanded by Brigadier General A. J. Smith; and 
1st Division, Nineteenth Corps, commanded by Major 
General Franklin. 

1st Arkansas, 18th, 29th, 33d, 36th, and 40th Iowa, 50th 
Indiana, 43d Illinois, 27th Wisconsin, and 12th Kan 
sas Volunteers ; <!d and 3d Missouri, 13th Illinois, 2d, 
. 6th, and 14th Kansas, and 1st Iowa Cavalry, and 
Battery A, 3d Illinois and 2d Indiana Artillery, 3d 
Division, Seventh Corps. 


llth U. S. Colored Troops (also designated 6th U. S. 
Colored Heavy Artillery and 1st Alabama), Battery 
F, 2d U. S. Colored Light Artillery, and Bradford s 
Battalion of 13th Tennessee Cavalry, about 600 
men. 

Tr.. n nn ^OT^oa nf *>,<> 1^ C<r.lro^r, fo^dlr^ 


Ironclads Osage and Lexington, of the Mississippi 
squadron, Rear-Admiral Porter commanding, and 
troops of the Seventeenth Corps on transports, T. 
Kilby Smith, commanding. 


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Kansas Cavalry, rear-guard of the 3d Division of 
the Seventh Corps. 

Kentucky Volunteers, commanded by Colonel G. W. 
Gallup, 14th Kentucky. 

9th New Jersey, 23d and 25th Massachusetts, and 118th 
New York Volunteers. 

Kentucky Volunteers, commanded by Colonel G. W. 
Gallup, 14th Kentucky. 

Mh TTnncno ftnvnlrv 


13th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

29th Iowa, 50th Indiana and 9th Wisconsin Volunteers, 
advance of the 3d Division, Seventh Corps. 

Advance of the Seventh Corps 

O,l Arl-nncoc riai nlrir 


* 
3d Kansas Indian Home Guards 

85th New York, 103d Pennsylvania, and 16th Connecti 
cut Volunteers, commanded by Brigadier General 
H. W. Wessells, assisted by the Navy under Lieut. 
Commander Flusser. 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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s Red River expedition. 
Brigadier General S. A. , 
oortally wounded. 


of Adjutant General of Mass 
749. 


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iment during the return of 
s Ked River expedition. 


the War, Vol. 2, page 482. 
t General of Rhode Island, . 


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77th Ohio, 4th, IPth, 29th, 33d, 36th, and 40th Iowa, 
1st Arkansas, 12th Kansas, 9th and 27th Wisconsin, 
and 43d Illinois Volunteers; 79th (1st Kansas) and 
83d (2d Kansas) U. S. Colored Troops ; Battery A, 
3d Illinois and 2cl Indiana Battery; and 1st Iowa, 2d, 
6th and 14th Kansas, 1st and 2d Missouri, and 13th 
Illinois Cavalry, composing 3d Division of the 
Seventh Corps. 

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Cavalry of the Nineteenth Corps 

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Portions of the cavalry of the Thirteenth and Nine 
teenth Corps. 

7th Kansas Cavalry 

Foraging expedition, composed of the 83d Ohio Volun 
teers and the 3d Rhode Island Cavalry, of Major 
General Banks forces. 

One company of ths 1st Colorado Cavalry 
Cavalry, commanded by General S. D. Sturgis 

1st Division Cavalry, McCook s, Army of the Cum 
berland. 

dtl, \Viannnsin Hnvnlrv 


120th Ohio Volunteers and 73d U. S. Colored Troops. .. 

2d Arkansas Cavalry 

Detachment of the 5th California Volunteers and 1st 
California Cavalry. 

3d U. S. Colored Cavalry, llth, 72d, and 76th Illinois 
Volunteers, 5th Illinois Cavalry, and 7th Ohio Bat 
tery, Brigadier General McArthur, commanding. 

r ,t>, or,rl 11th Ppiiiiu vlvnnin 3<1 NPW Vnrlr nnil 1st 


District of Columbia Cavalry, and 8th New York 
Dattery, Cavalry Division, Army of the James. 

U. S. gunboats Ceres, Commodore Hull. Mattabesett, 
Passacus, Seymour, Wyalusing, Miami, and White- 
head, commanded by Captain Melauchthon Smith. 

U. S. steamer Covington, gunboat Signal, and trans 
port Warner, with the 50th Ohio Volunteers on 
board. 

Cavalry Division, Army of the James, Brig. General 
Kautz. 

3d Division Cavalry. Wilson s, Army of the Potomac.. 


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CVI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



K 

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2 



Hicial Report of Lieutenant General U. S. Grant, 
( asualty List, S. G. O. Appendix to Part I, 
Medical and Surgical History of the War, p. 149. 
Among the casualties in the Union army were 
Brigadier Generals James S. Wadsworth, Alex. 
Hays, and A. S.Webb, killed, and Brig. Generals 
Getty and Carroll, wounded; in the Confeder 
ate army, Generals J. M. Jones and Pickett, 
killed, and Generals Longstreet, Pegram, Staf- 
ord, Hunter, and Jennings, wounded. 

eludes the engagements at Tunnel Hill, Mill 
Creek Gap, Buzzard Roost. Snake Creek Gap, 
and near Dalton. Official Report of Major (Jon. 
W. T. Sherman, TJ. S. V., and Lieut. General 
J. E. Johnston, C. S. A. Casualty List, S. G. O. 
Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical His 
tory of the War, page 2St9. 

- 


Hicial rejiort. 


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ngagement during the retum of Banks Red 
River expedition. 


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ist of casualties, S. G. O. Included in Spotteyl- 
vauia. 


ppendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
of the War, page 149. Casualty List, S. G. O. 
Includes the engagements on the Fredericksbllrg 
Road, Laurel Hill, and Ny River. Among the 
casualties in the Union army were Major Gen. J. 
Sedgwiek, Brigadier Generals J. C. Rice, J. J. 
Owens, and T. G. Stevenson, killed; Brigadier 
(Jenerals Robertson, Bartlett. Morris, and Bax 
ter, wounded. Of the Confederates, Generals 
Daniels and Perrin were killed, Hayes and 
Walker, wounded, and Major Gen. Ed. Johnson 
and Brigadier General G. 11. Stewart, captured. 





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UNION TROOPS E 


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unboat Commodore Jones 


dvance of General (. rook s eon 

th, 72d, and 7Gth Illinois Vcili 
Batteiy, commanded by Genei 


ortion of the Tenth and Eighl 
the James, Major General 15. F 


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ourlh Corps, Major General O. 
airy, Army of the Cumberland 


wentiefh Corps, Major General 
of the Cumberland, Major Gei 


h and llth Pennsylvania, 3d N 
trict Columbia Cavalry, and 8 
commanded by Brigadier Gem 


[ Division. Cavalry Corps, Brig 
Army of the Potomac. 


econd Corps, Major General A 
Corps, Major General G. K. A 
Major General H. (J. Wright 
General A. E. Burnside ; and 
General P. II. Sheridan, A 
Major General G. G. Meade. 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CVII 



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George Crook, 
j. O. General 
Confederates. 


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Cavalry of the Army of West Virginia, Brigc 
General W. W. Averill, commanding. 

Fourth Corps, Major General O. O. Howard, and 
airy. Army of the Cumberland, Major Gen. Tho 


Fifteenth Corps. Major General John A. Logan, A 
of the Tennessee, Major General McPherson. 

Twentv-tliird Corps, Army of the Ohio, Maior Gei 
Sehoiield. 


1st Division. Merritt s. and 2d Division, Gregg s, 
airy Corps, Major General Sheridan s, Army o 
Potomac. 

llth Pennsylvania and 8th New York Battery, 
mauded by Colonel S. B. Spear. 


3d New York and 1st District Columbia Cavalry, 
8th Now York Battery, of the Army of the Jam 

1st Division. MeCook s. Cavalry of the Army o 


Cumberland. 

tith Ohio and 1st New Jersey, holding the rear o 
cavalry on Sheridan s raid. 


Tenth Corps, Major General Q. A. Gilhnore, and E 
Dentil Corps. Major General W. F. Smith, Am 
the James, Major General B. F. Butler. 


12th, 23d, 3fitli, and 34th Ohio, 9th, llth, 14th, and 
West Virginia Volunteers, and 3d and 4th Peni 
vauia Iveserves, of the Army of West Virginia. 


]4th Pennsylvania, 1st. 2d. and 3d West Virginia, 
34th Ohio Mounted Volunteers. 

1st Division, Merritt s, Cavalry Corps, Major Gei 
Sheridan, of the Army of the Potomac. 


1st Division, Merritt s, Cavalry Corps, Major Gei 
Sheridan, of the Army of the Potomac. 

(ith Kansas Cavalry 


1st Massachusetts Cavalry of the 2d Division, Ore 
Cavalry Corps. 


1st Division, Brig. General Merriit, and 3d Divi 
Brig. General Wilson, Cavalry Corps, Major Gei 
Sheridan, Annv of the Potomac. 

1st Nebraska Battalion Cavalry. .. 


llth, 72d, and 70 th Illinois Volunteers 

Tenth Corps, Major General Q. A. Gillmore, 
Eighteenth Corps, Major (ieneral W. F. Smi 
Army of Virginia and North Carolina, Major Ge 
B. F. Butler. 

Cavalry of the Army of the James, Brigadier Ge 














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CVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED 


1st Division. Merritt s. and 3d Division, Wil 
airy Corps, Army of the Potomac. 

Fourth Corps, Major Goneral Howard ; 
Corps, Major General Palmer; Twenti 
Major General Hooker; and Cavalry,- 
the Cumberland, Major General Thomas 
Corps. Major General Logan, and Sixtee 
Major General Dodtre. Army of the 
Major General McPherson: Twenty-th 
Ariny of the Ohio, Major General J. M. S 

mtl, IT S nnlm-ivl Tmona lit! Alnhnmnl 


1st Division, McCook s, Cavalry of the Ai 
Cumberland. 

Detachment of the 36th U. S. Colored Troo 
men from the Potomac flotilla. 

3d Division, Sixteenth Corps, portion of ( 
vision, Nineteenth Corps. 


Portion of the Army of West Virginia, com; 
Colonel A. Moore, 28th Ohio. 

67th U. S. Colored Troops 

Portion of the Army of West Virginia, unde 
of Major General F. Sigel. 

Portion of the Sixteenth Corps, Army of tl 
see. 

2d Division Cavalr} , Army of the Cumberl 

Ci-^to/>r,*V, f-c Mo!- rtniioml nn.lo-n A 


Tennessee, Major General McPhersou. 
34th U. S. Colored Troops 
39th Kentucky Volunteers 
Two companies of the 15th Kansas Cavalry 


One company of 1st Colorado Cavalry, am 
Colorado Battery. 

Tenth Corps, Major General Q. A. Gill 
Eighteenth Corps, Major General W. ! 
Army of the James, Major General B. F. 




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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CIX 



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>ports, Union and 
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3d New York, 5th and llth Pennsylvania, and 1st D 
triet Columbia Cavalry, of the Army of the James 

Fourth Corps, Howard s, Army of the Cumberland . 

3d Division, Fifteenth Corps, Army of the Tennesse 
2d Division. Dnvis s Fourteenth Corps. Palmer 


and Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland, 
"il Division finvnlrv Annv nf the Cumberland. . . 


1st and 3d Division of the Sixteenth Corps, port! 
of the Seventeenth Corps, and Cavalry of the Nil 
teenth Corps, Major General A. J. .Smith, comnian 

iug. 

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Division. 

1st Division Cavalry, Army of the Potomac 
2d Colorado Cavalrv. . . 


4th Missouri Cavalry 

6th Missouri Cavalrv. . . 


Second Corps, Major General W. S. Hancock; Fi 
Corps, Major General G. K. Warren, and Ninth Cor 
Major General A. E. Burnside, Army of the Po 
mac, Major General G. G. Meade. 

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50th Ohio and 14th Kentucky Volunteers, and 2d K 
tucky Cavalry. 

1st District of Columbia and 10th U. S. Colored Troo 
and Battery B, U. S. Colored Artillery, eommauc 
by Brigadier General E. A. Wild. 

15th TI. S. Colored Troops ... 










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Milford Station, Virgin 
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Horse Landing, St 
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HnlUr STirino-a Miccica! 


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Nashville. Tennessee. - 


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Army of the Cumberland, cointnn 
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Army of the Potomac. 

3d Division, Wilson s, Cavalry Coi 
Potomac. 


3d Division, Wilson s, Cavalry Cor 
Potomac. 

1st Division, Torbctt s, Cavalry Coi 
Potomac. 




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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXI 



5^ > 

5. "31 


rigadier Cienerals G. 
V., and Brookes and 
rig. Generals Tyler, 
S. V., and Kirkland, 
C. S. A., wounded. 




e 1st to 12th. 


3 24 and 507. 


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il IT. S. Grant. Casu- 
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History of the War, 
junt Crawford. Gen. 
confederate forces, 


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d River Lake, Ditch 
Bayou. 




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on Morgan s raiders. 










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Second Corps, Major General W. S. Hancock; Fifth 
Corps, Major General G. K. Warren; Sixth Corps, 
Major General H. G. Wright; Ninth Corps, Major 
General A. E. Bltrnside, and Cavalry Corps, Major 
General P. H. Sheridan, Anny of the Potomac, and 
Eighteenth Corps, Major General Smith, Army of the 
James. 

Tenth Corps, Major GcneralQ. A. Gillmore, of the Anny 
of Virginia and North Carolina, Major General B. F. 
Butler. 

Cavall v of the Armv of the Potomne 


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Cavalry advance of Major General S. D. Sturgis com 
mand. 

"d TT. S. Colored Cavnlrv. . - 


Fourth Corps, Major General O. O. Howard ; Fourteenth 
Corps, Major General J. M. Palmer; and Twentieth 
Corps, Major General Joseph E. Hooker, Army of 
the Cumberland, Major General George H. Thomas : 
Fifteenth Corps, Major General John A. Logan; Six 
teenth Corps, Major Gen. G. M. Dodge ; and Seven 
teenth Corps, Major General F. P. Blair, Army of 
the Tennessee, Major General James B. McPherson : 
Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio, Major Gen. 
J. M. Schofield: Army of the Military Division of 
the Mississippi, commanded by Mujor G enerdl W. T. 
Sherman. 

Cavalry of the Division of Kentucky, commanded by 
General Burbridge. 

7th TCnnena Pnvnlvw 


Enrolled Kentucky Militia and citizens 
2d Division. Crook s. Anny of West Virginia, Major 


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CXII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





REMARKS AND REFERENCES. 


Skirmish with guerrillas. Ohio in the War, Vol. 2, 
page 575. 

Casualtv List. S. G. O. Ensrairement durinar Mor- 


3 

) 

J 

d 

3 

! 


Casualty List, S. G. O. Official reports. 

Official Report of Major General S. D. Sturgis, 
commanding. 

Engagement during the Guntown expedition. 


% 

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c 


E 
i 
IB 

2 

j 

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ifi 

15 

I 

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Vol. 2, page 698. 

Captured by Morgan s raiders. Ohio in the War, 
Vol. 2, page 701. 

Casualtv List. S. G. O. Included in Cold Harbor. 


Casualty List, S. G. O. Attacks on Morgan s 
raiders. 

Report of Adjutant General of Iowa, 1864, page 952. 
Official Report of Major General S. D. Sturgis. 

Casualty List, S. G. O. Official reports. Brigadier 
General Rosser, C. S. A., wounded. 

Included in Kenesaw Mountain, June 9th to GOth. 

Report of Adjutant General of Missouri, 1865, 
page 448. 

Casualty List, S. G O. Also designated Riddle s 
Shop. 


See Kenesaw Mountain, June 9th to 30th. 


Report of Adjutant General of Missouri, 1865, 
page 448. 

Major General Hunter, commanding. 






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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


106th Ohio Volunteers 


* 
% 


Cavalry, Brigadier General A. V. Kautz, and portion 
of the Tenth Corps, Major General Q. A. Gflhnore, of 
the Army of the James. 

4th Missouri, 2d New Jersey, 19th Pennsylvania, 7th 
and 9th Illinois, 7th Indiana, 3d and 4th Iowa, and 
10th Kansas Cavalry, Brigadier Gen. B. H. Grierson ; 
9th Minnesota, 81st, 95th, 108th, 113th, 114th, and 
120th Illinois, 7 2d and 95th Ohio, and 93d Indiana 
Volunteers ; 1st Illinois. 6th Indiana, and Co. E, 2d Illi 
nois Batteries; 59th (1st Tennessee) and 55th (1st Ala 
bama), U. S. Colored Troops, and Battery F, 2d U. S. 
Colored Artillery. 


1 
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171st Ohio (100 days men), commanded by Brigadier 
General Hobson. 

M niTrSc;, W;icnr> c PoTrolTTT f^vrvx! A rrrnr nf tlio 


Potomac. 
1st U. S. Colored Cavalry 

Cavalry of the Division of Kentucky, commanded by 
General Burbridge. 

3d and 4th Iowa, 2d New Jersey, and 4th Missouri Cav 
alry. 

1st Division, Merritt s, and 2d Division, Gregg s, Cav 
alry Corps, Major General I hilip Sheridan, Anny 
of the Potomac. 

Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland 
Scouting party of the 1st Missouri Militia Cavalry 

3d Division, Wilson s, Cavalry Corps, and 2d Division, 
Crawford s, Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac. 

fi+1, Wo=+ V;-!r,;a nntrnlnr 


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Detachment of the 1st Missouri Militia Cavalry 
Advance of the Armv of West Virginia. . . 















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LOCALITY. 


Cane Creek, Alabama 


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Kellar s Bridge, Licking River, 

m,l nT,nV, Vti-mnii 


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Lexington, La Fayette County 
RnpTintinn npnr Lexington. V 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXI1I 



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Corps, Majo 
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CXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 




ENGAGEMENTS AND RATTLES. 



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MnlMinvc.i.i" l!i-.,,.,l Ai-i.n 


jor CTeneral W. T. Shermai 
[issouri Militia Cavalry. . . . 

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liana and 5th Iowa Ca 
alion of the 4th Arka 


d 7(Hh Illinois Voluntc 
53d U. S. Colored I 
s, Major General Sloe 

of West Virginia, Ma. 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXVII 



a 
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nated Stevenson s 


lix to Part I, Medi- 
he War, page 301. 
herman and John- 


. S. Featherstone, 
id G. M. Stevens, 


o 

V. 


** a 


st, S. G. O. Major 
Brigadier General 
Tiny, were killed. 


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ilgagement du 
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Dgagement du 
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was wounde 
Depot and Ci 


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W ^M 


fflcial reports. 


ffieial Report 
Appendix to 


tory of the W 
General J. B, 
L. Greathous 


1 

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5 K.2 

83 "c?3 


13 

75 


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8th Indiana, 5th Iowa, and 4th Tennessee Cavalry 

Armv of \Vpst Viro-inia Mninr Gpiiprnl f root, n 


portion of the Sixth Corps, Major General Wrig 

Cavalry of the Army of West Virginia, Brigadier 
Duffie. 


(ieneral Averill. 

2d Cavalry Division, Army of West Virginia, 
manded by Brigadier General Averill. 

Fourth Corps, Major General O. O. Howard ; Fourtr 
Corps, Major General J. M. Palmer; and T\ven 
Corps, Major General Joseph E. Hooker. A rn 
the Cumberland, Major (ieneral George H. Tho 
of the Army of the Military Division of the M 
sippi, Major General W. T. Sherman. 

1st Division, Tenth Corps, Army of the James 


Fifteenth Corps, Major General Logan; Sixte 
Corps, Major Genera , Dodge ; and Sevente 
Corps, Major General Blair, Army of the Tei 
see, Major General McPherson, of the Army o 
Military Division of the Mississippi, Major Gei 
W. T. Sherman. 

fifh Ti S Pnlnroil TTo-nrir Artillery /O,l Micaicjiiir. 


2d Brigade, 4th Division, Sixteenth Corps, Arm 
the Tennessee, Colonel Sprague, commanding. 

Cavalry of the Army of West Virginia 

Portion of the Army of West Virginia, commande 
General Crook. 

fit!. Mipliin-an Artillerv 


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ir.th Illinois Cavalry, Co. E, 2d U. S. Colored Artil 
and tiUth (1st Iowa) and Stith (3d Arkansas) 
Colored Troops, commanded by Colonel W 
Brooks, 56th U. S. Colored Troops. 

llth Missouri Cavalry 

Stoneman s and Garrard s Cavalry Divisions ol 
Army of the Cumberland. 


1st Wisconsin, 5th and 8th Invva, 2d and 8th Ind 
1st and 4th Tennessee, and 4th Kentucky Caval 

75th Ohio Mounted Infantry 












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CXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


Two hundred men of the Gth Kansas Cavalry 
1st Division. Tenth Corns, and Cavalrv. Ar 


James ; Second Corps, Major General Han 
1st Division, Torbett s, and 3d Division, 
Cavalry Corps, Major (ieneral Sheridan, 
the Potomac, Major General G. G. Meade. 

35th U. S. Colored Troops (1st North Carolin 

8th Minnesota Mounted Infantry, Gth and 
and Dakota and Brackett s Minnesota Cavt 
mandedby Brigadier General A. Sully. 

Portion of the Nineteenth Corns ... 


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Fifteenth Corps, Major General Logan; 
Corps, Major General Dodge; Seventeen 
Major Gen. Blair, Army of the Teuness 
General O. O. Howard. 

Portion of Mnf orvlr s PiiA-nlrv nffhe Armirnf 


berland. 

Portion of General Garrard s Cavalry, of the 
the Cumberland. 

Army of the Cumberland, Major Gen. G. II. 
Army of the Tennessee, Major Gen. O. O. 
and Army of the Ohio, Major Gen. J. M. Sc 
of the Army of the Military Division of tl 
sip{pi, Major General W. T. Sherman. 

The attacking column was composed of the Ni 
Major General Burnside. supported by the 1- 
Corps, with the Second and Fifth Corps in i 


Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, co: 
by General McL ook. 

12th and 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, co 
by General McCook. 


Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, coi 
by General Stoneman. 

Davis s Brigade. 3d Cavalrv Division. Arn 


Potomac. 
One company of the 13th Ohio Cavalrv - - 




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Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland 

0,1 Ttivieinn Pni-silnr Armv nf tlio f lllnhorlni 


Detachment of Co. B, 83d Illinois Mounted In 
Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland 

1st Division, Merritt s, and 3d Division, Wilso 
nlry Corps, and Sixth Corps, Major Genera 
of the Army of the Middle Military Divisu 


llth Missouri Cavalry 

Detachments of the 8th Iowa, 108th and 113th 
39th, 40th, and 41st Wisconsin Volunteers 
Tennessee) U. S. Colored Troops, 3d and 
Cavalry, and Battery G, 1st Missouri Light j 

4th Iowa and llth and 21st Missouri Volunl 
3d Iowa and 12th Missouri Cavalry, of the i 

Corps. 




Naval forces under Admiral Farragut 

10th Missouri, 14th Iowa, 5th and 7th Minne 
8th Wisconsin Volunteers, of Major Gene 
Smith s command. 

Tenth Corps, Army of the James, Mnjor Gen 

llth U. S. Colored Troops 
9th Iowa and 8th and llth Missouri Cavalry . 

Portion of the Eiarhth Corps, Armv of the She 


Major General Crook. 

1st Division, Merritt s, and 3d Division, Wilsc 
airy, Army of the Potomac. 

Second Corps, Major General W. S. Hancocl 
Division of Cavalry, Gregg s, of the Arm 
Potomac, Major General George G. Meade. 

Portion of the Cavalry of the Department of 
commanded by General Lee. 


9th Kansas and 3d Wiscongin Cavalry 










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CXXII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 




ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXI1I 



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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 







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UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


3d Division, Wilson s, Cavalry Corps, of the Armj 
the Potomac. 

Sixth Corps, Major General H. G. Wright; 1st and 
Divisions, Cavalry, Major General F. H. Torliett 
the Army of the Potomac ; Eighth Corps, Major G 
G. Crook, of the Army of West Virginia; 1st and 
Divisions, Nineteenth Corps, Maj. General Emorj 
Army of the Jliddle Military Division, Major G 
P. H. Sheridan. 

106th, 110th, and 114th U. R. Colored Troops, 3d T 
nessee Cavalry, garrisoning the Post, and 18th Mi 
igan and 102(1 Ohio Volunteers, reinforcements. 

Prl Aliasniiri Afilitin f nvnlnr 


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118th U. S. Colored Troops 
14th Kansas Cavalry 

47th and 50th Missouri, and 14th Iowa Volunteers, 
and 3d Missouri Cavalry, and Battery II, 2d Misso 
Light Artillery. 

1st Division of Cavalry, of the Army of the Potom 
and 2d Division, Cavalry, of the Army of West 1 

lllth II. S. Colored Troons f3f] AlnbnmsO . . 


2d Division, Cavalry, Army of West Virginia 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXV 



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nded by Major Genei 
liers 


s of the ;>!?th Missoui 
ounted Infantry, con 


t/ c 

o" C 

2? 


the Mh Iowa Cavalry 
ivalry 

Ison s, Cavalry Corps 


vjor General Birney ; 
Ord ; and Cavalry, 
e Army of the Jam 


ith Corps 

ounted Infantry 

litia Cavalry, Batter 
y, and 14th Iowa Vo 


& 1 "o 
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if I i 

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a c" S i- 1 

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ri Militia, commande 

Brigade, and Terry 
of the James. 


ond Corps, of the An 


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"a 


st Division, Merritt s 
airy Cu r ps, Army of 


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Cavalry comma 
Furloughed sole 


Three companic 

Cavalry and M 
Ammen. 


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Corps. Army 


3d Division, Sec 


a 
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c 

a 
W 


Portion of the 1 
Ouster s, Cav 


llth and 13thK 
5th and (ith 1 
35th, 37th, 39 
Infantry. 

1st Kentuckv C 








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CXXVI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 







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1 NION TROOPS EN 


One company of the 7th Indiana C 
23d Wisconsin Volunteers, 1st Tex 


Cavalry, and 2d and 4th Massacl 

7th, 12th, 50th, 57th, and 93d 111! 
Minnesota, and 18th Wisconsin 1 
Wisconsin Batter} . 

2d Wisconsin and 3d U. S. Colorec 

COth Illinois Volunteers and 8th lo 
see Cavalry. 

8th Ohio Cavalrv . . . 


1st, 7th, and 9th Missouri Militia C 
by Colonel Philips. 


3d Division, Ouster s, Cavalry o 
Potomac. 

Tenth Corps, Major General Bi 
Brigadier General Kautz. of the 
Major General B. F. Butler. 

Missouri Militia, Cavalry. Artillery 
manded by Generals Fisk, Brow- 
born. 

Fifth and Ninth Corps of the Arnr 


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3 *- & C 


61st U. S. Colored Troops (2d Teni 


Portion of the 4th U. S. Colore< 
commanded by Colonel Weaver. 

13th Pennsylvania Cavalrv... 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXVII 



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3d Wisconsin. 5th. llth 


airy, and one brigade oi 
Curtis s Army, 2d an 
two battalions of the 2d 
nee of General Pleasanto 


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CXXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 







o-a." 


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3d Colorado and 5th, 7th, llth, 15th, and Ifith Kansas 
Cavalrv, and Kansas Militia, of General Curtis s com 
mand, and 1st, 2d, 4th, (ith, 7th, 8th, and Dth Missouri 
Militia Cavaly, 13th Missouri, 3d Iowa, and 17th 
Illinois Cavalry, of General Pleasanton s command. 

VM I T S Pnlnrorl Trnnri* 


! i ! 3 ^i 1 1 i I!|i 111 1 
i i i ii.;s i p:.i 2o^ i 

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; s i list s 1 Is Wil ?:-4 ". 

Ml! !U1 1 ? 1 1I jUi llf 1 

; ij?J r 5c ag o g 1 W ^ ! 0^*3 a 

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S a -3 5 _ a, C 1 g ? a . S fi S " i 

ill i! js * K SL in s \ 
ill iiir it j i= i ni 11 it i 

j : ~ 2 2 K(1< 5; a 5 - 3 ^S^S gw ^a -e 
^SSs M o S 2 CN H o- 


Thirteen men, commanded by Lieut. W.. B, Ccshing, 
U. S. N. 

1st Arkansas Cavalry 

Cavalry, commanded by General Gillem 
8th Ohio Psivnlrv 


1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Army of the Cum 
berland. 

Garrard s Division of Cavalry of the Army of the Cum 
berland. 

7th Iowa and llth Missouri Cavalry 








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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXIX 



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Battery... 




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"VVyalusing-, and Tacony. 
6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillerv 


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s nri i :- "1 !2s M if 1 s .l s 

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^ 3^^= os-gaS-E^frcS s M -g c= -c 

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g ^ a ^ g_-j=^*.c;(^^- =" J i7 -< - 
S S ~5 w cl .0 r2 3S ^ a -5 S 


Army of the Cumberland. 
209th Pennsylvania Volunteers ... 
2d Iowa Cavalry... 


Detachment, commanded by Cap 
Ohio. 

llth Wisconsin Volunteers and 


Troops. 
10th Ohio and 9th Pennsylvania C 


Mounted Infantry, and 10th W 
the 3d Division Cavalry, Army 

i 4th Wisconsin Cavalrvand 1st Wig 


3d U. S. Colored Cavalry (1st Miss 


Walcott s Brigade, 1st Division, f 
1st Brigade, 3d Division of Ca^ 
Tennessee. 

Advance of the Fifteenth Corps . . 




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555 



CX XX 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 









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INION TROOPS ENGi 


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o o o o 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXI 



P 2 E ;_ = 



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Fourth Corps, Major General Wood, of the Army of 
the Cumberland; Twenty-third Corps, Major Gen. 
S<-liofield, Army of the Ohio ; and 1st and 3d Divi 
sions, of the Sixteenth Corps, Major Gen. A. J. Smith, 
Army of the Tennessee, and Cavalry, commanded 
by Major General Wilson. 

5th Kentucky and 8th Indiana Cavalry, of Sherman s 


army. 

3d Kentucky and 5th Ohio Cavalry, advance of Sher 
man s army. 

"d New York Cav.-ilrv 


Detachment of the 115th Ohio Volunteers, 44th and 
two companies 14th U. S. Colored Troops. 

92d Illinois Mounted Infantry 
25th Ohio Volunteers 

Troops commanded by General Milroy. . . 


1-1 : i llfjl i * 1^1 | 1 ^| 

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t-? j ^=11.1 5 2s ^="3 r,^ l .-i 
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3 -3 | ^JS* . &g -^^ 3 |3 I- 

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O Q 



CXXXII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 





O "i 

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Q 9 S S*a3 .? 


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X rj " -3 : "? Z- 


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H r- 53 00 B 7 


~^ <* *" *- _- ~ ^ "* a> 


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1 i 


UNION TROOPS ENGAGED. 


1 i s"M Illlii 1 i * -W ! M 

3 ^ o |3 g Iil3 o 65 : : : 

| i & is i is?ij S * i 53 

-Q o >^oi]-fe;o -S>-^ S s g ~ : : : 

i ! I ^ I P?P 1 1 I |M i 1 = 

1 - *i 41 * llfl^ ^ I -:il 1 i 1 1 

1 I f i^ & eE"3?_. ^ 8 . i ill ; I 

s 1 -g-l IS | p^||ll I | 5 37J E i 2 ^ 

i a i * ismii i J is ~r: I . i 
H i 51 :^ i ^lljrhja 1 id N is* i i ! 

I >: s-s 1 fi s l i|^ 8 J 5 J.-a ^ : 2 *> 
> -a o ^1 ^ *|sSs|t | S ^1 ^ 2 1 TJ 5 
^ K - 2 I* g ^111*^ s ^2 al . s< s 1 b "3 

.s ,3 &--2sa5&^s n> j = ^ ^s Is " a ^ a 

"3 . = .5 j= a o S 5,5 s 1 fl 5 S t 3 " ^ S ^ n S k S 5 

S o o OQ -g g w _ o^o: g. u*- g Q 50 -ef .=.2, g 5 S S 

^ g! c flh, 13 ^fJhJ ^ -s-s . |<^ 1 1 I 

. .5.3 ga ,a .2 Is"! . .tS! >S x S af f 2 - ^ fc= > 

i I 1 i li^ii i.fi ]i =i| n 

Sr5tiCI(Sfcl i5 C3 B Or.Oh 


1 

i 
G 

A 

c 

"c 
a 

H ii 

^ 


Fourth Corps, Major General Wood, Army of the Cum 
berland ; Twenty-third Corps, Major General J. M. 
Schofield, Army of the Ohio; 1st and 3d Divisions, 
Sixteenth Corps, Major General A. J. Smith, Army 
of the Tennessee; detachments of colored troops, 
convalescents, recruits, &c., MajorGeneralsteadman. 
and Cavalry Corps, Major Gen. Wilson, -^commanded 
by Major G eneral G. H. Thomas. 

2d and 3d Brigades. 1st Division, of Cavalry, McCook.. 




1 ! f | I ! : g 1 i i : : : 






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fifi-OOQQQfi a O 



ENQAQEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXIII 



Return, S. G. O. Official reports. En- 
mt during Stoneman s raid U> Sultville. 


d 

d 

CO 


eport of Major General Thomas. 


ners captured were Confederates wounded 
ngagement November 30th. 




lispatches. Engagement during Stone- 
aid to Saltville. Casualty Return, S. O. O. 


a 
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H 

1 

a 

O 
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t: 


i 

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H 

1 
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during the Gordonsville raid, 
eport of Major General Thonms. 


O 

CO 

3 


a 
O 

J 
H 

o 

O 

it 
o 
o 


f Adjutant General of Wisconsin, 1865, 
12. 

s raid. 


asualties were in the navy, and were 
by the bursting of six one-hundred-pound 
guns. Official report. Casualty List, 


a 
S 

o 

H 
2 

U 

g 

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d 

o 

C 
O 

B 

o 

a 

O 

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sport of Brigadier General B. H. Grier- 
imanding. Brigadier General Gholson, 
., was killed. 


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General Gillem. 

A scouting party of the 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

5th Division, Hatch s, and 7th Division, Knipe s, of 
Wilson s Cavalry, of General Thomas s army. 


6th Division, Johnson s, of Wilson s Cavalry, of Gen. 
Thomas s army. 

82d U. S. Colored Troops, of Col. Robinson s command. 

82d and 07th U. S. Colored Troops, commanded by 
Colonel Robinson, 97th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Cavalry of the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Gen. 
Burbridge. 

Troops of the Third Corps, Major General Granger 
Cavalry of General Thomas s army 

Gillem s and Burbridge s Cavalry, commanded by Gen. 
Stoneman. 

3d Division of Cavalry, Glister s, of the Army of the 
Potomac. 

Michigan Cavalry Brigade of the 1st Division, Cavalry, 
Army of the Potomac. 


Cavalry of (General Thomas s army, commanded by 
General Wilson. 

1st Cavalry Division, Merritt s, Army of the Potomac, 
and 2d Division, Cavalry, Powell s, Army of West 
Virginia. 

Cavalry of General Thomas army, commanded by Gen. 
Wilson. 

1st Wisconsin Cavalry, of the 1st Cavalry Division, 
McCook s, Army of the Cumberland, 

8th Tennessee Cavalrv. . . 




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Cnvalrv of General Thomas s armx r 


7th Indiana Cavalrv, of Grierson s command 
Major General Steadman s Provisional Division 

7th Indiana, 4th and llth Illinois, 4th and 10th Missouri, 
2d Wisconsin, 2d New Jersey, 1st Mississippi, and 3d 
U. S. Colored Cavalry. 

15th Pennsylvania and detachments of the 2d Tennes 
see and 10th, 12th, and Kith Indiana Cavalry, com 
manded by Colonel Palmer. 


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CXXXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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4th and llth Illinois and 3d TT. S. Colored 
commanded by Colonel Osband, 3d U. S 
Cavalry. 

15th Pennsylvania and detachments of the 2 
see and 10th, 12th, and 13th Indiana L aval 

15th Pennsylvania and detachments of the 1 
and 13th Indiana and 2d Tennessee Cavalr 

6th U. S. Colored Cavalrv... 


One company of the 7th Iowa Cavalry 

Fifty-four men of the 101st U. S. Colored Tro 
79th U. S. Colored Troons... 


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2d Division and 2d Brigade 1st Division, 
fourth Corps, and 3d Division, Twenty-fif 
of the Army of the James, commanded 
General A. H. Terry, and sailors and marii 
Atlantic blockading squadron, commanded 
Admiral Porter. 

15th Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded by C 
J. Palmer. 

2d Kansas Cavalry and Iowa C.avalry 


Seventeenth Corps, Major General Blair, An 
Tennessee. 

Troops of General Terry s detachment of the 
the James. 

Tennessee Cavalrv . . 


Portion of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fif 
Army of the James. 

U. S. Colored Troops and Heavy Artiller. 
A liny of the James. 

Fifteenth Corps, Major Gen. Logan, and Se N 
Corps, Major General Blair. Army of the 
see, Major General O. O. Howard, of the 
the Military Division of the Mississippi. 

1st U. S. Colored Cavalrv... 


5th U. S. Colored Cavalrv... 


3d North Carolina, Colonel Kirk .. 




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cxxxv 



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Seventeenth Corps, Major General Blair, and Fifteenth 
Corps, Major (Jen. Logan, Army of the Tennessee. 

2d Division Cavalry, Gregg s ; Second Corps, Major 
General Humphrey ; Fifth Corps, Major General G. 
K. Warren; and 1st Division, Sixth Corps, Army 
of the I otomae, Major General Meade. 

Detachment of the 17th Connecticut Volunteers 

11tl> r>l,;r> nfl 7*1, Tr>-n f oirolrv 


Cavalry commanded by Brigadier General Kilpatrick .. 

Seventeenth Corps, Major General Blair, Army of the 
Tennessee. 

llth Ohio and 7th Iowa Cavalry 

Schimmelfennig s Division of the troops of the Depart 
ment of the South, Major General Gillmore. 

3d Division Cavalry. Kilpatrick s, Army of the Mili 
tary Division of the Mississippi. 

9,1 Ttiviainn niirl 1st Krio-nilo nf thp 1st Division. 


Twenty-fourth Corps, and 3d Division of the Twenty- 
fifth Corps, Army of the James, Major Gen. Terry. 

3d Division Cavalry, commanded by Gen. Kilpatrick .. 
Spvpntppnth florns Armv nf th Tennesspp. M.-nor 


General Blair. 

3d Division Cavalry, Major General Kilpatrick, Army 
of the Military Division of the Mississippi. 

Fiftppnth Corns M:iior General Lnrniti. Armv of the 


Tennessee. 

9rt TT. S f nlnrpd Tmmis... 


Fifteenth Corps, Major General J. A. Logan, Army of 
the Tennessee. 

12th 1". S. Colored Heavy Artillery 
Detachment of the 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

Twvma r,f flic I^pnnrtmpiit nf th Smith Mninr Hpn 


Q. A. Gillmore. 

Navy, commanded by Rear-Admiral Porter ; troops of 
the Twenty-fourth Corps, Army of the James, Major 
General Terry, and Twenty-third Corps, Army of 
the Ohio, Major General Cox. 


3d Division, Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio, 
Major General J. D. Cox. 


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CXXXVI 



CHKONOLOGICAL SUMMAKY OF 







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UNION TROOPS KNGAGED. 


2d and 3d Divisions of the Twenty-third Corps, Ar 
of the Ohio, Major General J. 1). Cox, and a pori 
of the Twenty-fourth Corps, Army of the Jan 
Major General Terry. 

13th Illinois Cavalry 

Detachment of mounted men, commanded by Capi 
Duncan. 


1 Advance of the Fifteenth Corps, Major General Lo; 
loth U. S. Colored Troops 

1st Division, Major General Devin, and 3d Divisi 
Major General Custer, Cavalry Corps, Army of 
Potomac, Major General Sheridan. 

3d Brigade, 3d Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of 
Potomac. 

3d Division, Brigadier General Custer, Cavalry Coi 
Major Gen. Sheridan, Army of the Potomac. 

4th Wisconsin Cavalry 


Advance of the Twentieth Corps, Major General A 

Williams. 

Advance of the Seventeenth Corps, Major Genera 
P. Blair. 

Detachment of mounted infantry from General SI 
man s Army. x 

4th Wisconsin P.iv.ilrv 


2d and 99th U. S. Colored Troops, and other troo 
commanded by General Newtown. 

Portion of Sheridan s Cavalry, commanded by Colo 
Thompson, 1st New Hampshire Cavalry, guard 
prisoners. 

Cavalrv Division. KilnatricVs. of Sherman s Armv 


1st Division, Palmer s, and 2d Division, Carter s, of 
District of Beaufort, and 1st Division, Huge 
Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio. 

Cavalry Division, Brigadier General Kilpatrick 
3d Wisconsin Cavalry 

Advance of the Fourteenth and Seventeenth Corns 


Major General Sehoficld s command 

5th U. S. Cavalry, 1st Division Cavalry, Major Gen< 
Sheridan. 






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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXVII 



! S3 1= 

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Official. 
Casualty List, S. G. O. 

Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
of the War, page 203. Casualty List, S. G. O. 
Official reports. The Confederate Generals 
Terry and Cooke were wouudod. 

Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
of the War, p. 203. List of casualties, S. G. (J. 
Official reports. 

Also known as Bluff Spring. Gen. Clauton, C. S. A., 
killed. 

See enirairement at Spanish Fort. March 2tith to 


April 9th, and Fort Blakely, April yth. 

Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
of the War, page 337. List of casualties, S.li.U. 

Appendix to Part I, Medical and Surgical History 
of the War, page 204. List of casualties, S. G. O. 
Official reports. 

Official Report of Major General J. H. Wilson, 
commanding. Appendix to I art I, Medical and 
Surgical History of the War, page 327. List of 
casualties, S. G. O. General Kli Long, wounded. 
Includes engagements at Montavallo. Mar. 31st; 
Plantersville, Trion, April 1st ; Scottsville, Selma, 
April 2d ; Northrop. April 3d; Tuscaloosa, Apr. 
4th ; Pleasant Kidge, April o th ; Lowndesboro , 
April 10th ; Mpntgomery, Apr. 12th ; Fort Tyler, 
West Point, and Columbus, April llith ; and 
Tobosofkee and Macon, April 20th. 










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forces. 

2d Brigade, 3d Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the ! . 
Potomac. 

Twentieth Corps, Major General Williams, and Cavalry 
Division, Urigadior Gen. Kilpatrick, Army of the 
Military Division of the Mississippi, Gen. Sherman. 

101 st U. S. Colored Troops 

Fourteenth Corps, Major General J. C. Davis, and 
Twentieth Corps, Major General A. S. Williams, 
left wing, Major General Slooum; Fifteenth Corps, 
Major (ieneral J. A. Logan, and Seventeenth Corps, 
Major General F. P. Blair, right wing, Major Gen. 
O. O. Howard; and Cavalry Division, Brig. General 
Kilpatrick ; Army of the Military Division of the 
Mississippi, Major General W. T. Sherman. 

Palmer s, Bro .vn s, and Miller s Brigades of Cavalry, 
commanded by Major General Giliem. 

Major General Schofiekl s command 

\ 


12th Pennsylvania Cavalry 1 


1st New Mexico Cavalry 1 
Provisional Corps, commanded by Major Gen. Terry.. J. 

1st and 3d Divisions, Ninth Corps, Major General 
Parke, Army of the Potomac. 

Second Corps, Major General A. A. Humphreys, and 
Sixth Corps, Major General H. G. Wright, Army 
of the Potomac. 

Cavalry advance of General Stcele s column 
Army of the Military Division of the West Mississippi. 


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Hamilton, Virginia 
Sumnterville. South Car 


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CX XX VIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMAEY OF 



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1; !? ! Ill ! !- ! i !i 1- -s l^ij^i r| 

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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXIX 




*E 




pril 20th. 


eral P. H. Slieridau. 


ind Surgical History 
isualty List, S. G. O. 
leral P. H. Sheridan, 
ated Harper s Farm 


o 

Cl 


3 

to 


ind Surgical History 
if casualties, S. G. O. 
ere wounded. 


ind Surgical History 
sualty List, S. G. O. 


11 

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s "3 

2 3 


6 

02 


ral Sherman. 


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pril 20th. The Con- 
il Tyler, was killed. 


pril 20th. 


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, March 22d to 


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rt of Major Cn 
lated Jettersvil 


15 O 
I|-P 

| * 1 


, March 22d to 


xlore Read, co 
1st, S. G. O. 


Part I, Medica 
page 203. Lis 
myth and Mott 


Part I, Medica 
r, page 203. < 
lated Clover II 


Part I, Modica] 
, page 337. <J 
obilo. 


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rt of Major Gei 


p 

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, March 22d to 


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Casualty L 


ppendix to 
of the War, 
Generals S 


ppendix to 
of the Wai 
Also desigi 


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ngagement 
April 20th. 


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1st Brigade, Croxton, 1st Division, 
Corps, of the Military Division of 


1st Brigade, Croxton, 1st Division, 
Corps, of the Military Division of 

2d Division, Crook, Cavalry Corps 
Army of the Potomac. 

Cavalry Corps, Major General P. H. 
Corps, Major General A. A. Hum 
Corps, Major General H. G. Wrig 
Potomac. 

1st Brigade, Croxton, 1st Division, 
Corps, of the Military Division of 

Portion of the Twentv-fourth Corps. 


. ft nil 

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3d Division of the Thirteenth Co 
West Mississippi. 

One company of the 1st Oregon Cav 

2d Brigade, La Grange s 1st Divisio 
airy Corps, of the Military Divii 
sippi. 

4th Division, Upton s, Cavalry Cor 
Division of the Mississippi. 

Mninr Gonpml IT.incoek s command 


Troops of the Department of the So 
















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CXL 



CONCLUSION OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY. 
















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. EM CH S. E. . C, 









1 1ST D ZE 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF ENGAGEMENTS AND RATTLES. 



Page. 

Aberdeen, Ark LI 

Aberdeen, Ala CXXIX 

Abbeville, Miss. CXX, CXXI 

Abb s Valley. Va CVII 

Abingdon. Va CXXX1I 

Aoton, Miun LVII 

Aek worth, (la CXI 

Adamsville, Tenn XLVl 

Ailair County, Mo LI II 

Adairsville, Cl.i CIX 

^Ktna, Mo XXXV 

Aiken, S. O CXX XV 

Alimosa, N. Mex XXXVII 

Alpine Station, Va XL 

Alpine Gap, Oa LXXXVI 

Algiers, La XLIX 

Allen s Farm, Va L 

Aldie, Va LX, LXI, LXXVIII 

Alexandria, La CIV 

Alexandria, near, La CV 

Alabama, Rebel Steamer LXVI, CXIII 

Alabama, raid in CXVI 

Albemarle, Ram, N. C C V 

Albemarle, Ram, destruction of CXXVIII 

Allatoona Hills, Ga CX 

AI.LATOONA, GA CXX VI 

Amelia Springs, Va CXXXIX 

Amite River, La XLIX, LX X 

Ammunition, explosion of, at City Point, Va CXIX 

Anandale, Va XXXIX 

A.YTIETAM, Ml) LVIII 

A nxvois River, Mo LX 

Antioeh Station. Temi LXXI 

Anderson s Gap, Tenn LX XXVIII 

Anderson s C ross Roads, T<un LX XX VIII 

Antoint 1 , Ark CII 

Anthony s Hill, Tenn C XXX I II 

Apache Canon, N. Mcx XL I II 

Apache Pass, Ariz LII 

Apalachieola Kiver, Fla LX 

Appomattox River, Va CXXXIX 

ArroMATTOx COURT-HOUSE, VA CXXXIX 

Aquia Creek Batteries, Va XLIII 

Arunzas Pass, Tex XCI1I 

Armstrong Ferry, Tenn XC VI 

Arrow Rock, Mo LXXXIX 

Arrow field Church, Va CVII 

Arkansas Post, Ark LXVI 

Arkansas Kiver, Ark CXVI 

Arkansas, Rebel Ram, attempt to destroy LI 

Arkadclphia, Ark LXV1II, CI 

Arthur s Swamp, Va .CXXII, CXXV 

Assault on Fort Wagner LXXXII 

Ashland, La LX X VII 

Ashland, Va... .. C VII, CX, CXX XVII 

A sh liaynii. La CXXIX 

Ashw 1 l/miling. La .. ( V 

.\5hr|ioo Ri\cr. S.C... C VJII 

19* 



Page. 

Ashley s Mills, Ark LXXXVI 

Ashley Station, Ark CXXI 

Ashby s Gap, Va LIX, LXXXII, CXVII, CXXXV 

Attack by guerrillas on transport Crescent City LXXVI 

Atchafalaya River, La LX \ XVI 

Atlee s, Va C 

Athens, Mo XXXVI 

Athens, Ala XLVI, XC VI, C XXIV, CXXV 

Athens, Ky LXVIII 

Atlanta, capture of the LXXIX 

Atlanta Railroad, raid on CXXI 

Atlanta, Ga CXXIX 

Atlanta, Ga., Hood s first sortie CXVII 

ATLANTA, GA., Hood s second sortie CXV1II 

Atlanta, Ga., campaign to, from Chattanooga CXXII 

Atlanta, Ga., siege of CXVIII 

Atlanta, Ga.. occupation of CX XII 

Austin, Miss LIII, LXXVI 

Austin, Ark LXXXV 

Auburn, Va XC 

Auburn, Ga CXVII 

Augusta, Ky LIX 

Augusta, Ark CI 

Averill s Raid, W, Va. LXXXV 

Averill s Raid, Southwestern Va XCIV 

Avoyelle s Prairie, La CVIII 

AVKRYsnoiiO , N. C CXXXVII 

Baltimore, streets of XXXIV 

Baltimore Cross Ronds, Va LXXX.LXXXI 

Bayou Cache, Ark LI 

Buyou De View, Ark LI 

Bayou Barnard, C. N LII 

Bayou Teche, La LXII, LXVI 

Bayou Bonteoou, La LX11I 

Bayou Vermilion, La LXXI 

Bayou Pierre, Miss LXXIV 

Bayou Tensas, La LXXX 

Bayou Melee, Ark LXXXV 

Bayou Borbeaux, La XCI 

Bayou Sara. Miss - XCII 

Bayou Rapidcs, La CI 

Bayou La Mourie, La C VI 

BAYOU DE GLAIZE, LA CIX 

Bayou Biddell, La CXXVII 

Bayou La Fouche, Ln CXXIX 

Ball s Cross Roads, Va XXXVI 

BALL S BLUFF. VA XXXVIII 

Ball s Ferry, Ga CXXX 

Barboursville, W. Va X X XV, X X XVII 

Bayles Cross Roads, La X X X VIII 

Bagdad, Ky XL 

Bath, Va ..XL.LXXXVI 

Barry County, Mo XLII 

Bates County. Mo XLVl 

BANKS^S KKIKKAT, VA XLVII 

Battle. Creek, Term XLIX 

Balesville, Ark ...LI, LXVI I, XC1X 

KATON HofiiK, LA ... ... LIU, LXXI, LXXX\ l,( V 



OX LI I 



INDEX. 



Page. 

B.-irdftown, Ky 

Bnrbee s Cross Roads, Va LX1I, LXXXVI 

Bachelor s Creek, N. C LXII, LXXVI, XCVII, CX 

Bacon Creek, Ky LX V 

Baxter Springs, Ark LXXXV1II 

Baker Springs, Ark XCVI 

Baker s Creek, Miss LXXV, XCVII 

Barton Station, Miss 

Bay Springs, Miss 

Barmvell s Island, S. C XCI1I 

Barren Fork, I. T XCV 

Barnett s Ford, Va XCVIII 

Barber s Place, Fla XCVIII 

Baylor s Farm, Va CX 111 

Baldwin, Miss XLV1II, L1X 

Baldwin, Fla - LXX 

Battery Huger, Va LXXII 

Battery Gregg, S. C LXXXVI 

Beiilington, W. Va XXXV 

Bealton, Va XCI, XCVI 

Bean s Station, Tenn XC1V, XCV, CXXXII 

Beaver Creek, Mo LXIII 

Beaver Creek, Ky LXXX 

Beaver Dam Lake, Miss LXX VI 

Beaver Dam Station, Va CVII 

Bear Wallow, Ky LXV 

Bear River, W. T LXVII 

Bear Creek, Mo LXVII 

Bear Creek, Ala LXXI, XCI 

Bear Creek Station, Ga CXXIX 

Bear Skin Lake, Mo LXXXVI 

Beverly, W. Va XXXV, LXXII, LXXXI, CXXVIII, CXXXIV 

BEVKULY FOHD, VA LXXVIII, XC 

Bennet s Mills, Va XXXVI 

Beher s Mills, Va XXXVII 

Beckwill Farm, Mo XXXVIII 

BKLMOXT, Mo XXXIX 

Bcrtrand, Mo XL 

Beech Creek, W. Va LIII 

Beech Grove, Ky XLI 

BEECH GROVE, TENN LXXIX 

Bentonville, Ark XLII 

BENTONVILLE, N. C CXXXVII 

Berryville, Va LXIII, LXXVII, LXXVIII, XC, CXXIII, CXXXIX 

Berryville Pike, Va CXIX 

Berry s Farm, Va LXXV 

Berwick City, La LXIX 

Beersheba Springs, Tenn : XCIII, CI 

Benton, Miss CVI 

Bent s Old Fork, Tex CXXX 

Belcher s Mills, Va CIX, CXXIII 

BERMUDA HUKUUED, VA CVIII, CXI, CXXI, CXXIX, CXXXI 

Bellefield, Va CXXXII 

Big Hurricane Creek, Mo XXXVIII 

Big Creek Gap, Tenn XLII, LVII 

Big Creek, Ark LXXXII, CXVII 

Big Indian Creek, Ark XLVII 

Big Beaver Creek, Mo LXII 

Big River Bridge, Mo XXXVIII 

BIG BLACK RIVER, Miss LXXV, LXXXI, LXXXIX, XCVII 

Big Black River Bridge, Miss CXXX 

Big Hatohie River, Miss LIX 

Big Sandy River, Ky LXIII 

Big Sandy, C. T CXXX 

Big Pigeon River, Tenn CXXIX 

Big Piney, Mo LH 

Big Hill, Ky LV 

Big Hill Road, Ky LXI 

Big Mound, I). T LXXXIV 

Big Sen-ell, W. Va XCV 

Big Shanty, Ga CXI, CXXIII 

Big Blue, Mo CXX VIII 

Bird s Point, Mo XXXVI, XXXVIII 

Birch Coolie, Minn LVII 

Bisland, La... LXXI 

Biilnella s Cross Roads, Va C 



Page. 

Binnaker s Bridge. S. C CXXXV 

Blue Springs, Mo. LXIX 

Blue Springs, Tenn LXXXVIII, LXXXIX 

Blue Mount, Ala CXL 

Blue Mills, Mo XX XV, XXXVII 

Blue Gap, Va XL 

Blue Island, Ind LXXIX 

Black River, Mo XXXVII, LI, CXXIII 

Black River, Miss LXX XI, LX X XII 

Black River, La CXXIX 

Blackwater, Mo. XL, LXXXIX, CXXIV 

Blackwater, Va LIX, LXI, LXIV, LXIX 

Blackwater, Fla CXXVII, CXXVIII 

Black Creek, Fla CXVIII 

Black Warrior Creek, Ala LXXIII 

Black Walnut Creek, Mo XXXIX 

Blackford s Ford, Va LVIII 

Black Bayou Expedition, Miss LXXI 

Blackburn s Ford, Va XXXV, XC 

Black Jack Forest, Tenn XL1H 

Blackland, Miss XLVIII 

Blackville, S. C C XXX V 

Blooming Gap. Va XLI 

Bloomfield, Va LXI 

Bloomfield, Mo XLVI, LV, LVII, LXXIII 

Blount s Mills, N. C LXXI 

Blount s Farm, Ala LXXI V 

Blountsville, Tenn LXXXVII, LXXXIX 

Blain s Cross Roails, Tenn XCV 

Block-House No. 2, Tenn CXXXI 

Block House No. 4, Tenn CXX 

Block-House No. 5, Tenn CXX1I 

Block-House No. 7, Tenn CXXXI 

Blockade Runners in Ttunpa Bay, Florida, destruction of... XC 

Bluffton, S. C LXXVII 

Booneville, Mo XXXIV, XXXVII, CXXVI 

Boouville, Miss XLVII, LI 

Boone Court-house, W. Va XXXVI 

Bolivar Heights, Va XXXVIII, LXXXIII, CXV 

Bolivar, Tenn LVI, LXVIII, LXIX, XCV, XCVIII, CI, CV 

Bolivar, Miss LIX 

Bowling Green, Ky X 14, XLII 

Boles Farm, Miss LII 

Botts Farm, Mo LII 

Bellinger s Mills, Mo LIU 

Boousboro , Md LVIII, LXXXII 

Boousboro , Ark LXIII 

Boston Mountain, Ark LXIII 

Bone Yard, Tenn LXVII 

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, S. C LXXI 

Boston, Ky LXXVIII 

Boone, N. C CXXXVIII 

Boyd s Station, Ala CXXXVII 

Bogler s Creek, Ala CXXXVIII 

Boykin s Mills, S. C CIV, CXXXIX 

Bottom s Bridge, Va LXXXI, LXXXV 

Bolton Depot, Miss XCVII 

Bolton and Birdsong Ferry, Miss LXXXI 

Bonfouca, La XCIII 

BOYDTOWN PLANK ROAD, VA CXXVI, CXXVIII, CXXXVIII 

Bogg sMill, N. C CXXXIV 

Brunswick, Mo XXXVI 

Briar, Mo XLIII 

Bridgeport, Ala XL V 

Brownsville, Tenn LII, LIII 

Brownsville, Ark LXXXV, LXXXVII, CXXVIII 

Brownsville, Miss XC 

Brown Springs, Mo LII 

Brown s Ferry, Tenn XCI 

Brown s Gap, Va CXXIV 

Browne s Cross Roads CXXX 

Brandy Station, Va LV, LXXVIII, LXXXIV, LXXXVI 

BKISTOE STATION, VA XC, CIII 

Britton s Lane, Tonn LVI 

Bristol, Tenn LXXXVII, CXXXII 

brashear City, La. . . LXII, LXIX, LXXIX 



INDEX. 



CXLIII 



Page. 

Brentsville Tenn LX1V 

Brentsvillo, V;i LX VIII, XCIX 

Bradyville, Tenn L XVIII, LXXV 

Branohville, Ark XCVI 

Brentwood, Tenn LXX, CXXXII 

Broad Run, Vu LXX 

Broad Kiver, S. C LXXI, CXXX 

Bradenburg, Ky I/XXXII 

Brandon. Miss LXXXJIl 

Brimstone Creek, Tenn LXX XVI 

Bruzios Santiago, Tex XCI 

Brook Turnpike, Va (j 

Brice s Cross Roads, Miss CXII 

Brier Creek, Ga CXXXI 

Bradford Springs, S. C . . . - CXXXIX 

Buclianan, Va LH ) CXII 

Buckhannon, \V. Va XXXV 

Bunker Hill, VV. Va XXXV 

BULL RUN, VA XXXV, LVI 

Bushy Creek, Ark XL 

Bushy Creek, Mo LXXVII 

Burke s Station, Va XLII 

Butler, Mo XLVI, LXI 

Butler Creek, Ala CXXIX 

Burnt Ordinary, Va LXVII 

Bute La Rose, La LXXII 

Burkesville, Ky LXXXI 

Buffington Island, Ohio LXXXI1I 

Buford s Gap, Va CX1II 

Buford s Station, Tenn CXXXIII 

BULL PASTUHE MOUNTAIN, VA XLVI 

BULL RUN BKIDOK, VA LV 

Bulltown, Braxton County, Va LXXXIX 

Bull Bayou, Ark CXXI 

Bull s Gap, Tenn CXXIV, CXXIX 

Buffalo Hill, Ky XXXVII 

Buffalo Mills, Mo XXXVIII 

Buffalo, \V. Va LIX 

Buffalo Creek, I. T LXXXVII 

Buffalo Creek, Ga CXXX 

Buffalo Gap, W. Va CXI 

Burning of Royal Yacht, Galveston Harbor, Tex XXXIX 

Buckton Station, Va XLVII 

Buckland s Mills, Va XC 

Buck Head Creek CXXX 

BUZZARD ROOST, GA C 

Buzzard Roost Gap, Ga CVII 

Buzzard Roost Block-House, Ga CXXVII 

Burton s Ford, Va C 

Burned Hickory, Ga CX 

Burnod Church, Ga CX 

Burger s Farm, Va CXXVIII 

Butler s Bridge, N. C CXXXII 

Byhalia, Miss LXXXIX 

Camp Jackson, Mo XXXIV 

Camp Cole, Mo XXXIV 

Camp Cullenden, Mo XXXVII 

Camp Advance, Va XXXVII 

Camp Alleghany, W. Va XL 

Camp Babcock, Ark LXIII 

Camp Moore, La LXXV 

Cape Hatteras Inlet, N. C XXXVI 

Cape Fear River, N. C LX 

Cape Girardeau, Mo LXXIII, XCVIII 

Carthage, Mo X X XIV, XLIII, LXXV 

Cartilage, Ark LXIII 

Cameron, Mo XXXVIII 

Cameron, Va XCVI 

Calhoun, Mo XL 

Callioim, Tenn... LXXXVIII 

Calhoun Station, La CIX 

Canton, N. C XLVI 

Canton, Miss LXXXIII, XC, C 

Canton, Ky CXXI 

Cache River, Ark CIV 



Cache River Bridge, Ark. 

Cassville, Mo 

Cassville, Ga 

Cassville Station, Ga 

Cass County, Mo 

Cane River, La 

Cane Hill, Ark... 



Page. 
XLVII 

LIX 

CIX 

CX 

LXII 

CIV 

LXIII 

( a::,- ( !re e k, Ala XCIi CX n 

Carsville, Va LX, LXVII, LXXV, LXXVI 

Cainsville, Tenn L XVI II 

Carter s Station, Tenn LXV, LXX XVII 

Carter s Station, Ark CXXV 

Carter s Raid in East Tennessee LXV 

Carter s Farm, Va CXVII 

Carroll County, Ark LXX CHI 

Carrolton Store, Va Q j 

Carrolton Landing, Miss CXVII 

Caroline Bend, Miss CXVII 

Capture of Rebel Steamer Fair Play LV 

Capture of Steamtug Columbine, Fla CIX 

Capture of Fort Hell, Va CXX1II 

Campbell County, Tenn ; LXV 

CAMPBELL STATION, TENN XCIH 

Camphellville, Tenn C XXIII, CXXX 

Campbelltown, fla CXVIII 

Cabin Creek, I. T LXXXI, CXXIII 

Cabin Point, Va CXIX 

Cambridge, Mo LIX 

Campti, La CH 

Camden, Ark CHI 

Carrick s Ford, W. Va XXXV 

Carnifex Ferry, W. Va XXXVII 

Catlett s Station, Va LV, LXI, LXVI 

Cacapon Bridge, Va LVII 

Castor River, Mo LXXIII 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La XCI, XCIII 

Caddo Gap, Ark XCVI, XCVIII 

Canon de Chelley XCVII 

Calf Killer Creek, Tenn C, CI 

Cabletown, Va C 

Cavalry Raid (Kautz s), Va CV, CVII 

California, Mo CXXVI 

Catawba River, N. C CXL 

CKIIAK MOUNTAIN, VA LIV 

Cedar Run, Va LIV 

Cedar Run Church, Va CXXVII 

CEDAR CREEK, VA CXXVII 

Cedar Springs, Va CXXIX 

Cedar Bluffs, C. T CV 

Cedar Keys, Fla CXXXV 

Celina, Ky LXXII 

Celina, Tenn XCIV 

Centreville, La LXXI 

Centreville, Tenn XCI, C XX V 

Centreville, Ala CXXXVIII 

Central Railroad, Va CXII 

Centralia, Mo., Massacre at CXXV 

Charlestown, Mo XXXVI, XLI 

Charlestown, W. Va XLVII, LVII, LX, LXIII, LXXXIX, XC, CXIV 

Charleston, Tenn XC V 

Charleston, Ills CI 

Charleston, S. C CXXXV 

Charleston Bar, S. C LXVII 

Charleston Harbor, S. C LXXI, XCIX 

Chariton Bridge, Mo I-1H 

Cheat Mountain, W. Va XXXVII 

Cheat Kiver, W. Va XLI 

Chalk Bluffs, Mo. . . XLVI, LXXIII 

Chalk Bluffs, Ark LXX, CXL 

Chester Gap, Va LXII, LXXXIV 

Chester Station, Va CVI, CXXIX 

Chesterfield, S. C CX X X VI 

Chapmansville, \V. Va XXXVII 

Chapel Hill, Tenn LXVIII 



CXLIV 



INDEX, 



Page. 

CHAMPION HILLS, Miss . . .LXX V, XCVII 

Cliapin s Farm, Va 

Chambersburg, Vn 

Charles City Cross Roa.ls, Va L, XCHI, CXII, CXXV 

Chantilly, Va LV1 

CHANCKLLOKSVILLE, VA IjXXIV 

Chackahoola Station, La 

CHATl-AXOOOA, TKNX LXXXV, XC1II, CXXXI, CXXXVI 

Chattuhoochie River, Ga CXVI 

Cheese Cake Church, Va... XL 

Cherokee Station, Ala XC, XCI 

Cheek s Cross Roads, Tenn 

Cherry Grove, Va 

Chewa Station, Ga : CXVII 

Cheraw, S. C CXXXVI 

Chickamicomico, N. C XXX VIII 

Chickahominy, Va X LVII, L, CVIII 

Chickasaw Bayou, Miss LXV 

CHICKAMAUOA, GA LXXXVII 

Childsburg, Va C vn 

Chickasaw, Ala., to Macon, Ga., Wilson s Raid CXXXV1I 

Church in the Woods, Mo LIII 

Chuckatuck, Va LX XII 

Chunky Station, Miss XCVIII 

City Belle Transport, La CV 

City Point, Va CVI, CXIX 

Civiques Ferry, La LXXIV 

Clark s Hollow, W. Va... XLVI 

Clarendon, Ark LIV, CI, CXIV 

Clarendon Road, Ark LXVI 

Clarksville, Tenn LV, LVII 

Clarksville, Ark XCI, XCII, CXXV 

Clarkson, Mo LXI 

Clark s Neck, Ky LXXXV 

Clara Bell transport, Miss CXVII 

Clay County, Mo LXXVI, CXV 

Clear Creek, Mo LIII, CVIII 

Clear Springs, Mo CXVI1I 

Clear Lake, Ark CXXXVI 

Clendenin s Raid below Fredericksburg, Va LXXVI 

Cleveland, Tenn XCIV, XCV, CII, CIII, CXX 

Clinton, Miss XC, XCVII, CXV, CXVI 

Clinton, La LXV, LXXVII, CV, CXXI, CXXXVI 

Clinton, N. C XLVI 

Clinton, Ga CXX1X 

Clinton, Mo LI 

Clinton County, Mo XXXIX 

Clinton Creek, La CXXIX 

Clinch River, W. Va XCIV 

Clinch Mountain, Tenn XCIV 

Cloutersville, La CIV 

Cloyd s Mountain, Va CVII 

Columbus, Mo XLI, LII 

Columbus, Ky CXXXIV 

Columbus, Ga CXXXIX 

Columbia, S. C CXXXV 

Columbia, Tenn LVII, CXXX 

Columbia, Ky LXXXI 

Columbia Bayou, La CXI 

Cobb s Point, N. C XLI 

Cochran s Cross Roads, Miss LVII 

Coffeeville, Miss LXVIII 

Cog-gin s Point, Va LIII 

COLD HARBOR, VA : L, CXI 

Coldwater, Miss LII, 

LVII, LXII, LXIII, LXVIII, LXXII, LXXXIV, LXXXV 

Coldwater Grove, Mo CXXVIII 

Cold Knob Mountain, Va LX1IJ 

College Hill, Hiss CXXI 

Colman s, Miss C, CXV 

Colliersville, Tenn LXXXIX, XCI, XCV 

Colliersville, Miss CXIV 

Comfort, N. C LXXXI 

Como, Miss LXXXIX 



Page. 

Combahee River, S. C CXXXIV 

Construction train near Murfrcesboro 1 , Tenn LXVII 

Jouvalescent Corral, Miss LXXXII 

Concha s Spring, N. Mex LXXXIV 

Jonee Creek, La 

;ongaree Creek, S. C CXXXV 

?oosaw River, S. C XL, CXXXI 

, oohomo County, Miss LIII 

:!oon Creek, Mo LV 

}oosa River, Ala CXVI 

Corinth Road, reconnoisance on, Miss XLV 

Corinth, Miss XLVI, LIX, LXXXII, CXII 

Corinth, Miss., evacuation of - - - XLV1I 

Corydon, La LXXXII 

Courtland, Tenn . LV 

Courtland, Ala CXVII 

Courtland Bridge, Ala LII 

Courtland Road, Ala CX 

CosbyCreek, Tenn XCVI 

Cotton Plantation, Ark LI, CIV 

Cotton Hill, W. Va LVII 

Cotton Gap, Ark LXXXVI 

Cottage Groove, Tenn LXIX 

Cove Creek, N. C LXITI 

Cove Mountain, Va CVII 

Covington, Tenn LXIX 

Cow Skin, Mo CXIX 

Cow Creek, Kas CXXIX 

Coyle Tavern, Va LXXXV 

Coxe s Bridge, N. C CXXX VII 

Cross Lanes, W. Va XXXVI 

CROSS KKYS, VA XLVIII 

Cross Hollows, Ark LXI 

Cross Timbers, Mo XC 

Crump s Landing, Tenn XLII1 

Crump s Hill, La CII 

Crab Orchard, Ky LV 

Crawford County, Mo LXIII 

Crawford County, Ark CXIX 

Craig s Meeting-House, Va CV 

Crew s Farm, Va LI 

Creek Agency, I. T XCI 

Creelsboro , Ky XCIV 

Crooked Creek, Ala LXXIII 

Crooked Run, Ohio CIX 

Crooked Run, Va CXX 

Cripple Creek, Tenn LXXV 

Culpeper, Va LI, LXXXVII, LXXXIX, XCII 

Gulp s House, Ga CXIV 

Cumberland, Md CXIX 

Cumberland River, Ky XLI 

Cumberland Mountains, Tenn XLIII, XLVI 

Cumberland Mountain, W. Va XLVI 

Cumberland Gap, Tenn XLIX, LXXXVI, XCVII, XCIX 

Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn LV, LXVII 

Cuyler s Plantation, Ga CXXXII 

Cypress Bridge, Ky XXXIX 

Cypress Bend, Miss. River LXXIX 

Cypress Swamp, Ga... CXXXI 

Cynthiana, Ky LII, CXII 

Dabney s Mills, Va CXXXV 

Dallas, Mo XXXVI, LV 

DALLAS, GA CX 

Dallas, N. C CXXXIX 

Dalton, Ga XCVI, CVII, CXX, CXXVII 

Dam No. 4, Potomac, Va XL 

Dundridge, Tenn XCVI 

Danville, Ky LXIX 

Danville, Ark CI 

Darbytown Roads, Va CXXVI, CXXVII 

Dardanelle, Ark LXXXVI, CVII, CXXXIV 

Darkesville, Va CXVII, CX XIII 

Darnestown, Md XXXVII 

Davis s Farm, Va CXIV 



INDEX. 



CXLV 



Page. 

Davis s Mill s, Miss LXV 

Davis s Cross Roads, Ga LXXXVI 

Days Gap, Ala LXXIII 

Decatur, Ga CX VII, CXIX 

Decntur, Tenn., near LII 

Decatur, Miss XCVIII 

Decatur, Fla C, CIV, CX, CXX, CXXVIII, CXXXII1 

Deer Creek, Miss LX VIII, LXIX 

Denmark, Tenn L VI 

Dent County, Mo XXXIX 

Des Allemands, La LV1I 

Des Arcs, Ark LXVI, CXVII 

Dead Buffalo Lake, D. T LXXXIV 

Deatonsville, Va CXX XIX 

Denver, C. T CIII 

DEKP BOTTOM, VA CXVII, CXVIII 

Deep Bottom Run, Va CXX 

Deep River Bridge, N. C CXX XIX 

Deserted House, Va LXVII 

Devil s Backbone, Ark LXXXVI 

Devaux s Neck, S. C CXXXI 

Diamond Grove, Mo XLV 

Dinwiddie Court-house, Va CXXXV11I 

Ditch Bayou, Ark CXI 

Dobbin s Ferry, Tenn LXIV 

Dodge County, Mo LIII 

Dog Walk, Ky LX 

Donaldsonville, La LXXX, LXXXIII, XCVIII, CXIX 

Donaphan, Mo XLIII, CXXIII 

Doubtful Canon, A. T CV 

Douglas Landing, Ark CXXXVI 

Dover, Tenn XLI 

Dover Road, N. C LXXIII 

Downer s Bridge, Va CIX 

Draft Riot, New York City LXXXIII 

Drainesville, Va XXXIX, XL, XCIX 

Dresden, Ky XLVI 

Dripping Springs, Ark LXV 

Driver s Gap, Ala LXXIII 

Droop Mountain, Va XCII 

Drury s Bluff, Va CVII 

Dry Forks, Mo XXXIV 

Dry Forks, W. Va XLI 

Dry Wood, Mo XXXVU 

Dry Creek, Ala LXXXV 

Dutch Gap, Va LXXXIV, CXI1I, CXXIII 

Dutch Mills, Ark CIII 

Dug Springs, Mo XXXVI 

Dug Gap, Ga LXXXVI, CVI 

Duck River Shoals, Tenn LXXII 

Duck Run, Tenn CXXX 

Dukedom, Ky C 

Dunbar s Plantation, La LXXI 

Dumfries, Va LXV 

Dunksburg, Mo XL 

Dunn s Bayou, La CV 

Dunn s Lake, Fla CXXXV 

Durhamville, Tenn LVIII 

Button s Hill, Ky LXX 

Duval s Bluff, Ark LXVI, XCIV, CXXI 

Din-all s Mills, Va CXXXI 

Dyersburg, Tenn LXVII 

Eugleville, Tenn LXVIII 

East Pnscagoula, Miss LXXI 

East Point, Miss CXXVI 

Ebenezer Church, Ala CXXXV1II 

Ebenezer Creek, Ga CXXXI 

Eden Station, Ga CXXXI 

Edgefield Junction, Tenn LV 

Edisto Island, S. C XLVI 

Edwards s Ferry, Va XXXIV, XXXVIII 

Edwards s Station, Miss LXXV 

Egypt Station, Miss CXXXI1I 

Elkwater, W. Va XXXVII 



Page. 

Elk River, W. Va LV1I 

Elk River, Tenn LXXXI, LXXXIII 

Elk Fork, Tenn LXV 

Elk Shute, Mo CXIX 

Elkton, Ky CXXXII 

Elkton Station, Ala XLVI 

Elkliorn Tavern, Ark XLH 

Elkin s Ford, Ark CII 

Elizabethtown, Ky LXV, CXXXIII 

Elliott Mills, Mo XXXVII 

Ellison s Mills, Va XLIX 

Eltham s Landing, Va XLVI 

Estill County, Ky LXXXIV 

Evlington Heights, Va LI 

Ezra Chapel, Ga CXVIII 

Fairfax Court-House, Va XXXIV, LI, LXIX, LXXX 

Fairfax Station, Va CXXIII 

Fairfield, Penn LXXXI 

Fairburo, Ga CXX 

Fair Gardens, Tenn XCVII 

Fairmount, W. Va LXXIII 

FAIU OAKS, VA XLVIII, CXXVIII 

Falling Waters, Va XXXIV, LXXXIII 

Falmouth, Va XLVI 

Farmington, Miss XLVI 

Farmington, Tenn LXXXIX 

Farmville, Va CXXXIX 

Farrs Mills, Ark CXVI 

Fayette, Mo CXXIV 

Fayettevillo, Ark LII, LXI, LXIV, LXXII, CIX, CXXVIII 

Fayetteville, W. Va LVII, LXIII, LXXV 

Fayetteville, Tenn XCI 

Fayetteville, N. C CXXXVI 

Federal Point, N. C CXXXV 

Fishing Creek, Ky XLI LXXVI 

Fish Springs, Tenn LXVII 

Fish Bay, Ark CXI 

Fisher s Hill. Va CXX, CXXIV, CXXVI 

Fitzhugh s Crossing, Va LXXIII 

Fitzhugh s Woods, Ark CI 

Five Points, Va XCV 

FIVE FOUKS, VA CX XXVIII 

Flat Lick Ford, Ky XLI 

Flat Shoals, Ga C XVIII 

FlintCreek, Ark C 

Flock s Mills, Md CXIX 

Florida, Monroe County, Mo XL VII, LII 

Florence, S. C CXXXVI 

Florence, Ky LVIII 

Florence, Ala LXXVII, XCVI, CIII, CXXVI 

Floyd s Fork, Ky LIX 

Floyd County, Ky LXXX 

Fort Abercrombie, D. T LVII 

Fort Adams, La CXXVI 

Fort Anderson, Ky CI 

Fort Anderson, N. C CXXXV 

Fort Blair, Ark LXXXIX 

Fort Blakely, Ala CX XXIX 

Fort Blunt, I. T LX XVI 

Fort Brady, Va CXXXIV 

Fort Burnham, Va CXXXIV 

Fort Cobb, I. T LXI 

Fort Craig, N. Mex XXXVII, XLII, XLVII 

Fort Cottonwood, Nev CXXII, CXXIII 

Fort Darling, Va XLVI, CVII 

Port Davidson, Mo CXXIV 

Fort De It ussy. La CI 

FOKT DONELSOX, TENN XLI, LV, LXVII, CXXVI 

Fort Esperanza, Tex XCIV 

Fort Fillmore, N. Mex XXXV, LIV 

Kort Fisher, N. C - - .CXXXIII, CXXXIV 

Fort Gaines, Mobile Harbor, Ala... CXIX 

Fort Gibson, I. T LXXVI, CXXIII 

Fort Gilmore, Va CXXV 



CXLVI 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Fort Halleck, I. T LXXXII 

Fort Harrison, Va CXXV 

Fort Hatteras, N. C XXXVI 

Fort Heiman, Tenn CXXVIII 

FOKT HE.VIIY, TENN XLI 

Fort Hill, Vicksburg, Miss LX XIX, LXX X 

Fort Hindman, Ark LXVI 

Fort Jackson and St. Philip, La XLVI 

Fort Johnson, S. C XLIX, CX V 

Fort Jones, N. C CXXXV 

FortKelly, W. Va CXXX 

Fort Leavemvorth, Kans CXXV1I 

FortLyon, I. T CXXXII 

Fort Lyons, Va LXX VII 

Fort McAllister, Ga LXVII, LXVIII, CXXXII 

FortMcCook, Ala LV 

Fort McRae, N. Mex LXX1X 

Fort Macon, N. C XLVI 

Fort Morgan, Ala CXIX, CXXI 

Fort Myers, Fla CXXXV 

Fort Pemberton, Miss LXIX 

FortPickens, Fla XXXIX 

Fort Pike, La LXIII 

Fort Pillow, Tenn XLV, XLVI, XLVIII, CI, C1II 

Fort Pulaski. Ga XLV 

Fort Rice, D. T CXXV 

Fort Ridgley, Minn LV 

Fort Sanders, Tenn XCIV 

Fort Scott, Mo XXXVII 

Fort Scott, Ark LXXXVIII 

Fort Sedgwick, Va CXXV, CXXIX 

Fort Smith, Ark LXXXVI, CXVIII, CXXI 

Fort Steadman, Va CXXXVII 

Fort Stevens, D. C . CXVI 

Fort Sumner, N. Mex XCV 

Fort Sumter, S. C XXXIV, LXXI, LXXXVI 

Fort Taylor, Ga CXXXIX 

Fort Wagner, S. C . . .LXXXII, LXXXIII, LXXXVI 

Fort Wright, Tenn XLVIII 

Fort Brown Road, Tex LXIV 

Forsy th, Mo XXXV, LIII 

Forty Hills, Miss LXXIV 

Foster s Bridge, N. C CXXXII 

Foster s Expedition, N. C LXIV 

Fourteen Mile Creek, Miss LXXV 

Fox Creek, Mo XLII 

Frankfort, Va LXIII 

Frankfort, Ky CXI 

FRANKLIN, TENX LXIV, 

LXVII, LXIX, LXX, LXXIII, LXXVII, CXXII, CXXX, CXXXIII 

Franklin, Mo CXXV 

Franklin, Miss CXXXIV 

Franklin, Va LIX, LXI.LXIII 

Franklin, La LXXVI 

Franklin s Crossing, Va LXXVII 

Franklin County, Ark LXXXVIII 

Franklin Creek, Miss CXXXIII 

Frazier s Farm, Va L 

Frederick, Md LVII CXVI 

Fridericksburg, Mo CXVII 

FflEDEKICKSBURG, VA XLVI, LXII, LXIV, LXXVI 

Fredericksburg Road, Va CVIII 

Fredericktown, Mo XXXVIII 

Freeman s Ford, Va j^V 

Fremont s Orchard, C. T (jj jj 

French Broad, Va XCVII 

Front Royal, Va XL VII, CXX 

Front Royal Pike, Va CXXIV 

Frying Pan, Va LXXVII 

Fulton, Mo XXXV 

Fulton County, Mo LJJJ 

Funkstown, Md LXXXII 

GAIXES S MILLS, V A L CXI 

LVI 



Gainesville, Va. 



Page. 

Gainesville, Fla XCIX, CXX 

Gallatin, Tenn LI V, LIX 

Galveston, Texas LXVI 

Garrettsburg, Ky LXII 

Gauley Bridge, W. Va XXXIX 

Geiger Lake, Ky LVII 

Genesis Point, Ga LXVII, LXVIII 

Georgia Landing, La LXI 

Georgia, Raid in CXVI 

. Germantown, Tenn XLVIII, XCVI1I 

GETTYSBURG, PA LXXX 

Ghent, Ky CXXII 

Glado Springs CXXXII 

Gladesville, Va CXXV 

Glasgow, Ky LX, LXV, LXXXVIII 

Glasgow, Mo CX XVII 

Glendale, Miss XLVI 

Glendale, Va L 

Glorietta, N, Mex XLIII 

Gloucester, Va LXIII 

Gloucester Point, Va LXVII 

Gelding s Farm, Va L 

Goldsboro , N. C LXIV, CXXXVII 

Golgotha, Ga CXIII 

Goose Creek, Va LVIII 

Gordon s Landing, La LXVIII 

Gordonsville, Va CXA XI, CXXXIII 

Gov. Moore s Plantation, La CV 

Grafton, W. Va XXXVI 

Grahams ville, S. C CXXX 

Grand Lake, Ark XCIX 

Grand Haze, Ark LI 

Grand Prairie, Ark LI 

Grand Prairie, Mo LXI 

Grand River, Mo LIV 

Grand Gulf, Miss LXXIII, XCVI, CXVI 

Grand Pass, I. T LXXXII 

Grand Coteau, La XCI 

Grant s Creek, N. C CXXXIX 

Grass Lick, W. Va XLVI, CVII 

Gravel Hill, Va CXX 

Gravelly Run, Va CXXXVII 

Graysville, Ga LXXXVI, XCIV 

Great Bethel, Va XXXIV, XLIII 

Great Falls, Va XX XV 

Great Cacapon Bridge, Va XLI 

Greasy Creek, Ky LXXV 

Greenville, Mo LII 

Greenville, N. C XCIII, XCV 

Greenville, Miss LXVIII 

Grennville, Tenn CXXIII, CXXVII 

GreenBridge, W. Va XXXVII 

Green s Chapel, Ky LXV 

Greenville Road, Ky LXII 

Greenville Road, N. C XLVIII 

Greenland Gap, W. Va LXXII 

Greenland Gap Road, W. Va CXI 

Green Springs Depot, Md CXIX 

Greenwich, Va LX X VII 

Greencastle, Pa LXXIX 

Green River Bridge, Ky LXXX I 

Gregory s Farm, S. C CXXXI 

Grenada, Miss LX XX V 

Griswoldville, Ga CXXIX 

Grosse Tete Bayou, La XCIX, CI . 

Ground Squirrel Church and Bridge, Va CVII 

Groveton, Va LVI 

G uerrilla Campaign in Missouri LIV 

Gum Swamp, N. C LXXVI 

Gunter s Bridge, S. C CXXXV 

Guyandotte, W. Va XXXIX 

Guy s Gap, Tenn LXXX 

Hampton, Va XXXVI 

Hampton Roads, Va XXXII 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Harper s Ferry, Va X XXIV, XLVII, LVII, LXXXVIII 

Harper s Ferry Bridge, Va LXXXII 

Harper s Fann, Va CXXIX 

Harpeth River, Tenn LXVIII, LXXI 

Harrisonville, Mo XX XV, LXII 

Harrison s Island, Va XXXVIII 

Harrison s Landing, Va LIII 

Harrisonburg, Va XLVIII 

Harrisonburg, La C 

Harrison, Mo CXXV 

Harrisburg, Pa LXXX 

Harrodsburg, Ky LX, CXXVII 

Hartsville, Tenn LXIV 

Hartville, Mo LX VI 

Hartwood Church, Va LXIII, LXVIH 

Hartford, Ky LXXVI 

Hamilton, N. C LI, CXXXII 

Hamilton, Va CXXX VII 

Hanover, Pa LXXX 

Hanover Court-house, Va XLVII, LXXX, CX 

. Hanoverton, Va CX 

Hancock, Va XL 

Hanging Rock, W. Va X XXVII 

Hankinson s Ferry, Miss LXXIV 

Hawks Nest, W. Va XXXVI 

Hatchie Kiver, Tenn LII 

HATCHER S RUN, VA CXXVIII, CXXXI, CXXXV 

Hall s Ferry, Miss LXXV 

Hallton -n, Va LXXXIII, CXXI, CXXII 

Hager s Mountain, Md CXVI 

Hagerstown, lid LXXXI, LXXXII, CXV 

Haguewood Prairie, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Half Mount, Ky CHI 

Hainmack s Mills, W. Va CXV 

Half Moon Battery, N. C CXX XIV 

Hardy County, W. Va LXVI 

Harney Lake Valley, Oreg CII 

Hatteras, U. S. Steamer LXVI 

Hawe s Shop, Va CX, CXI 

Haxal s, Va LI 

Haymarket, Va LX 

Haynesville, Va XXXIV 

Hazel Bottom, Mo LX 

Hedgeville, Va LXI, XC 

Helena, Ark LIV, LVIII, LX, LXIII, LXVI, LXXVI, LXXXI 

Henderson Hills, La CI 

Henderson s Mill, Tenn LXXXIX 

Henderson, Ky ; CXVII, CXXIV 

Hendrioks, Mies LXXX VII 

Hernando, Miss LXX1I, LXXIX 

Henrytown, Mo . XXXVIII 

Hicksford, Va CXXXII 

Hickory Grove, Mo LVIII 

Hickman, Ky LV 

High Bridge, Va CXXXIX 

Hillsboro , Ky XXXVIII 

Hillsboro , Ga CXIX 

Hillsborough, Ala LXXI 

Hill s Plantation, Ark LI 

Hill s Plantation, Miss LXXIX 

Hill s Point, Va LX X II 

Hodgeville, Ky XX XVIII 

Holly River, W. Va XLVI 

Holly Springs, Miss LXIII, LXV, CIX, CXXII 

Hollow Tree Gap, Tenn CXX XIII 

Holland House, Va LXXV 

Holston River, Tenn XCIII, XCIX 

Honey Spring, I. T.. LXXXIII 

Honoy Hill, S. C CXXX 

Hoover s Gap, Tenn LXXIX 

Hopkinsville, Ky CXXXII 

Horse-slide Bend, Ky LXXV 

Hi.rt.in s Mills, N. C XLVI 

Hot Springs, Ark XCV1I 



Page. 

Howard County, Mo LVI, CX XII 

Howe s Ford, Ky ... LX XIII 

Hotisatonic, loss of, S. C XCIX 

Hudnot s Plantation, La CV 

Hudson, Mo XL 

Hudsonville, Miss LXII 

Huff s Ferry, Tenn XCII 

Hunnewell, Mo XL 

Humonsville, Mo XL1II, XC 

Hunters villo, Va XL 

Huntsville, Ala XLV, CXXV 

Huntsville, Tenn LXII 

Hurricane Bridge, W. Va LXX 

Hurricane Creek, Miss CXX, CXXI, CXXVIII 

Hutchinson, Minn LVII 

Illinois Creek, Ark LXIV 

Independence, Mo XXXIV, 

XXXIX, XLII, XLIII, LIV, LXVII, CXXVIII 

Indian Bay, Ark CIII 

Indian Vi lage, La LXVII 

Indian City Village, La CXIX 

Indian Ridge, La LXXI 

Indiantown, N. C XCV 

Ingrnham s Plantation. Miss XXXIX 

Ingham s Mills, Miss LXXXIX 

Ironton, Mo XXXVII, XXXVIII, CXXIV 

Irish Bend, La LXXI 

Irwinsville, Ga CXL 

Irvine, Ky LXXXIV 

Isle of Wight Court-house, Va LXV 

Island No. 10. Tenn XLV 

Island No. 76, Miss XCVI 

Island Ford, Va CXVII 

luka, Miss LVIII, LXXXH 

Ivy Ford, Ark XCVI 

Ivy Ford, Ky CXXX1V 

Ivy Hills, Miss XCIX 

Jackson, Tenn LXIV, LXXXIII 

JACKSON, Miss . LXXV, LXXXII, LXXXIII, CXV 

Jackson, La CXXVI, CXXIX 

Jackson Cross Roads, La LXXIX 

Jacksonville, Fla LXX, CV 

Jacksonport, Ark XCV, CIV 

Jacksboro , Tenn XLII 

Jack s Shop, Tenn LXXXVII 

Jack s Shop, Va CX XXUI 

James City, Va LXXXIX 

James River, Va XLVI, LXXXIV, CVI, CXIlt, CXXVIII 

James Island, S. C XLVIII, XLIX, LXXXIII, CXV, CXXXV 

Jarrett s Statinn, Va CVII 

Jefferson, Tenn LXV 

Jefferson City, Mo 1 . CXXVI 

Jefferson ton, Va LXXXIX 

Jeffersonville, Va CVII 

Jenkins s Ferry, Ark CV 

Jenk s Bridge, Ga CXXXI 

Jennie s Creek, Ky XLI 

Jerusalem Plank Road, Va CXIV. CXXIII 

Johnstown, Mo XXXIX 

Johnson Depot, Tenn LX XXVII 

Johnson s Mills, Tenn XCIX 

Johnsonville, Tenn CXXIV, CXXIX 

John s Island, S. C CXV 

John Day s River, Oreg CXXXIX 

Jonesboro , Mo X X XVI, LX X X I X 

Jonesboro , Ark LIII 

JONESliOHO , GA CXXI, CXXII, CXXIX 

Jones s Bridge, Va CXIV 

Jones s Ford, Miss LXXXII 

Jones s Hay Station, Ark CXXI 

Jonesville, Va XCV 

Jornado Del Muerto, N. Mex LXXV1II 

Judah, Rebel Privateer XXXVI 

Julesburg, I. T CXXXIV 



CXLVIII 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Kean.gtown.VB XLII, CXVII 

Kearneysville, Va CXXI 

Kcarsarge and Alabama, off France CXIII 

Holly s Ifland, Va - XXXIV 

Kelly s Ford, Va LV, LXIX, LXXXIV, XCII, XCVII 

Kelly s Store, Va LXVII 

Kcllar s Bridge, Ky CXII 

KENKSAW MOUNTAIN, GA CXI, CXIV 

Kentucky River, Ky LXII 

Kettle Kun, Va LV 

Keyettsville. Mo XLII 

Kincaels, Tenn XCII 

Kilpatrick s raid in Virginia C 

Kilpatrick s raid in Georgia CXXI 

Kimlerhook, Tenn LIV 

Kingstou, N. C LXIV, CXXXVI 

Kingston, Tenn XCIII 

Kingston, Ga CIX 

King George County, Va LXXXV 

King George Court-House, Va LXIII 

King s Cchool House, Va XLIX 

King s River, Ark CHI 

Kingsport, Tenn CXXXII 

Kingsville, Mo CXII 

Kirksville, Mo LIII 

Knob Noster, Mo XLI 

Knoxville, Tenn LXXXVI, XCIII, XCIV, XCVII 

Rock s Plantation, La LXXXIII 

Lavergne, Tenn LX, LXIII, LXIV, LXVI, CXXII 

Labadiesville, La LXI 

Larey s Springs, Va CXXXIII 

Ladija, Ala CXXVIII 

Lafayette County, Mo XLIII, CXII 

Lafayette, Tenn XCV, CXI, CXIV, CXV 

La Fourche Crossing, La LXXIX 

La Grange, Ark LVII, LX, LXII, LXVI, LXXIV 

La Grange, Tenn LXII, LXXI, CXV 

Lake Providence, La LXVII, LXXVII, LXXVIII, LXXX 

Lake City, Fla XCVIII 

Lake Chicot, Ark CXI 

Lamar. Mo LXII 

I.amar, Miss LXIII 

Lamb s Ferry, Tenn <. CXXXIII 

Lamine Crossing, Mo LXXXIX 

Lancaster, Mo XXXIX 

Lancaster, Ky LX 

Lane s Prairie, Mo XXXV, CX 

Lanquelle Ferry, Ark LIII 

Lauderdale Springs, Miss XCIX 

Laurel Hill, W. Va XXXV, CXX V 

Lattemore s Mills, Ga CXIII 

Lawrence, Kans LXXXV 

Lawrence County, Ky LXXXV 

Lawrenceburg, Ky LX 

Lawrenceburg, Ohio LXXXIII 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn XCI, CXXX 

Leatlierwood, Ky LXII 

Leavenworth, Ind LXXIX 

Lebanon. Mo XLIII 

Lebanon, Tenn XLVI, LXII, LXIII, LXVII 

Lebanon, Ky... LI, LXXXI, CXVIII 

Lebanon, Ala XCVII 

Leesburg, Va XXXVIII 

Leesburg, Mo CXXV 

Leosburg Road, Va LVIII 

Leetown, Ark XLII 

Lectown, Va CXV 

LEK S MILLS, VA XLV, CXVI, CXVIII 

Lee, Surrenderor CXXXIX 

Legare s Point, S. C XLVIII 

Legaresville , S. C XCV 

Leiper s Ferry, Tenn XCI 

Lcwisburg, Va XLVII 

Lewisburgh, Ark XCVI 



Page. 

Lewinsville, Va XXXVII 

Lett s Tan Yard, Ga LXXX VII 

Lexington, Mo XXXVI, XXXVII, XLIII, CXII, CXXVII 

Lexington, Ky LX, LXXXIV, CXII 

Lexington, Tenn LXIV 

Lexington, AV. Va CXI, CXII 

Ley s Ferry, Ga C VIII 

Liberty, Mo LX 

Liberty, Va CXIII 

Liberty, La CXXIX 

Liberty Gap, Tenn LXXIX 

Liberty Mills, Va XC 

Liberty Post Office, Ark CHI 

Liberty Creek, La CXXIX 

Licking, Mo ,. . XLVI 

Licking River, Ky CXII 

Lick Creek, Ark LXVI 

Limestone Station Tenn LXXXVI 

Linden, Va XLVI 

Linden, Tenn LXXV 

Linn Creek, A r a XLI 

Linn Creek, Mo XXXVIII 

Little Bear Creek, Ala LXIII, LXIV 

Little Black River, Mo LXXVII 

Little Blue, Mo X X XIX, X LV, CXV, CXX VII 

Little Blue, D. T CXX 

Little Cacapon, A r a CHI 

Little Creek, N. C LXII 

Little Harpeth, Tenn LXX 

Little Missouri River, Ark CII 

Little Missouri River, D. T CXIX 

Little Osage River, Kans CXXVIII 

Little Pond, Tenn LVI 

Little Red River, Ark XLIX 

Little River, Tenn.-.. 4 . CXXVII 

Little Rock, Ark LX X XVI, CX 

Little Rock Road, Ark LXX 

Little Rock Landing, Tenn LXXII 

Little Santa F6, Mo XXXIX, XLIII 

Little Tennessee River XCI 

Little Washington, Va LXIII 

Liverpool Heights, Miss XCVII 

Lock s Ford, A r a CXXIII 

Lockridge Mills, Ky XLVI 

Lohpeach Farm, Mo LI 

Logan County, Va XLI 

Logan Cross Roads, Ky XLI 

Lone Jack, Mo LV 

Long Prairie, Ark CXXI 

Longview, Ark CI 

Lookout Station, Mo XXXVI 

LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN, TENN XCIII 

Lost Mountain, Ga CXI 

Loudoun County, Va LXI 

Loundon Heights, Va XCVI 

Louisa Court-House, Va LXXIV 

Louisville, Tenn XCIV 

Lovejoy Station, Ga CXVIII, CXXI, CXXII, CXXIX 

Lovettsville, Va XXXVI, LXI 

Low Creek, \V. Va LXXIX 

Lowndesboro , Ala CXXXIX 

Lucas Bend, Ky XXVII 

Lumkin s Mills, Miss LX11I 

Luna Landing, Ark XCIX 

Lundy s Lane, Ala LXXI 

Luray, Va L, CXXIV 

Lynchburg, Va CXIII 

Lynch Creek, S. C CXXXVI 

Lynnville, Tenn CXXX, CXXXIII 

McAfee s Cross Roads, Ga CXII 

McConnellsburg, Tenn. LXXIX, LXXX 

McCook s Raid in Georgia CXVII 

McDowell, Va. XLVI 

McLean s Ford, A a XC 



INDEX. 



OXLIX 



Page. 

MeMinnville, Tenn LVI, LXXI1, LXXX VIII 

Macon, Ga OX VII, CXVIII, CXXIX, CXI, 

Macon County, Tenn CXIV 

Madison, Ark LXX 

Madison Court-house, Tenn LX X X VII 

Madison Court-house, Va CXXX III 

Madison Station, Ala CIX, CX XX 

Madison County, Ky I^y 

Madisouvillc, Ky LV, LX 

Madison ville, La XCVI 

Magoffin County, Ky CHI 

Magnolia Hills, Miss LXXIV 

MALVKKX HILL, VA LI, LIII, CX1II, CXVIII 

Manassas, Va XXXV LVI 

Manassas Junction, Va LXI 

Manassas Gap, Va LXII, LXXXIV 

Manchester, Tenn LVI CI 

Mansfield, La CII 

Mansura, La CVIII 

Markham, Va LXII 

Marksville, La CVIII 

Mark s Mills, Ark CIV 

Maria Des Cygnes. Kan CXXVIII 

Maryland Heights, Va CXV 

Marietta, Ga CXI 

Marianna, Ark LXII 

Marianna, Fla .. CXXV 

Marrowbone, Ky LXXXI 

Marshall, Mo LXXXIV, LXXXIX 

Marysville, Tonn XCII 

Marion County, W. Va XXXVI 

Marion, Miss XCIX 

Marion, Va CXXX1II 

Marslifleld, Mo XLI, LXI 

Mason s Neck, Va XLII 

Mason s Bridge, S. C CXXXI 

Matapony, Va LIII 

Maysville, Ark LXI 

Maysville, Ala LXXXV, LXXXIX 

Mayfield, Ky XCVI 

Maplosville, Ala CXXXVIII 

Matagorda Bay, Tex XCV 

Mazzard Prairie, Ark CXVIII 

Martinsburg, Va XXXIV, LVU, LXXVIII, CXX, CXXIII 

Martinsburg, Mo XXXV 

Martin s Creek, Ark XCV 

Mathew s Point, Va XXXIV 

Memphis, Tenn XLVIII, LIX, CV, CXXI, CXXXII 

Memphis, Mo LII 

Merriweather s Ferry, Teun LIV 

Mesila, N. Mex XXXVI 

MECIIAXICSVILLE, VA XLIX 

Mechanicsville, Miss LXXVII 

Medon Station, Tonn LXVIII 

Meadow Bridge, Va CVIII 

Meadow Bluff, W. Va XCV 

Medal ia, Mi?s LXXI 

Mechanicsburg, Miss LXXVII 

Medley, W. Va XC VII 

Meridian, Miss, Expedition to XC VII 

Meridian, Miss XCIX 

Merrill s Crossing, Mo LX X XIX 

Messenger s Ferry, Miss LXXXI 

Motley s Ford, Tenn XCI 

Metamora, Miss LIX 

Middle Creek Ford, W. Va XXXV 

Middle Creek, Ky XLI 

Middloburg, Va XLIII, LXXIX 

Middleburg, Miss LXV 

Middlctown, Va XLVII, LXXVIII, CXX VII 

Middle-town. Tonn LXVI, LXVII, LXXVI, LXXIX, XCVI 

Middleton, Md CX VI 

Millsville, Mo XXXV 

Mill Creek Mills, W. Va XXXVIII 

Mill ( ruck ValU y. W. Va XC11 

Mill Spring*, Ky XLI 

20* 



LI 

Cl\ 

LXVII 

XCIII 



Pago. 
Mill Point, W. Vn ........................................ XCH 

Mill Creek, Gu ...................................... (yi 

Mill Creek, Tenn ................................. CXXXI 

Millen Grove, Ga ...................................... CXXXI 

Millwood, Va ........................................ CXXXI1I 

Milton, Tenn... .............................. LXVIII, LXIX 

Milton, Fla ............................. ............... CXXVIII 

Milliken s Bend, La ...................................... LV, LXXVH 

Milford, Mo .............................................. XL 

Milford, Va ............... ................................ 

Milford Station, Va ................................... 

Mingo Swamp, Mo ....................................... 

Mine Run, Va., Operations at .............................. 

Mine Creek, Kas ......................................... CXXVIII 

Mississippi Kivcr, Miss .................................... LXVIII 

Mississippi City, Miss ..................................... XLII 

Mississippi Central Railroad .......................... LVI, LXV, CX XX 

Missouri River, D. T ...................................... LXXXIV 

Missionary Ridge, Tenn ...................... . ............ XCIII 

Mitchell s Station, Va ..................................... LIV 

Mitchell s Creek, Fla ...................................... CXX X HI 

Moorefield, Va ............................................ LXII, 

LXVI, LXXXVI, LXXXVII, XCVII, CXI, CXIX 
Moore s Mills, Mo ......................................... LIII 

Moresburg, Tcun ......................................... XCIV 

Monroe Station, Mo ____ 4 .................................. XXXV 

Monroe County, Mo ....................................... XLVII 

Monroe s Cross Roads, N. C ............................... CXXXVI 

Morristown, Mo ........................................... XXX VII 

Morristown, Tenn .................. XXXIX, XCIV, CX XVIII, CXXIX 

Morris Island, S. C ........................ LXXXII, LXXXV, LXXXVI 

Morris Conuty, Mo ........................................ (jx 

Morgan s Mills, Ark ...................................... XCVIII 

Morgantown, Ky ....................................... XXXIX, LXI 

Morgan County, Tenu ..................................... XLI 

Morgansville, Ky ......................................... LVI 

Morgan s Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio ............. LXXXI 

Morganzia, La ............................................ LXXXVIII 

Monday s Hollow, Mo ..................................... XXXVIII 

Monocacy, Md ............................................ CX VI 

Monocacy River, Md ...................................... LX 

Moffat s Station, Ark ...................................... CIII 

Mosby s Raid in Virginia .................................. LXIX 

Moscow, Tenn ............................................ XCI, C XIII 

Moscow, Ark ............................................. (JIH 

Moscow Station, Miss ..................................... XCIV 

Mosquito Inlet, Fla ....................................... XLIII 

Mount Zion, Mo .......................................... XL 

Mount Zion Church, Va .................................... CXV 

Mount Sterling, Ky ................................... LIII, LXIX, CXI 

Mount Washington, Ky ................................... LIX 

Mount Veruon, Ark ....................................... LXXV 

Mount Tabor Church, N. C ................................ LXXXIV 

Mount Jackson, Va ....................................... XCIII 

Mount Ivy, Miss .......................................... XCIX 

Mount Elba, Ark ......................................... CI 

Mount Pleasant Landing, La ...... . ...................... CVIII 

Mount Clio, S. C ......................................... CXXXVI 

Mount Pleasant, Miss ..................................... CIX 

Mount Pleasant, Ala ...................................... CXXXVIII 

Mount Crawford, Va ............... . ..................... CXI, CXXXVI 

Mount Carmel, Tenn ...................................... CXXX 

Mobile Harbor, Ala ...................... . ................ CXIX 

Mossy Creek, Tex ........................................ XCV 

Mossy Creek, Tenn ....................................... XCVI 

Morton s Ford, Va ..................................... ... XCVIII 

Morton, Miss .............................................. XCVIII 

Monetir s Bluff, La ....................................... CIV 

Morrow Creek, Ark ....................................... CIV 

Morreausville, La ......................................... CVIII 

Moulton, Ala ............................................. CX 

Montgomery County, Ark ................................. CXV1 

Montgomery and West Point Railroad, Ga ................. CXVII 

Montgomery, Ala ......................................... CXXX IX 

Moreau Bottom, Mo ...................................... CXX VI 

Monteith Swain) , Ga ........... ......................... CXXX II 



CL 



rage. 
oeassin Gap. Va CXXXIII 



MO 

Mountain Orovo, Mo 
Mountain Store, Mo. 

Jlonterey. Ky 

Montorey, Va 

Monterey, Tenn 

Montorey Gap, Mil 



XLII 

LII 

XLIX 

XLV 

XL VI 

LXXXI 



Montavallo, Mo XLV, LIU 

Montavallo, Ala CXXXVIH 

Morning- Sun, Tenn LI 

Mobile, Ala CXXXVII 

Monticello, Ky LX XIV, LXXVII 

Montieello, Ark , t l 

Munson s Hill, Va XXXVI, XX XVII 

Mumford s Station, Ala CXL 

Mumfordsville. Ky XL, LVII, LIX 

Murfreesboro , Tenn LI, LXV, 

LXIX, LXXVII, LXXIX, CXXIII, CXXXI, CXXXH, CXXXIII 

Murfreesboro Itoad, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Mtildratigh s Hill, Ky. 

Muddy Run, Va 

Mud Springs, I. T. 



XCIX 
XCIII 

CXXIX 
LXXI 

LXX1V 



LXV 

XC1I 

cxxxv 

Mussel Shoals. Ala CXXVIII 

Mulberry Gap, Tenn 

Mustang Island, Tex 

Myerstown, Va 

Nansemond, Va 

Nnnsemond River, Va 

Namozin Church, Va CXXXVI1I 

Narrows. Ga CXXVI 

Nashville, Tenn X LII, LII, LX, LXII, CIX, CXXXI, CXXXII 

Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, Tenn CXX, CXXII 

Natches, Miss LXXXIV, XCII, XCIV 

Natchitoches, La CI, CIV 

Natural Bridge, Fla CXXXVI 

Nauvoo, Ala CXXXIV 

Nelson s Farm, Va L 

Neosho, Mo XLVI, XLVIII, LXXXVIII 

Neuses River, N. C CXXXIX 

Newark, Mo LIII 

Neu nan, Ga CXVIII 

New Borne, N. C XLIII, 

XLVI, XLVII, LXII, LXVIII, LXIX, XCVII, C 

New Market, Va CVIII, CXVIII, CXXVI 

New Market Bridge, Va XL 

New Market Cross Roads, Va L 

New Market Heights, Va CXXV, CXXVI 

Newport News, Va XXXIV, XL, XLII 

Newport Barracks, N. C XCVII 

Newtonia, Mo LVII, CXXVIII 

Newton, Lu LXXXVIII 

Newtown, Va XLVII. CXXIX 

New Creek, W. Va XXXIV, CXIX, CXXX 

New Creek Valley, W. Va XCVII 

New Albany, Miss LXXII, LXXXVIII 

"New Baltimore, Va LXII 

New Bridge, Va XLVII 

New Hope, Ky LI 

New Hope Church, Ga CX 

New Lisbon, Ohio LXXXIV 

New Madrid, Mo XLII, XLIII, LXXXV 

New Madrid Bend, Tenn XCI 

New Orleans, La XLVI 

New River Bridge, Va C VII 

New Ulm, Minn LV 

Niekajaek Trace, Ga CIV 

Niokajack Creek, Ga CXV 

Ninevah, Va CXXIX 

Niobrara, Neb XCIV 

Nolansville, Md LVII 

Nolaiisville, Tenn LXV, LX VIII 

Noonday Creek, Ga CXIII 

Norfolk, Va XLVI 

Northeast River, N. C LX VI 



Pasfe. 

Northport, Ala CXXXVIH 

North Anna River, Va LII, C VII, CIX 

North Edisto Kiver, S. C CXXXV 

North Fork, Va CXX XVI 

North Mountain, Va CXV 

North Missouri Railroad CXXV 

North River, W. Va CXV 

North Shenandoah, Va CXXVI 

Nose s Creek, Ga CXI, CXIII, CXXV 

Nottaway Creek, Va CVII 

Nottaway Court-house, Va : CXIV 

Nuece s River, Tex L1V 

Oak Grove, Va XLIX 

Oakland, Miss L X 1 1 1 

Obion River, Tenn L I V 

Occoquan, Va XLII, LXV 

Occoquan Creek, Va XXXIX 

Occoquan Bridge, Va X L I 

Ocean Pond, Fla XC I X 

Oconee River, Ga CXXX 

Oflett s Knob, Mo CIV 

Ogeechee River, Ga CXXXI 

Okalona, Miss XCIX 

Okalona, Ark C1I 

Oldtown, Md CXIX 

Old Church, Va CX, CX1I 

Old Fort Wayne, Ark LXI 

Old Oaks, La CIX 

Old River, La LX VII, CIX 

Old River Lake, Ark CXI 

Olive Branch, La CXXXVI 

Olive Hill, Ky LI X 

Olustee, Fla XCIX 

Oostenaula, Ga CVIII 

Opeiousas, La XC 

Oi EQUAX, VA CXXIII 

Oraiigeburg, S. C CXXXV 

Orange Court-house, Va LII, LII I 

Orchards, Va XLIX 

Orchard Knol), Tenn XCIII 

Oregon Mountains XCVII 

Orleans, Ind LXXV1II 

Osage, Mo LXI 

Osceola, Mo XXXVII, XLVII 

Osceola, Ark CI 1, C X IX 

Otter Creek, Va CXIII 

Overall s Creek, Tenn CXXXI 

Overtoil s Hill, Tenn CXXXII 

Owens Valley, Tenn LXVIII 

Owens River, Cal XLV 

Owens County, Ky XLTX 

Owensburg, Ky LV1II 

Owcnsboro Ky CXXII 

Oxford Hill, Miss CXXI 

Oxford Bend, Ark LXI 

Ox Hill, Va LVI 

Ozark, Mo .1,111, LXI II, CX VI 

Paint Rock Railroad Bridge X LVI 

Paintsville, Ky XLI, XCIII 

Palo Alto, Miss LX XII 

Palmyra, Mo XXXIX 

Palmyra, Tenn XCII 

Palmetto Ranch, Tex CXL 

I aducah, Ky CI 

Pamunkey River, Va CX 

Panther Creek, Mo LI V 

Panther Springs, Tenn C 

Panther Gap, W. Va CXI 

Papinsvillc, Mo XXXVII 

Paris, Ky LIII, LXIX, LXXXIV 

Paris, Tenn XLII, LXXXVI1 

Parkersville, Mo XXXV 

Parker s Cross Roads, Tenn LXV 

Pasquotank, Mo LXXXV 



INDEX. 



CLI 



Page. 

Pass Christian, Misa XLI1I 

Pattaeassey Creek, N. C LXXXIV 

Patl. ii, Mo LI1 

Patterson, .Mo LXXTl 

Pattcrsonville, La LXX 

Patterson Crock. Va XXXIV, XCVI1 

Pawnee Reservation IA XI X 

Pawnee Forks. Kas CXXX 

Peach Orchard, Va L 

Peach Tree Creek, Ga CXVII 

Pea Ridge, Ark ^ XLII 

Poa Vino Creek, Ga XCIV 

Pochacho Pass, 1). T XI, V 

Pcmbiseott Bayou, Ark CII 

Peusacola, Fla XXXIX, CII 

Poralto, X. Mcx XLV 

Pony County, Ky LXII 

PKIIUVVILU-:, KY L-X 

1 >e rry v i 11 e, Ark L X X X V 

Petersburg!!, \V. Va XXXVII, XCVI 

PKTUI .Sm. UG, VA LII1, CXII 

cxin, cxv, cxvur, cxix, cxxn, cxxxi, cxxxvn, cxxxvin ; 

Petersburg, Tenn LX VIII 

Petit Joan, Ark CXVI 

Pliilaleli>liia, Tenn XC, XCI 

Phi 1 ip s Crook, Miss XLVII 

Phillippi, W. Va XXXIV 

Phil. unont, Va L XI 

Piedmont, Va CXI 

Piedmont Station, Va LXXV 

Picree s Point, FUi CXXVII 

Pierson s Farm, Va CXIII 

Pike County, Ky XXXIX 

Piketown, Ky XXXIX 

Pike Creek, Ky CVIII 

Pikeville, Ky IAXI 

Pikesville, Ark CX I V 

Pilot Knob, Mo CXXVIII 

Pinckncy Island, S. C LV 

Pino Bluff, Ark XCI, XCVI, CXIII, CXV, CXXIII, CXXVI 

Pin- lilufl", Tenn CXXI 

Pino Barren Creek, Ala CXXXIII, CXXXV11 

Pine Knob, Ga CXIII 

Pine Mountain, Ga CXII 

Pineville, Mo LXXXV 

Piney Factory, Tenn XCI 

Pinoy Woods, La CII 

Pinos Altos, Ariz LXVII 

Pittman s Ferry, Ark LI1 

Pittman s Ferry, Mo IAI 

Pittsburg Landing , Tenn XLII, XLV 

Plaqucmine Bayou, La LXVII 

Plaquemine, La LXXIX, CXIX 

Plain .Stores, La LXXVI, CII 

Plattsburg, Mo XXXIX 

Platte City, Mo CXV 

Pleasant Hill, Mo LI, CX 

Pleasant Hill, La CIII 

Pleasant Hill Landing, La. . . ?. CIII 

Pleasant Grove, La CII 

Pleasant Valley, Md C XV 

Plymouth, N. C LVII, CIII, CXXIX 

Plantorsville CX X X Vlll 

Po.Mtaligo, S. C.... XLVII, LXI.CXXXIV 

Pocahontas County, W. Va XCII 

Point Lookout, Va CVIII 

Point of Hocks, Md .- XXXVI, CXI, CXV 

Point Lick, Ky I,\l 

Point Pleasant, W. Va LXX 

Point Pleasant, La CXIV 

Point Washington, Fla XCVI II 

Poison Springs, Ark CIII 

Polk s Plantation, Ark LXXVI 

Poplar ^pi-ings Church, Va ( XXV 



Pago. 

Pollooksville, N. C 1... XLV, LXVI 

Polk County, Mo XLII1 

Pond County. Ky. CVIII 

Pond Spring, Ala CXXXIII 

Pontotoc, Miss CXVI 

Ponchatoula, La L VI II, LXX, LXXV 

Poolesville, Md I/, 1 1 

Pope s Campaign in Virginia. l,\l 

Port Royal, S. C XXXIX, XL 

Port Republic, Va XLVII I 

Port Gibson, Miss LX XI V, XCV, CXV, CX VI 

Port Hudson, La LXIX 

Port Hudson, La LXX VII, LXX VIII, LXX XI I, CII 

Port Hudson Plains, La LXXVI 

Port Walthal, Va c VI 

Poole s Station, Ga CXXXI 

Potosi, Mo XX XVI, XXX Vlll 

Pound Gap, Va CXX V 

Pound ( iap, Tenn X LIU, L XXXI 

Pound Ga]i. Ky cm 

Powel s River Bridge, Tcun . XCIX 

Powder Springs, Ga CXIII, CXX V 

Powhattan, Va CXXX IV 

Prairie D Ann, Ark CIII 

Prairie Station, Mo LXVIU 

Prairie Station, Miss XCIX 

Prairie Grove, Ark LXIV 

Treble s Farm, Va CXXV 

Prentis, Miss LIX 

Price s Invasion of Missouri CXX1V 

Princeton, W. Va XLVII, CV1 

Princeton, Ky CXII 

Princeton, Ark XCIV, CIII, CXXVIII 

Prince s Place, Mo CXXVI 

Pritchard s Mill, Md XX XVI I 

Pueblo Colorado, Mo LXXXV 

Pulaski, Ala LXX X] II 

Pulaski, Tenn LXXXIX, CXXV, CXXXIII 

Pulaski, Ga CVIII 

Pumpkin Vine Crock, Ga CX 

Putnam s Ferry, Mo XL1II 

Quaker Bridge. N. C LXXXI 

Quaker Road, Va C VII 

Qualltown, N. C XCV1II 

Quicksand Creek, Ky CII 

Raccoon Ford, Va LXXXV1I 

Raccoon Ford, Ala CXXVIII 

Racoland, La XLIX 

Randolph County, Mo XX XIX 

Rapidan, Va LXXXIX, XC, C 

Rapidan Station, A r a LXXIV, LXXXVII 

llapidan Railroad Bridge, Va H 

Rappahannock, Va LXXXIX, Cl 

Rappahannock River, Va LV, LXX III 

Rappahannock Bridge, Va LXII, XCI 

Rappahannock Crossing, Va XC 

Rappahannock Station, Va LX.XXIV, XCI t 

Rawle s Mills, N. C LXII 

Ray Count j", Mo XXXVIII 

Raymond, Miss LXXV, XCVI I 

Ray town, Mo XLIX 

Readyville, Tenn LVI 

Ream s Station, Ta C X I V, CX V 1, ( X X 1 

Rectortown, Va . XCV 

Rod Bone, Miss CIV 

Red Bono Church, Mo LX XX Vlll 

Red Clay, Ga CV 

Red Hill, Ala CXX XIV 

Red House, W. Va XXXV 

Red Mound. Tenn LX V 

Red Oak, Ga CXXI 

Rod River, La LX VIII, CIV, CV 

Redwood Crook, Cal LX X \ 1 1 

Rcduood, Miss.... LV 



CLTI 



INDEX. 



Pap;e. 
LXIII 
XL VI 
XXXIX 
CXXXVII 



Reed s Mountains, Ark 

Reedy Creek, W. Va 

Renick, Mo 

Ren>ck, Ariz 

CVIII, CXXVII 

Uosaca. da 

Reynold s Plantation 

Rhoa s Mills. Ark 

Rheatown, Tean LXXXIX 

Riehfield, Mo LXXVI 

Richland, Ark C ^ 

Richland. Tcnn CXX n 

Rioli Mountain, \V. Va XX XV 

Ri,Umoml,Ky LVI.LXXXIV 

Richmond, La LXX.LXXVIII 

Richmond, Va C, CVII, CXXVIII, CXXXVIII 

Richmond & Petersburg Railroad, Va CVII 

Rickett s Hill. TiMin Lvn 

Riddle s Shop, Va CXII 

Rienzi, Miss IjV 

Ringo-old, Ga LXXXVI.XCIV 

Ripley, Tonn - LX VI 

Ripley, Miss XCIV,CXI,CXII,CXVI 

River s Kridjre, S. C CXXXV 

Robertson s Unn, Va LXXX I X 

Roan s Tan Yard ^ LI 

Roanoke Island, N. C XLI 

Roannkc River, N. C CV 

Roach s Plantation, Miss 

Rocheport, Mo LXXVII 

Rockford, Tenn 

Rookinp-hain, N. C CXXX VI 

Rockport, Mi CXXIV 

Rockville, Mil LXXXVII 

Rocky Creek Church, Ga CXXXI 

Rocky Crossing, Miss LXXIX 

Rocky Face Kldge, Ga C, C VI 

Rocky Gap, Ivy LXXVII 

Rocky Gap, Va LXXX V 

Rocky House. W. Va XCVIII 

Rocky Mount Raid, N. C LXXX1II 

Rodgersville, Ala XLVI 

Rodgersville, Tenn CXXI 

Rodney, Miss XCV, C 

Rogersville, Tcnn .. XCII 

Rolla, Mo XXXV, CXIX 

Rolling Fork, Miss CXXIX 

Rolling Prairie, Ark XC VI 

Rolling- Prairie, Mo XCVII 

Rome, Ga LXXIII, CVIII, CIX 

Romnfy, W. Va XXXIV, XXXVIII, LXVIII 

Rood s Hill, Va CVIII, CXXX 

Rosecnins Campaign in Tennessee LXXIX 

Rosevillo, Ark XCII, CII 

Rousseau s Raid in Alabama and Georgia CXVI 

Rousseau s Pursuit of AVheeler, Tenn CXXII 

Round Away liayou, La LXX 

Round 1 1 ill, Ark LI 

Round Hill, Tenn LVI 

Rover, Tenn LXVII 

Rowanty Creek, Va CXXXV 

Rowlett s Station, Ky XL 

Running Vicksburg Batteries LXXI 

Rural II ills, Tenn LXIII 

Rush Creek, I. T CXXXV 

Kusscl s House, Miss ." XLVI 

Russelvillc, Tenn LI 

llusselville, Ky LIII, LIX 

Rutherford s Creek, Tenn LXIX, CXXXIII 

Sabine Pass, Tex LXXII 

Sabine 1 ass, La LXX XVI 

Sabine Cross Roads, La CII 

Sacramento, Ky XL 

Sacramento Mountain, Va CXXI 

Salem, N. C .. CXXXVIII 



Page. 

. LXXXIX 
LXII.CXIIl 
XXXIX 
XI-HI 
LXIV 
LXIX 
CXI 

CXXXV 
. L1V, XCIV 
CXXXIX 



Salem, Miss 

Salem, Va - 

Salem, Mo 

Salem, Ark 

Salem Cemetery, Tenn 

Salem Pike, Tenn 

Salem Church, Va 

Salkahatchie, S. C 

Salisbury, Tenn 

Salisbury, N. C 

Saline County, Mo *. LXXX1 V 

Saline River, Ark CV 

Salt Lick, Va 

Salt ville, Va CX XV, CXXX If, C X XXIII 

Nalyersville, Ky XCIV 

Sailors Creek. CXXXIX 

Saint Charles River, Ark CX1V 

Salnarhi Church, Va - CXIII, CX 1 V 

Sam Gaty, Massacre on Steamer LXX 

San Carlos River, Cal 

Sand Creek, I. T C X X X 1 1 

Sand Mountain, Ala LXXIII 

Sandersville, Ga CXXX 

Sangster s Station, Tcnn XCV 

Santa Fe, N. M XLIII 

Santa Fe, Mo LII 

Santa Rosa, Fla XX XVIII 

Saratoga, Ky X X X Vi;i 

Sartoria, Miss LXXVII 

Saunders, Fla CIX 

Saulsbury, Miss CX V 

SAVAGK STATION", VA L 

Savannah, Tenn XLV 

Savannah, Ga., Siege of. CXXXI 1 

Scatterville, Ark LI 

Scott s Mills Road, Tenn XCVII 

Scott s Farm, Ark XCVIII 

Scottsboro , Ala CX X XIV 

Scottsville, Ala C X XX VIII 

Scrougesville, Tenn LXIII 

Scnllyvillc, I. T CIII 

Seabrook s Point, S. C XLVIII 

Senrcy, Ark CXI, CXV, CXXIII 

Searcy Landing, Ark XLVI 

Scarytown, \V. Va XXXIV 

Secessionville, S. C XLIX.LXXXIH 

Sedalia,Mo XXXIX, CXX VII 

Sclnm, Ala CXXXVIII 

Senatobia, Miss LXXVI 

Seneca, Md LX XVIII 

Seneca Station, I. T LXXXVII 

Seven Days Retreat, Va L 

SKVEN PINES, VA XLVIII 

Seviersville, Tenn XCVII 

Shady Springs, Va LVI, LX X XIII 

Shanghai, Mo XXXVII, XXXVIII 

Shannon Hill, Va LXX1V 

Sharpsburnr, Md LVI II 

Shawnee Mound, Mo * XL 

Shawneo Town, Kas < LXXVII 

Shelby Depot, Tenn LXI 

Shelby County, Ky MJ 

Shelby ville, Tenn LXXX 

Shelbyville Pike, Tenn LXXVII, LXXIX, LXXXIX 

Shelbina, Mo X XXVII 

Shelbiii-nc, Mo. LVIII 

Shenandoah, Va CX X X VI 

Shennndoah River, Va CXVII 

Shepherdstown, Va LIX, CX XI 

Sheppardstown, Va LVIII, LXXXIII 

Shepherdsville, Ky LIX 

Sheridan s Cavalry Haid, Va CVU.CXXXVI 

Sherwood, Mo LX X V 

Smi.ull, TEN N... XLV 



[NDEX. 



CLI1I 



Ship s t!ii>, Ga 

Shirley s Ford, Mo.. 

Shoal Creek, A hi 

Sibley s Landing, M<; 
Silver Crook, Mo ... 



Page. 

CXXVII 

lA III 

CXXIX 

LX, LXX 

XLI 

Silver Lake, Fla XCIX 

Silver Run, N. C C XX XVI 

Simmsport, La ( IX 

Simpsonville, Ky CXXXIV 

Sinking Creek, Va LXIII 

Sipsey Swamp, Ala CXXXIX 

Six Mile House, Va CXX 

Six Mile Creek, Ala CXXXV1II 

Skeet, N. C LXV1II 

Slatersville, Va XLVI 

Slaughter Mountain, Va LIV 

Slaughtorville, Ky LVII 

Smithfield, Va LXVIT, LXXXVII, XCVII, CIII, CXXI, CXXII 

Smithfield, Ky CXXXIV 

Smithsburg, Md LXXXI 

Smith s Farm, N. C CXXXVU 

Smith s Kaid in Tennessee XCVIII, CXV 

Smith s Station, I. T C VII 

Smithville, Ark XLIX 

Smoky Hill, C. T CV1II 

Smoky Hill Crossing, Kas - CXX 

Smyrna, Ga CXV 

Snaggy Point, La C V 

Snake Creek Gap, Ga C VII, CXXVII 

Snia Hills, Mo CIV, CIX 

Snicker s O ap, Va LXI, CX VI 

Snicker s Gap Piko, Va CXXI 

Snicker s Ferry, Va LXIII, CXVH 

Snow Hill, Tenn. LXX 

Snyder s Bluff, Miss LXXIII 

Snydersville, Miss CI 

Solomon s Gap. Md CXVI 

Somerset, Ky XLI, LXX 

Sornerville Heights, Va XLVI 

Eomerville, Tenn LXX 

Sounding Gap, Tenn XLIII 

South Anna, Va LXXX, C, CVII, CXXXVI 

South Branch of Watonwnn, Minn LXXI 

South Edisto River, S. C CXXXV 

South Fork, Potomac, Va LXII 

South Fork, Orcg CXXXIX 

South Mills, N. C XLVI 

SorTii MOUNTAIN, Mi> LVIII 

South Quay, Va LXXI 

South Quay Bridge, Va LXXIV 

Southside Railroad, Va CXXVIII 

South Tunnel, Tenn CXXVI 

South Union, Ky LXXV 

Southwest Mountain, Va LIV 

Southwest Creek, X. C LXIV 

Spanish Fort, Ala CXXXVU 

Spanish Fort Canon, U. T LXXI 

Sparta, Tenn LII1, LXXXV, XCIII 

Sperry ville, Va LJ 

Spoonville, Ark (JII 

Sporting Hill, Pa LXXX 

SroTTSYI.VANIA COL llT HOU.SK, VA LXXIII, ( VI 

Springfield, Mo ... XXXVIII, XXXIX, LX VI 

Springfield, W. Va... AC VII 

Springfield Landing, La LXXXI 

Spring Hill, Tenn LXIX.CXXX 

Spring River. A rk XLII I, XCVIII 

Spring River, Mo LVIII, LX VIII 

Stanardsville, Va (; 

Statii Creek, Kas LXX VII I 

Stntesboro , Ga CXXXI 

Stamford, Ky L\ 

Stahel s Reeonnoissanee, Va I, XII I 

Staunton Bridge. Va CXI V 



Page. 

Stanton Hoad, Va XLV III 

St. Augustine, Fla XCV 

St. Catharine s Creek, Miss LX \ > IV 

St. Francois Kivcr, Mo LXXIII 

St. George s Creek, Ohio LXX XIII 

St. Charles, Ark XLIX 

St. Francis County, Mo LXXI 

St. John s Uiver, Fla CIX. 

St. Mary s River, Fla J CVIII 

St. Mary s Trestle, Fla CXVII 

St. Louis, Mo xx XIV 

St. Vrain s Old Fort, N. Mex CXXX 

Steele s Bayou, Miss LXIX 

Sterling s Farm, La LXXXVIII 

Sterling s Plantation, La LXXXVII 

Steamer Empress, Miss (XIX 

Stevenslmrg, Va XCII C 

Stevens Gap, Ga LXXX VI 

Stevenson, Ala LV1 

Stevenson s Depot, Va CXVII 

Stewart s Plantation, Ark ^ 

Stewart s Creek, Tenn LXV LXVI 

Stone s Farm, Ark ^ jj 

Stone s Ferry, Ala CXVI 

STONE RIVEU, TEXN LXVI 

Stony Lake, D. T LXXXI V 

Stony Creek, Va CXIV 

Stony Creek Station, Va C VI, CXXVI, CXX X 

Stono Inlet, S. C LXXI, XCV 

Stockton, Mo Ljy 

Stockade at Stone River, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Stoneman s Raid in Va LXXIII 

Stonetnau s Raid to Macon, Ga .... CXVII 

Stoneman s Raid in Tenn. and Va CXX Xll 

Stoneman s Raid in Southwest Va. and N. C CXXXVU 

Strasburg, Va XLIII, XLVIII, CXX, CXXVI, CXXVII 

Strasburg Road, Va LX VIII, LXX1I 

Strawberry Plains, Tenn ; (j yi 

Strawberry Plains, Va CXX 

Streight s Raid in Georgia and Alabama LXXIII 

Sturgeon, Mo LIX 

Sugar Creek, Mo XLI, XLII 

Sugar Creek, Tenn LXX XIX, CXX XIII 

Sugar Loaf Mountain, Md LVII 

Sugar Loaf Hill, N. C CXXXIV 

Sugar Loaf Battery, N. C CXXXV 

Sugar Valley, Ga C VIII 

Sulphur Branch Trestle, Ala CXXI V 

Sulphur Springs, Va LV 

Sulphur Springs Bridge, Va CXIX 

Suffolk, Va LXV, LXXI, LXXV, C 

Summerville, \V. Va XXXVI, LX VII 

Summerville, Miss LXIII 

Summerville, Tenn XCV 

Summit Point, Va CXXI 

Sumpterville, S. C CXXXVU, CXXXIX 

Sunshine Church, Ga CXIX 

Surrender of Lee CXXXIX 

Surrender of Johnson CXL 

Surrender of Taylor CXL 

Surrender of Sam. Jones CXL 

Surrender of Jeff. Thompson CXL 

Surrender of Kirby Smith CXL 

Supply Train, Tenn XC1 

Sutton, Va .... LIX 

Suwano Gap, N. C CXL 

Swallow s Bluff, Tenn LXXX\ III 

Swan Lake, Ark CIV 

Sweden s Cove, Tonn XL VI: I 

Sweetwater, Tenn XCI 

Sweet water Creek, Ga CXX V 

Swil t Cieek, Va CVII 

Swift Creek, S. C CXXXIX 

.Swift Creek Bridge, N. C I. 



CLIV 



INDEX. 



XLII 

CXXX 

LIU 

LIV 

CXVHI 

LXX 

CXL 

XL VI 

xcv 

XLIX 



Pago. 

Sycamore Church, Va Mil, CX XIII 

Sykcstown, Mo 

Sylamore, Ark 

Sylvan Grove. Ga 

Taberville, Mo 

Taberville, Ark 

Tnh-Kah-o-Kuty, D. T 

Tahliquah, I. T 

Talladcga, Ala 

Tiilbott s Ferry, Ark 

Talbot s Station, Tenn 

Tallahatchic, Fin 

Tallahntchio, Miss LXXIX, LXXXIX, CXIX 

Tallahassee, Fla CXL 

Tallapoosa River, Ala CXVI 

Tanner s Bridge, Ga CVIII 

Tar River, N. C LX X v HI 

Taylor s Ford, Ky XXXIX 

Taylor s Ridge, Ga XCIV, CX XVII 

Taylor s Hole Creek CXXXVII 

Taylorsville, Va C 

Tazo well, Tenn LIV, XC VI 

Tebb s Bend, Ky LXXXI 

Telford, Tenn L \ XXVI 

Ten Islands, Ala CXVI 

Ten Miles from Columbus, Ky CXXXIV 

Tennessee River, Tenn CXXI 

Terrapin Creek, Ala CXXVIII 

Terre Noire Creek, Ark CII 

Terrisville, Tenn XCVI 

Texas County, Mo J^XIII, LXXXVI 

The Island, Mo LXX 

Thibodcaux, La LXXIX 

Thibodeauxville, La LXI 

Thomas Station, Ga CXXX, CXXXI 

Thompson Cove, Tenn - . LXXXVIII 

Thompson s Hill, Miss LXXIV 

Thompson s Station, Tenn LXIX 

Thornburg, Va L I II 

Thornhill, Ala CXXXIV 

Thoroughfare Gap, Va LX, LX1I 

Tickfaw River, Miss LX XIV 



Tillaflnney River, S. C.... 

Tilton, Tenn 

Tilton, Ga 

Tishamingo County, Miss. 

Tobosof koo, Ga 

T odd s Tavern, Va 



CXXXI 

CVIII 

CXXVII 

XCI 

CIV 

CVI 

Tompkinsville, Ky LT, LXXII 

Tom s Brook, Va 

Toon s Station, Tenn ,. 

Totopotomy, Va 

Totopotomy Creek, Va 

Town Creek, Ala 

Town Creek, N. C 

Township, Fla 

Tracy City, Tenn 

Trantnoi s Creek, N. C 



CXXVI 

, LVI 

CX 

CX 

LX XIII 

CXXXV 

LXVII 

XCVI 

XLVIII 

Trenton, Tonu LIV, LXV 

Trenton, N. C LXIV 

Trenton Bridge, N. C XLVI 

Trevillian Station, \ a CXI I 

Trinity, Ala LH 

Trinity River, Cal XCII 

Trion, Ala CXXXVIII 

Triplett s Bridge, Ky LX XVIII 

Truine, Tenn LXX VIII 

Try Mountain, Ky XXXIX 

Tulliihoma, Tenn LXXIX, LXX X, XCI 

Tunica County, Miss LIIT 

Tunnel Hill, Ga XCVII, C, CVI 

Tunnel Hill, Miss XC1X 

Tunstall Station, Va XI, IX, LXXIV, C 

Tupelo, Miss LXX I V, CX V, CX VI. 



Turkey Bond, Va 

Turkey Island Bridge, Va 

Tuonan s Ferry, Ky 

Turnback Creek, Mo 

Turner s and Crampton s Gaps, Md. 



Page. 

L 

LII 

XCVI 

XLVI 

LV.1I1 

Tuscumbia, Ala LX VIII, LXXII, LXX III, XCI 

Tuscumbia Creek, Miss XLV1I 

Tuscaloosa, Ala CXXX IX 

Tn-o Hills, Bad Lands, D. T CXIX 

Union, Va LXI 

Union City, Tenn XLI 1 1, L \XX1I, XC III 

Union City, Ky Cl 

Union Church, Va XLVIII 

Union Church, Miss LXX1II 

Union Mills, Mo LV 

Union ville, Tenn LXIX 

Union Station, Tenn CXX1X 

University Place, Tenn LXXXI 

Upper Missouri River, Ark LX 

Upperville, Va LXI, LXXIX, LXXXVIII 

Upton Hill, Ky XXXVIII 

Utoy Creek, Ga XLIX 

Vache Orasse, Ark CXX1V 

Valverdo, N. Mex XLII 

Van Buren, Ark LXV, CXIX 

Varnell s Station, Ga CV11 

Vaughn, Miss C VII 

Vaughn Road, Va CXXVIII, CX XX V 

Vaught s Hill, Tenn LXIX 

Vera Cruz, Ark CXXIX 

Vennillion Bayou, La LXXX 1 X 

Vernon, Ind LXXX1I 

Verona, Miss CX XX 111 

Vicksburg, Miss XHX, LXV 

LXVIII, LXXXVI, LXXIX, LXXX, LXXX V, XCVII, XCVI1I, CX V 

Vidalia, La LXXXVII, XCVIII, CXVI1 

Vienna, Va XXXI V, XXXIX, LVII 

Village Creek, Ark XLIX, L 

Vincent s Cross Roads, Miss XCI 

Vinegar Hill, S. C LX X X V 

Vining Station, Ga CX V 

Volusia County, Fla CXXXV 

Wachita, Indian Agency, Tex LX Vll 

Wadesburg, Mo XL 

Waddel s Farm, Ark X LIX, L 

Waklron, Ark L XXXVII, LXXXIX, XCV, XCVII 

Wallace s Ferry, Ark C XVII 

Wall Bridge, Va CV 

Walkersville, Mo XLV 

Walkers Ford, W. Va XCIV 

Walkertown, Va C 

Walthal, Va CXI1I 

Wapping Heights, Va LXXX1V 

Wardensville, Va XLV1I 

Warm Springs, N. Mex LXXIX 

Warm Springs, N. C XC1II 

Warrenburg, Mo XLII I, X LI X 

Warrenton Junction, Va LIX, LXXIV, LXX V 

Warrenton Springs, Va LXXXIX 

Warsaw, Mo XXXVIII, LXXXIX 

Wartrace, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Washington, X. C XLVIII, LVII, LXX, XC I 

Washington, D. C CXVI 

Watauga River, Ark CXXV 

Waterforil, Miss LXII1 

Watorford, Va LXXXIV 

Waterloo Bridge, Va LV 

Waterproof, La XCII1, XCIX, CIV 

Water Valley, Miss LX1I I 

Wangh s Farm, Ark.. XCIX 

Wauhatchic, Tenn XCI 

\Vaiitauga River, Tonn XXXIX 

Waiitauga Bridge, Tenn LXV, C lV 

Waverly, Tenn.... .. LXI.LXXI 



INDEX. 



Pllge. 

Wayne Count}-, W. Va XCVUI 

Wayne Court House, W. Va XXX Vi 

Waynesville, Mo L\ XX V 

Waynesboro , Va CXXV, CXXX VJ 

Waynesboro , (!a CXXX, CXXX I 

Weaver s Store, Ky LXX1II 

Weber s Falls, I. T LXXX VI 

Welaka, Ha CIX 

AVoldon Railroad, Va CVI, CVII, CXIV, CXX, CXXV, CXXXI 

Wentzvillo, Mo XXXV 

Western North Carolina, Expedition into CXX XII 

Westminster, Md LXXX 

Westport, Mo LX XVIII, CXX VIII 

Wcston, W. Va LVI 

West Branch, Va LXXI 

Wet Glaze, Mo XXXVIII 

West Liberty, Ky XXXVIII 

West Point, Va XLVI 

West Point, Ark LXXXV, CXIII, CXVIII 

West Point, Miss XCIX 

West Point, Ga C XX XIX 

West Virginia, Averills Uaid LXXXV 

Weyer s Cave, Va CXXIV 

Whistler s Station, Ala CXXXIX 

Whitemarsh, Ga XL V 

White s Bridge, Va. . CVII 

White s Ford, Va LXXXVII 

White-side, Fla CXVIII 

Whittaker s Mills, Va I ,XXI 

White County, Ark XCVIII 

White County, Tenn XCIX 

Whitehall, N. C LX1V 

White House, Va CXIII 

White Oak Swamp, Va L 

White. Oak Swamp Bridge, Va LIII, CXII 

White Oak Bridge, Ky LV 

White Oak Road, Va CXXXVIII 

White Post, W. Va CXII, CXIX, CXXXI 

White River, Ark XLIX, LXXXV, CXIV, CXXVIII 

White Stone Hill, IX T LXXX VI 

White Sulphur Springs, Va LXIII, LXXXV, LXXXIX 

Whits Water, Mo LXXII 

W r ier Bottom Church, Va CXIII 

Wilcox s Bridge, N. C. CXXXVI 

Wild Cat, Ky XXXVIII 

WILDERNESS, VA CVI 

Wiliston, S. C CXXXV 

Willis Church, Va L 

Williaiiislmrg, Va XLVI, LI, LVII, LXVII, LXX, LXXI 

Williamsburg, Ky LXI 

Willianisbnrg Road, Va XLIX 

Williams Bridge, La XLIX 



Williams Farm, Va 

Williamsport, Tenn 

Williamsport, Md 

Williamsport, W. Va 

Williamston, N. C 



Page. 

CXIV 

LIV 

. ..LIX,LXXXI 

XCVII 

LXII 



Willicomack, Va CXXXVIII 

Willmarsh Island, S. C XCIX 

Willow Creek, Cal XCIII 

Wilmington Island, Ga XLV 

Wilmington, N. C CXXXVI 

Wilson s Creek, Mo XXXVI 

Wilson s Creek, Ky LX XVIII 

Wilson s Farm, La CII 

Wilson s Landing, Va CXII 

\Vilson s Wharf Landing, Va CIX 

Wilson s Raid on Weldon R. R., Va CXIV 

Wilson s Raid in Alabama and Georgia CXXX VII 

Winchester, Va. XLIII, XLVII, LXX VI, LXXVIII, CXVII, CXX, OXXIII 

Wireman s Shoals, Ky LXIII 

W T irt Court House, W. Va XXXIX 

Wise s Fork, N. C CXXXVI 

Wolf Creek Bridge, Miss LIX 

Wolf River, Teun CII 

Wolf River, Miss LXV 

Wolf River Bridge, Miss XC1V 

Woodbury, Ky XXXIX 

Wocjjbury, Tenn LXVII, LXX 

Wood Lake, Minn LIX 

Wood s Fork, Mo LXVI 

Woodsonville, Ky XL 

Woodstock, Va CXXIV 7 , CXXVI 

Woodville, Tenn LXI 

WoO .lville, Miss CXXVI 

Wormley s Gap, Va CXXII 

Worthington, W. Va XXXVI 

Wyatts, Miss LXXXIX, XCVIII 

Wyerman s Mills, Tenn XCIX 

Wyoming 1 Court House, W. Va LIV 

Wytheville, Va LXXXIII, CVII, CXXXIII, CXXXVIII 

Yates Ford, Ky LVI 

Yazoo Pass, Miss LXVIII 

Yazoo City, Miss LXXXII, C, CV, CXXXI 

Yazoo River, Expedition up, Miss ." XCVII 

Yellow Bayou, La CIX 

Yellow Medicine, Minn LIX 

Yellow Tavern, Va C VII, CX X V 

Yemassoe, S. C LXI 

Yorktown, Va XLIII, XLV, XLVI 

Young s Cross Roads, N. C LII 

Zagonyi s Charge XXXVIII 

Zollicoffer, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Zuni, Va LXIV 



ON SPECIAL WOUNDS AND INJURIES, 



CHAPTER I. 

WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD. 

The wounds and injuries of the head will be described in three categories: incised and 
punctured wounds, comprising, mainly, the sabre-cuts, bayonet stabs, and sword thrusts; 
miscellaneous injuries, resulting from falls, blows from blunt weapons, and various acci 
dents; and lastly, and principally, gunshot wounds. 

SECTION I. 
INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 

The cases of incised and punctured wounds of the head are subdivided into those in 
which the lesions involved the integuments only, and those in which the bones of the 
skull, and, in some instances, its contents, were injured. Brief abstracts, arranged in 
alphabetical order, are given of all the examples of incised and punctured wounds of the 
head, recorded in the Surgeon General s Office. The names of the wounded of the United 
States Armies are printed in small capitals; those of the Confederate Armies are distin 
guished by italics. 

INCISED SCALP WOUNDS. The returns furnish memoranda of two hundred and 
eighty-two cases of incised wounds of the head which appeared to involve the integuments 
only, as follows : 



2 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

ADAMS, OSCAR H., Assistant Surgeon 8th New York Cavalry, aged 32 years. Wounded at Lacey s Springs, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864, by a sabre-cut five inches in length over the right parietal and temporal regions. Admitted to Officers 
General Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, January 4th, 1865. On leave January 18th. Re-admitted February 5th. Suffers 
from frequent attacks of vertigo, incipient amaurosis, loss of memory, partial paralysis of right eyelid, and imperfect vision. 
Resigned February 17th, 1865. 

Adams, J. F., Private, Co. I, 21st Virginia Cavalry. Incised wound of the scalp. Opequan, Virginia, September 19th, 
1861. Admitted to Sheridan Field Hospital, September 24th. Recovered and transferred for exchange, November 15th, 1864. 

Ayee, John, Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry. Incised wound of the scalp. Newtown, Virginia, November 9th, 
1864. Captured and admitted to Sheridan Field Hospital, November 14th. Transferred for exchange November 15th, 1864, 
well. 

AKINS, CHARLES, Sergeant, Co. A, 3d New Jersey Cavalry, aged 24 years, received at Appomattox Court House, Vir 
ginia, April 8th, 1865, a slight cut over the forehead, implicating the scalp only, and a gunshot wound, for which the middle 
toes of the right foot were amputated. Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, on April 22d, and transferred, July 
24th, to Hicks Hospital, from whence he was transferred, well, September 6th, 1865, to New York, to be mustered out of service. 

ANDERSON, RANSOM A. D., Private, Co. B, 6th U. S. Colored Artillery, aged 22 years. Three sabre-cuts of the scalp 
and one of the right hand. Fort Pillow, Tennessee, April 12th, 1864. Admitted to Mound City Hospital, Illinois, April 17th. 
Returned to duty June 21st, 1864. (Sec Report No. 55, House of Representatives, 1st Session 38th Congress.) 

AUSTIN, GEORGE W., Private, Co. B, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 23 years. Incised wound of scalp over left parietal 
region. Wilderness, May 5th, 1864. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, D. C., May llth. Transferred May 14th 
to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. Returned to duty September 4th, 1864. 

BAILEY, SIMON Z., Private, Co. B, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 28 years, received a sabre-cut of the scalp at Han 
over, Pennsylvania, June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsylvania, October 2d, 18G3. Transferred 
to Christian Street Hospital, Philadelphia, December 21st. Deserted February 17th, 1864. 

BAKER, EZEKIEL, Private, Co. K, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, June 19th, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty August 13th, 1863. 

BEALS, D. A., Private, Co. A, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty October 23d, 1863. 

BATES, GEORGE L., Private, Co. B, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Mount Jackson, Virginia, October 
7th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Brattleboro, Vermont, April 2d, 1865. Returned to duty June 23d, 1865. 

Bauyh, J. F., Private, Co. A, 1st Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Admitted to hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, 
November 18th, 1862. Returned to duty December 2d, 1862. 

Beckner, Abner, Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 45 years. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Front Royal, 
Virginia, November 12th, 1864. Admitted to West s Buildings Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, November 16th. Transferred 
to Fort McHenry, January 8th, 1865, and thence to Point Lookout, and exchanged June 28th, 1865. 

BELCHER, A. F., Lieutenant, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, received a sabre-cut an inch and a half long over the left super 
ciliary ridge, and a fracture of the left clavicle by a fall from his horse. High Bridge, Virginia, April 8th, 1865. Admitted to 
Officers Hospital, Point of Rocks, Virginia, April 14th. Loss of vision of the left eye resulted, but whether from division of 
the supra-orbital nerve, or derangement of the optical apparatus caused by the concussion, was not determined. The fractured 
clavicle united and the wounds healed. He was discharged from service June 6th, 1865, and placed on the Pension List. 
On September 4th, 1867, he was reported as suffering from the permanent loss of the left eye; but without other disability. 

BENNETT, EDWARD H., Corporal, Co. F, 2d New York Cavalry, received a slight sabre-cut on the right side of the 
scalp, at New Market, Virginia, October 19th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, October 21st, and transferred 
October 31st. 

Bennett, Thomas F., Private, Co. K, 10th Virginia Cavalry, received a sabre-cut of the scalp at Gettysburg, July 2d, 
1863. Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, July 3d, and transferred thence to David s Island, New York Harbor, on 
July 17th, and on August 24th, being entirely well, he was paroled and sent to Fort Monroe for exchange. 

BENTON, H. L., Private, Co. G, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. 
Returned to duty September 25th, 1863. 

BERTRAM, HARRY, Corporal, Co. K, 6th Ohio Cavalry, aged 30 years. Sabre-cut of the left occipital region two inches 
in length. Sheridan s Raid, May 12th, 1864. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, May 16th. Returned 
to duty June 28th, 1864. 

BEST, THOMAS W., Private, Co. A, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region. Admitted to 
Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th, 1863. Deserted July 7th, 1863. His name was on the Pension 
List September 4th, 1867, his disability being rated as total and temporary." 

BIGGER, SAMUEL T., Private, Co. C, 1st Delaware Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863 
Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, July 4th. Returned to duty, well, August 22d, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 6 

BLIVIXS, JOHN, Private, Co. K, 1st Alabama Cavalry, received a slight sabre-cut ot the scalp at Moore s Cross Roads, 
North Carolina, March 10th, 18G5. Mustered out of service July 19th, 1865. 

BOIIXE, CHARLES, Bugler, Co. I, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, and a wound of 
the arm. Hagerstown, Maryland, July Gth, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. 
Deserted October loth, 1863. 

BOILEAU, JAMES P., Private, Co. A, 1st Delaware Volunteers, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Weldon Rail 
road, Virginia, August 25th, 1864. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, November 1st, from Harewood Hos 
pital, Washington. Returned to duty November 14th, 1864. 

BOLTOX, MAHVIX, Corporal, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 20th. Transferred to Carver Hospital, Washington, July 23d. Returned to duty November 
17th, 1863. 

BOULSOX, EDWARD F., Sergeant, Co. B, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Trevillian Station, 
Virginia, June 12th, 1864. Missing in action. Died at Andersonville, Georgia, August 15th, 1864. 

Bourne, L., Private, Co. K, 51st Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th, 
1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, on, the same day. Recovered and transferred -for exchange December 
20th. 1864. 

BOYER, JOSEPH C., Captain. Co. L, 12th Tennessee Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the forehead, received in a 
hand to hand fight with a rebel officer of General Forrest s command. Nashville, December 16th, 1864. Mustered out of service 
October 7th, 1865. 

BRADFORD, JAMES, Private, Co. B, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut . of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to Field Hospital July 7th. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty July 27th, 
1863. 

BREES, THEODORE J., Private, Co. L, 2d United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of left 
hand. Culpepper, Virginia, August 1st, 18S3. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, August 3d. Transferred to Carlisle 
Barracks September llth, 1863, and returned to duty. 

BREXAGE, LAFAYETTE, Sergeant, Co. D, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and face. Jettersville, 
Virginia, April 5th, 1865. Admitted to Cavalry Corps Hospital April 12th. Returned to duty April 18th, 1865. 

BRIGGS, WILLIAM H., Private, Co. M, 5th Michigan Cavalry, aged 17 yeai s. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and right ear. 
Lynchburg, Virginia, June llth, 1864. Admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June 20th. Returned to duty 
July 26th, 1864. 

BRILL, WILLIAM, Private, Co. H, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp. Winchester, Vir 
ginia, November 15th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, January 4th, from Patterson Park Hospi 
tal, Baltimore. Returned to duty March 25th, 1865. 

BROOKS, J. K., Sergeant, Co. C, 1st Maine Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right side of scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, June 
19th, 1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty July 3d, 1863. 

BROWX, JAMES, Private, Co. H, 1st Maryland Volunteers, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, while on picket nt 
Hatcher s Run, Virginia, March 20th, 1865. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, April 7th, from Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington. Furloughed April 25th, 1865. Discharged from service July 10th, 1865. 

BROWX, JASPER, Private, Co. D, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and neck. Hanover, Pennsylvania, 
June 30th, 183)5. Admitted to hospital at Gettysburg July 3d. Transferred to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, November 
llta. Returned to duty February 24th, 1864. 

Brown, K. II., Private, Co. K, 1st Arkansas Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Osage, Missouri, October 
25th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Scott, Kansas, October 23th. Returned to confinement November 30th, 1864, and 
subsequently exchanged. 

Bryan, George P., 1st Lieutenant, Co. G, 2d North Carolina Regiment. Sabre-cut of the sca4p. Upperville, Virginia, 
June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Sent to Old Capitol Prison August 1st, 1863, and 
subsequently exchanged. 

BUCK, DEXXIS M., Sergeant, Co. D, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 32 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Trevillian 
Station, Virginia, June llth, 1864. Admitted to Fiuley Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty, well, August 
22d, 1864. 

BURROUGHS, HARMOX, CoiTunissary Sergeant, 8th New York Cavalry, aged 17 years. Sabre-cut, four inches in length, 
over the left parietal region. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June 10th. 
Returned to duty July 4th, 1863. 

BUTCHER, ROBERT A., Private, Co. H, 82d Pennsylvania Volunteers, of the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Corps, aged 
21 years, received, in an encounter with the enemy s cavalry near Burke s Station, Virginia, on April 6th, 1855, two sabre-cuts 
over the vertex, parallel to each other, and at right angles to the sagittal suture. The wounds appeared to implicate the scalp 
only, and were approximated by adhesive plaster, after the hair had been shaven away. The patient was conveyed to 



4 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Washington, and entered Harewood Hospital on April 16tb. The wounds healed rapidly, and no unpleasant symptoms 
occurred until May 29th, when he complained of severe headache, accompanied by iutoleran.ee of light and sensitiveness to 
noise. A day or two subsequently the anterior wound reopened, and discharged thin unhealthy pus. An exfoliation was 
suspected, but no denuded bone could be detected, and under a mild evacuant treatment the headache subsided, and the wound 
again assumed an healthy aspect. On June 8th, 1865, it had almost entirely healed, and, at his own request, the patient was 
discharged from the hospital and from the service of the United States. Soon after his admission to Harevvood, a photograph 
of his wounds had been taken, by direction of the surgeon in charge, Brevet Lieut. Col. E. B. Bontecou, U. S. Vols. This is 
preserved as No. 30 of the first volume of Photographs of Surgical Cases, Army Medical Museum, and is very faithfully copied 
in the figure on the left of the group of heads in the accompanying plate. 

CAIN, PATRICK, Private, Co. G, 62d New York Volunteers, aged 38 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 3d, 1864. Admitted to McKim s Mansion Hospital, Baltimore, June llth. Returned to duty August 3d, 1864. 

CAMPBELL, HARRISON G., Private of Co. F, 5th United States Cavalry, aged 25 years, was wounded in action near 
Louisa Court House, Virginia, on May 4th, 1863, and fell into the hands of the enemy. He was exchanged, and sent to 
Annapolis on the hospital transport State of Maine, and was admitted to the general hospital at that place on May 17th, with 
two suppurating sabre wounds of the scalp, one over the right parietal eminence, the other behind the left ear. He had head 
ache, with frequent pulse, constipated bowels, and appeared to be very feeble. He was purged, and then ordered good diet, 
and "whiskey and quinine freely." On May 20th erysipelas attacked the left leg, which had received no injury. Tincture of 
iodine locally and tincture of the sesquichloride of iron internally were employed to combat this complication. On May 21st 
there was epistaxis; the pulse was small, at 110; the tongue heavily coated. On the 23d there was diarrhoea, which was 
controlled by pills of opium and camphor. The next day the pulse had risen to 120, and was soft. The abdomen was 
tympanitic. Stimulants were freely given. The catheter was resorted to, on account of retention of urine, which was scanty 
and high colored, and oil of turpentine, in doses of ten drops, thrice daily, was ordered. On the 28th the erysipelatous inflam 
mation had extended up the back and over the right leg. The teeth were covered with sordes. Turpentine, with carbonate of 
ammonia and whiskey and concentrated nutriment, and tincture of iodine locally, constituted the treatment. On June 6th the 
erysipelas had extended to the face and throat, and the patient became delirious. He continued in an unconscious state until 
June 14th, 1863, when he died. Acting Assistant Surgeon J. M. Matlock, who reports the case, ascribes the fatal event to 
"exhaustion following typhoid erysipelas," and as unconnected with the scalp wounds, which maintained an healthy appearance 
to the last. 

CAPRON, JAMES P., Sergeant, Co. F, 3d United States Artillery. Sabre-cut of the forehead, and a shell wound of the 
left side of the neck. Bisland, Louisiana, April 14th, 1863. Discharged from service July 26th, 1864. 

CARBOUGH, DANIEL, Private, Co. E, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 46 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region, 
in a skirmish on the Eapidan, Virginia, November 17th, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, November 23d. 
Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, November 28th. Returned to duty March 24th, 1864. 

CAREY, WILLIAM H., Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Discharged from service 
May 20th, 1865. 

CARNEY, WILLIAM, Private, Co. L, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and a shell and gunshot wound of 
the upper third of the right thigh. Aldie, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, Maryland, June 
22d. Died June 22d, 1863, from the effects of the gunshot injury. 

Carper, Philip W., Private, Co. A, 35th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region ; also a wound of the 
right arm and left hand. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Alexandria, 
Virginia, June 10th. Transferred to Old Capitol Prison June 17th, 1863, for exchange. 

CARSON, W. L., Private, Co. B, 10th New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Second 
Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 22d, 1863. Discharged from service September 17th, 1864. 

CEBUTT, GEORGE, Private, Co. F, llth United States Infantry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. 
Petersburg, Virginia, August 17th, 1864. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 24th. Deserted 
November 10th, 1864. 

CHAMBERS, JAMES M., Private, Co. K, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, 
Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, January 4th, 1865. Discharged from 
service May 30th, 1865. 

CHAMBERS, JOHN, Private, Co. I, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left side of the head. Gettysburg, July 1st, 

1863. Admitted to Fort Sclmyler Hospital, New York Harbor, July 15. Returned to duty August 28, 1863. 

Chan, H., Private, Co. F. 2d Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Admitted to hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, 
December 10th, 1862. Furloughed December 19th, 1862. 

CHAXTRELL, OCTAVE, Private, Co. M, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and of the right arm. Upper- 
vine, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 9th, 1863. 

Chapman, Samuel, Chaplain, Mosby s command. Sabre-cut of the head. Dranesville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. 

Clemens, A., Private, Co. C, 51st Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th 

1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, September 20th. Transferred for exchange, well, November, 1864. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. O 

CLEMMENS, LAWRENCE, Bugler, Co. I, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted 
to Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, February 20th, 1864. Deserted March 21th, 18154. 

Cockrill, Q. J., Private, Co. G, . r >th Alabama. Sabre-cut of the head. Petersburg, Virginia, April 2d, 1805. Admitted to 
Lincoln Hospital, Washington, April 10th. Sent to Old Capitol Prison, April 25th, 1885, for exchange. 

COLLEY, JOHN, Private, Co. E, 2d West Virginia Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Five 
Forks, Virginia, April 2d, 1805. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 7th. Discharged from service 
June 20th, 1865. 

COLLVER, EDWARD A., Private, Co. B, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left occipital region, two and a half 
inches in length. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 180:?. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 
14th. Returned to duty August 10th, 1864. 

CONNELLY, THOMAS, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st United States Cavalry, aged 47 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and fracture of 
lower third of the left arm. Waynesboro , North Carolina, September 28th, 1884. Admitted to Chestnut Hill Hospital, Phila 
delphia, October 9th, and, after several transfers, was admitted to hospital at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and discharged 
from service June 3d, 1865. 

CONNER, CHARLES, Private, Co. I, 5th Ohio Cavalry, aged 45 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fayetteville, North 
Carolina, March 10th. 1805. Admitted to Dennison Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 15th. Discharged from service July 
19th, 1865. 

CONOVER, RALPH, Private, Co. H, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the head and neck. Hanover, Pennsyl 
vania. June 30th, 1803. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 4th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

COREY, LEANDER A., Musician, Co. K, 2d New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to 
Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, February 8th, 1864. Returned to duty March 14th, 1864. 

CORSTIOX, ROBERT, Private, Co. H, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. 
Smith field, Virginia, August 29th, 1864. Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, September 4th. Returned to duty 
October 1st, 1864. 

COUCH, DANIEL, Private, Co. F, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and pistol wound of the abdomen. 
Aldie, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Armory Square Hospital, Washington, July 3d. Transferred to Lovell Hospital, 
Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, July 8th. Returned to duty September 21st, 1863. 

COWLEY, FRANK, Corporal, Co. G, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fail-field, Pennsylvania, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Gettysburg July 22d. Returned to duty September 11, 1863. 

COYNE, THOMAS, Corporal, Co. B, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut, two and a half inches in length, over the 
left occipital region; also a wound of right side efface. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division 
Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty October 19th, 1863. 

Craft, J. H., Private, Co. H, 60th Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th, 
1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Winchester, Virginia, the same day. Transferred for exchange December 10th, 1864, 
well. 

CRAN] :, JAMES, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted 
to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

CROCKER, JAY, Private, Co. D, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, two and a half inches in 
length, directly over the parietal eminence Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, 
Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

CRODOX, Jonx, Private, Co. C, 23d Illinois Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the forehead. Annapolis, Maryland, May 21st, 
1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital the same day. Returned to duty June 12th, 1863. 

CUSACK, WILLIAM, Captain, Co. I, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the forehead over the 
left eye. Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 8th, 1864. Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Georgetown, District of Columbia, May 
12th. Discharged from service July 28th, 1864. 

CUTTER, WILLFAM, Private, Co. H, 4th Vermont Infantry, aged 38 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Strasburg, Virginia, 
August 16th, 1804. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland. August 19th, and transferred to Brattleboro , Ver 
mont, February 6th, 1865, for muster out of service. 

DANCER, GEORGE W., Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty August 6th, 1863. 

DE GRAW, ISAAC, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1833. Admitted 
to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

DE GROOT, HENRY, Private, Co. A, 17th Connecticut Volunteers. Sabre-cut on the left side of the scalp. Admitted to 
Knight Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, January 23d, 1864. Transferred to Fort Trumbull February 27th, 1834, for duty. 

DELAMATER, H., Corporal, Co. M, IGtli New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1861. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 
31st, 1865. 



(3 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

DEXHURST, H., Private, Co. D, 17th Connecticut Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, same day. Transferred to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia; thence to Knight 
Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, on March 24th, 1864. Returned to duty April 21st, 1864. 

DODD, THOMAS, Sergeant, Co. B, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut over the anterior and posterior regions of the 
scalp. Funktown. Maryland, July 7th, 1863. Admitted to First Divison Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. Returned 
to duty, well, October 12th, 1863. 

DOXLIX, Joiix, Private, Co. K, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right parietal region. Admitted to First 
Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th, 1863. Returned to duty June 17th, 1863. 

DOUGHERTY, PATRICK, Private, Co. A, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left forehead, two inches above 
the eye. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. 
Discharged from service October 12th, 1864. 

DOUGLAS, JOSEPH, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and left shoulder. Gettysburg, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, Maryland, July 16th. Returned to duty July 31st, 1863. 

Dowxs, ADAM, Private, Co. G, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. New Hope Church, Virginia, Novem 
ber 27th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital the same day, and returned to duty December 5th, 1863. 

DOYLE, JOSEPH C., Private, Co. A, 1st Alabama Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, received on Sherman s campaign 
through the Carolinas, 1865. Mustered out of service with regiment October 20th, 1865. 

Do YEA, Joiix, Private, Co. K, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Brandy Station, 
Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty August 
1st, 1863. 

DREW, HORACE W., Sergeant, Co. A, 6th Ohio Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut, two inches in length, of the right 
frontal region. Ashland Station, May 12th, 1864. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, May 16th. 
Transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, May 4th, 1865. Mustered out of service August 24th, 1865. 

Drew, J. H., Private, Co. F, 45th North Carolina. Sabre-cut of the head. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted to 
Hospital No. 1, Frederick, Maryland, July 6th. Transferred to Annapolis July 7th, 18fi3, for exchange. 

Dunn, Willis, Private, Co. F, 35th Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Brandy Station, Virginia, 
June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 10th. Transferred to Old Capitol Prison, 
Washington, June 12th, 1863, for exchange. 

Ducket, J., Private, Co. E, Thomas s Legion. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th, 1861. 
Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, September 20th. Transferred for exchange December 20th, 1864, entirely 
well. 

Dudley, C. V., 1st Lieutenant, Co. K, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 25 years, received several sabre-cuts of the seal]), and 
one of the right side, at Culpepper, Virginia, September 13th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, September 
17th. Recovered, and was transferred to the Old Capitol Prison October 19th, 1863, for exchange. 

DURSTEX, THOMAS, Quartermaster Sergeant, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. New 
market, Virginia, December 21st, 18G4. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty 
February 1st, 1865. 

DUSTAX, GEORGE L., Private, Co. G, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp over the occipital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. 
Returned to duty October 25tli, 1864. 

EDMUNDS, HOWARD, Captain, Co. L, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of the 
shoulder. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Discharged from service August 24th, 1884. His name is not on the Pension List. 

EDWARDS, DAVID, Corpoial, Co. H, 5th Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut ot the scalp. Sherman s campaign through the 
Carolinas, 1865. Mustered out of service October 30th, 1865. 

EDWARDS, WILLIAM A., Private, Co. B, 5th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia, May 4th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, May 19th. Deserted August 7th, 
1863. 

ELLS, WILLIAM S., Private, Co. K, 9th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and right arm. Culpepper, Virginia, 
August 1st, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, August 3d. Returned to duty October 10th, 1863. 

EYXATTEX, FRANCIS, Sergeant, Co. I, 198th New York Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the face extending from the angle of 
the mouth to the superior portion of the forehead. Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, April 9th, 1864. He was taken prisoner and 
admitted to a rebel hospital, and the wound closed with sutures. Discharged from service April 20th, 1836. 

FAGLE, FREDERICK, Private, Co. C, 10th New York Cavalry. Two sabre-cuts on the vertex of the scalp, one of the 
left cheek, and one of the left shoulder. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, 
Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty May 2d, 1864. 

FILLER, JOSEPH, Private, Co. A, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and wrist. Upperville, Virginia, 
June 21st, 18(53. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty July 25th, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. / 

FINK, ANTHONY, Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 35 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 3d, I8t}5. 

FINNIGAN, W., Private, Co. L, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie Gap, Virginia, June 17th, 18G3. 
Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 18th. Furloughed July 22d. Returned to duty August 22J, 
1863. 

FISIIKR, CHARLES W., Private, Co. C, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region while attempt 
ing to escape from the patrol guard at Annapolis, Maryland, March 29th, 1853. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, at Annapolis, the 
same day. Returned to duty April 13th, 1863. 

FOLEY, MILKS, Sergeant. Co. B, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and arm. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
18(53. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty July 13th, 18(33. 

FoLSOM, WILLIAM M., Private, Co. E, 5th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 31 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp and hand. 
July 2Uth, 18G4. Admitted to Harvey Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, August 1st. Returned to duty August 7th, 1864. 

Fox, ELIAS, Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 21st, 1865. 

Fox, JASPER C., Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, Virginia, 
December 17th, 1864. Admitted to McKim s Hospital, Baltimore, January 15th, 1865. Returned to duty March 20th, 1865. 

FOSTER, JOSHUA E., Private, Co. M, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Admitted to 
Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 21st, 1863. Returned to duty October 14th, 1863. 

FHISBIK, SAMUEL, Private, Co. E. Ringgold s Battalion, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of three inches in length extending 
diagonally across the parietal region. September 16th, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Cumberland, Maryland, September Kith. 
Deserted October 10th, 1863. 

FRONTMAN, PHILIP, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, 
Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, December 20th. Returned to duty January 
J7th, 1865. 

GARDNER, GEORGE, Private, Co. K, 17tli Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the head. Indianapolis, 
Indiana, January 5th, 1865. Admitted to City Hospital, in that place, January 12th, from Soldiers Home. Returned to duty 
January 23d, 1865. 

GARDNER, WILLIAM, Private, Co. H, 15th New York Heavy Artillery, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. South 
Side Railroad, Virginia, March 31st, 1865. Admitted to White Hall Hospital, Pennsylvania, May 27th, from Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington. Discharged from service July 22d, 1865. 

Gatewood, C. T., Private, Co. F, 9th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to hospital at David s Island, New York Harbor, July 17th. Transferred for exchange, well, August 24th, 1863. 

GEHRETT, JAMES W., Private, Co. D, 1st Louisiana Artillery, aged 33 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864. Admitted to McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia, October 24th. Returned to duty November 24th. 
1864. 

GIDDINGS, BENJAMIN, Private, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 19th. Transferred to Carver Hospital, Washington, July 23d. Returned to duty 
October 20th, 1863. 

GILBERT, NAIIUM, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and a penetrating 
gunshot wound of the abdomen by a conoidal ball which entered at the umbilicus. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted to 
Camp Letterman Hospital, Gettysburg, July 6th. Faecal discharges took place from the wound in the abdomen. Much pain 
and difficulty in nrictiuition. July 7th, paralysis of lower extremities. August 23th, wounds healed. September 1st, 
paralysis of lower extremities continues, together with partial paralysis of the rectum. The treatment consisted of com 
presses and bandage to the abdomen, with diuretics and enemata. Transferred to Mulberry Street Hospital, Harrisburg, Sep 
tember 15th. Discharged from service October 31st, 1863. 

GOOD, MARTIN, Private, Co. N, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Vir 
ginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, June 23d. Deserted October 1st, 1863. 

Goodall, Charles, Private, Co. B, 5th Georgia Cavalry, aged 42 years. Sabre-cut of the left frontal region. Woodburv, 
Tennessee. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September Cth, and transferred for exchange, well, Septem 
ber 12th, 1864. 

Goodman, George A T ., Private, Co. E, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Roval. 
Virginia, November 12th, 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, November 17th. Transferred to Fort 
McIIenry, Baltimore, December 9th, 1864, for exchange. 

Grarrs, iniHnm, Private, Co. G, 46th Virginia Infantry, aged 42 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Petersburg, Virginia, 
June 17th. 1861. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 24th. Transferred to Lincoln Hospital June 26th, and 
ihonce to the Old Capitol Prison for exchange, October 26th, 18G4. 



WOUNDS AND INJUKIES OF THE HEAD, 

GRAY, ELIJAH G., Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and wound of breast by 
pistol ball. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee. Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty December 
23d, 1863. 

GREEN, JOHN, Sergeant, Co. D, 18th New York Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Alexandria, Louisiana, 
April 21st. 1864. Admitted to Marine Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 23d. Furloughed June 18th, 1864. Deserted 
August 31st, 1865. 

GRIFFIN, STKPIIEN, Private, Co. B, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and left ear. 
Bockville, Maryland, July 18th, 1864. Admitted to Campbell Hospital, Washington, July 21st. Transferred thence to Lovell 
Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Ehode Island, July 28th. Returned to duty August 23d, 1864. 

GRIFFITH, G. W., Private, Co. G, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut, an inch and a half long, of the 
left frontal region. Culpepper, Virginia, August 1st, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, August 2d. Eeturned 
to duty August 14th, 1863. 

HAND, CHARLES F., Private, Co. F, 2d United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut, two inches in length, of the occipital region. 
Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Eeturned 
to duty October 26th, 1863. 

HAXNA, JOHN, Private, Co. I, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 2d, 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Eeturned to duty July 31st, 1863. 

HARMON, MARTIN, Sergeant, Co. I, 9th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of scalp. Eapidan, Virginia, October llth, 
1863. Admitted to Eegimental Hospital, and returned to duty October llth, 1863. 

Harvey, Joshua, Sergeant, Co. I, 60th Virginia Infantry, aged 40 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th. 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, October 19th. Transferred for exchange, well, 
October 25th, 1864. 

HASKELL, DAVID E., Sergeant, Co. F, 8th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 
9th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June llth. Returned to duty June 17th, 1863. 

HAZFLET, LEWIS, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 38 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and arm. Mill 
wood, Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to McKim s Mansion Hospital, Baltimore, January 15th, 1865, from Field 
Hospital. Transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, February 10th. Eeturned to duty February 23d, 1865. 

HiGGlNSON, HENRY LEE, Major, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and neck. Aldie Gap, Virginia. 
June 17th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 24th. Discharged from service, well, 
August 9th, 1864. 

HOBBS, J. F., Private, Co. M, 1st Rhode Island Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and right shoulder. Kelley s Ford, 
Virginia, March 17th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, April 6th. Returned to duty October 
5th, 1863. 

HOOD, THOMAS, Sergeant, Co. E, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st 
1863. Discharged July 28th, 1864, on expiration of term of service. 

HORSEFIELD, JAMES, Private, Co. K, 73d Indiana Volunteers, aged 49 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, May llth, 1864. 
Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Madison, Indiana, November 28th. Returned to duty March 17th, 1865. 

HORTON, L. P., Private, Co. L, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Virginia, May llth, 1864. 

HOSEY, WILLIAM, Private, Co. A, 8th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Chancellorsville, 
Virginia, May 3d, 1863. Admitted to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, April 27th, 1864, from Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Dela 
ware. Transferred to Trenton, New Jersey, for muster out, August 26th, 1864. 

HOUSK, WESLEY L., Corporal, Co. A, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut, one inch in length, of the left occipital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. 
Returned to duty December 2d, 1863. 

Huckeby, Robert A., Private, Co. I, 53d Georgia Infantry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, Virginia, 
October 19th, 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, October 24th. Died October 26th, 1864, of "chronic 
diarrho3a." 

Huntley, Ira, Private, Co. C, 2d Kentucky Cavalry, aged 23 years. Three sabre-cuts of the scalp. Cynthiana, Ken 
tucky, June 12th, 1864. Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Covington, Kentucky, June 13th. Meningitis, with serous effusion, 
supervened, and death resulted on June 21st, 1864. 

INGRAHAM, CHAUNCEY, Private, Co. K, 4th New York Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, 
Virginia, June 21st. Eeturned to duty September 28th, 1863. Received a similar wound at Front Royal, Virginia, August 
16th, 1864. Admitted to Camp Parole Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, October 7th. Deserted, while on furlough November 
18th, 1864. 

JACOBS, A. B., Private, Co. H, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fail-field, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 
363. Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore, August 29th. Transferred to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsyl 
vania, October 27th. Returned to dutv December 3d, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 9 

JONES, WILLIAM, Private, Co. L, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and arm. Fairfield, Pennsylvania, 
July 3d, 18615. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, July 2Uth. Transferred to Carver Hospital, Washington, 
July 24th. Returned to duty September llth, 1863. 

KKLLEY, JEFFERSON, Corporal, Co. K, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp and face. Yellow 
Tavern, Virginia, June llth, 1864. Admitted to Mt. Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty September 
13th, 1864. 

KELLY, JOSEPH, Sergeant, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. 
As no further record can be found of this case, the injury was probably trivial. Mustered out September 16th, 1864. 

KKMP, ALFRED, Sergeant, Co. H, 7th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and neck. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 19th. Transferred to Detroit, Michigan, October 19th. Discharged May 2d, 1864. 

KENLY, WILLIAM, Private, Co. F, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the head and band. Aldie Gap, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1883. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 2Uth. Discharged from service February 
19th, 1864. 

KERX, FREDERICK, Private, Co. D, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and chest. Front Royal, Virginia, 
August 16th, 1864. Discharged from service June 1st, 1865. 

KIDWELL, PHILIP, Private, Co. C, 3d Virginia Mounted Infantry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cumberland, 
Mai-yland, July llth, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Cumberland the same day, and returned to duty November 18th, 1863. 

KIEKXAN, MICHAEL, Private, Co. A, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 24th. Furloughed July 12th. Returned to duty August 13th, 1863. 

KING, SAMUEL, Private, Co. H, 149th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 33 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 1st, 1864. Admitted to Convalescent Hospital, Philadelphia, June llth. Transferred to Harrisburg, Pennsyl 
vania, September 23d, and returned to duty October 6th, 1864. 

Kirly, Andrew H., Private, Beckham s Battalion. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, 
September 17th, 1863. Transferred for exchange October 19th, 1863. 

KIKKPATRICK, WILLIAM, Private, Co. M, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 45 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mill 
wood. Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore, December 22d. Transferred to Phila 
delphia March 12th, 1865. Discharged from service May 16th, 1865, 

KLIM, WILLIAM J., Private, Co. L, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left frontal region. Chambersburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 23th, 1864. Admitted to York Hospital, Pennsylvania, August 3d. Returned to duty September 15th, 1864. 

KNOX, BENJAMIN E., Sergeant, Co. B, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut, an inch and a half long, over occipital pro 
tuberance. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned 
to duty October 19th, 1863. 

LAGO, WILLIAM, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the right side of the scalp. 
Millwood, Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, March 3d. Returned to duty 
March 8th, 1865 

LEAHY, JOHN, Sergeant, Co. D, 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left side of the head. Admitted to Hos 
pital No. 1, Annapolis, Maryland, March 8th, 18i33. Deserted April 7th, 1863. Returned from desertion April 30th, 1863, and 
ordered to report to Colonel Waite, Military Commander at Annapolis. 

LEAVITT, FRANK W., Private, Co. E, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 25 years. Three sabre-cuts on left, centre, and back of 
the head, and pistol wound through left side of upper lip. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital 
No. 1, Annapolis, June 15th. Returned to duty September 13th, 1863. 

LEE, JEREMIAH, Private, Co. K, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right occipital region. Culpeper, Virginia, 
June 9th, 1363. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Transferred to Philadelphia October 
3d, 1863. He was discharged, and his application for a pension was rejected May 13th, 1864, his wound having produced no 
disability. 

LEE, THOMAS, Private, Co. C, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the left side of the scalp. Five 
Forks, Virginia, April 2d, 18,35. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 6th. Discharged from service, June 
29th, 1865. a. 0. No. 77, A. G. O., April 28th, 1865. 

LITTLE, JESSE II , Private Co. B, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the head and shoulder. Hanover, Penn- 
svlvania, June 30th, 1363. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty January 22d, 1864. 

Lor-KWOOD. S., Private, Co. K, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty July 13th, 1863. 

LOGAX . M. M., Sergeant. Co. M, 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years. Seven sabre-cuts of the scalp, one of the 
right shoulder, one of the left forearm, and a pistol-shot wound of the right hip. Aldie. Virginia. June ISth, 1863. Admitted 
to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June 2lst. Returned to duty January 17th, 1H64. 

LOT/. WILLIAM L., Private. Co. L, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 17 years. Sabiv-c;it of the right side of the scalp 



IQ WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Near Richmond. Virginia, May 9th, 1864. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, May IGth. Returned 
to duty July 19th, 1864. 

Lou-rt/, Isaac, Private, Co. C, llth Georgia Infantry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fisher s Hill, Virginia, 
October 19th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, January 3d, 1865. Transferred for exchange, well, 
February llth, 1865. 

LUCAS, WILLARD H., Private, Co. B, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 28 years. Sabre-cut of scalp. Yellow Tavern, Virginia, 
May 12th, 1864. Transferred to United States Navy July 4th, 1864. 

LUNT, ALBERT C., Private, Co. I, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, two inches above the 
ear; also one of the vertex. Drainesville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, April 8th. Trans 
ferred to Brattleboro , Vermont, July 29th; thence to Bedloe s Island, New York Harbor, November 8th. Returned to duty 
November 16th, 1863. 

LUTES, JAMES "W., Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of forehead and vertex of scalp. Gettysburg 
July od, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 16th. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

LUTHER, JAMES, Private, Co. G, 8th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. 
Recovered, and re-enlisted in the Veteran Reserve Corps. Mustered out of service July 17th, 1865. 

LUTHER, NICHOLAS, Private, Co. B, 21st Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 49 years. Sabre-cut of forehead. Troy, New 
York, while on guard. Admitted to hospital at Albany, New York, August 24th. Returned to duty September 26th, 1864. 

LYONS, JAMES, Private, Co. E, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Hanover, Pennsylvania, June 
30th, 1863. Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 14th, and transferred to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Mary- 
laud, July 16th. Returned to duty August llth, 186:5. 

MACK, JOHN, Private. Co. E, 1st Connecticut Cavalry, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, Virginia, 
October 17th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, October 21st, Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, 
Philadelphia, October 27th. Returned to duty December 1st, 1864. 

MANX, NEIIEMIAII H., Captain, Co. M, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot flesh wound of 
chest. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st 1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty Sep 
tember 29th, 1863. 

Me Alexander, D., Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 9th, 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, November 16th. Transferred for exchange, well, 
December 9th, 1864. 

McCabe, George, Private, Co. C, 2d Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Monocacy, Maryland, 
July 9th, 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, September 3d. Transferred to Fort Me Henry, Baltimore, 
for exchange, well, September 24th, 1864. 

McCLELLAX, WILLIAM T., Private, Co. B, 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre cut of the scalp. Raid 
on Hamilton, Virginia, March 21st, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Harper s Ferry, Virginia, March 25th. Transferred to 
Cumberland, Maryland, April Gth. Returned to duty April 24th, 1865. 

McCooL, MICHAEL H., Sergeant, Co. B, 71st- New York Volunteers, aged 30 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Chau- 
cellorsville, Virginia, May 3d, 1863. Admitted to Turner s Lane Hospital, Philadelphia, March 14th. Discharged from service 
May 17th, 1864. 

McCoy, JOHX, Private, Co. K, 9th Indiana Cavalry, aged 29 years. Incised wound of the scalp. In an affray. Admitted 
to hospital at Indianapolis, Indiana, April 13th. Returned to duty May Gth, 1864. 

MCDOWELL, JAMES, Private, Co. H, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fail-field, Pennsylvania, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

McFALL, JONATHAN, Private, Co. A, Gth Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp ffhd shoulder. Gettysburg, July 
1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty December 4th, 1863. 

. McKENXA, DAVENPORT, Private, Co. G, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mill 
wood, Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Philadelphia, December 21st. Returned to duty 
February 23d, 1865. 

McKowEN, WILLIAM, Corporal, Co. G, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the forehead, and one on the back of the 
neck. Culpeper, Virginia, September 3d, 1663. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, September 24th. 
Returned to duty November 9th, 1863. 

McLEAN, WILLIAM, Captain, Co. H, f>th United States Cavalry. Two or three sabre-cuts of the posterior portion of 
the scalp. Hanover, Virginia, June 13th, 1862. Taken prisoner, and confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, for a few weeks, 
when he was released. Died of inflammation of the brain April 13th, 1863. 

McVeiyli, T. E., Corporal, Co. F, 15th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut, three inches in length, of the superior occipital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Prince Street Hospital, Alexandria, June 10th. Transferred 
to provost marshal June 12th, 1863, for exchange. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 11 

MEAGHER, EDWARD, Private, Co. M. 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fairfield, Pennsylvania j 
July 3d, 1863. Discharged September 26th, 1864, on expiration of term of service. 

MEREDITH, I). II., Private, Co. C, 1st Delaware Cavalry, aged 28 years. Sabre-cut of the seal]); also gunshot wound 
of the left leg. Westminster. Maryland, June 2 Jth, 186:5. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, July 4th 
Transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, April 27th, 1864. Returned to duty July llth, 1864. 

MIGHT, JOHN. Private. Co. E, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1663. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 24th. Returned to duty August 13th, 1863. 

MILLER, FKANK E., Sergeant, Co. B, 1st New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and ear. Dinwiddie Court House, 
Virginia, March 31st, 1865. Recovered, and mustered out with his regiment June 27th, 1865. 

MILLER, JOHN W., Private. Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Asbby s Gap, 
Virginia, February 9th, 1885. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, March 1st, 1865. Discharged from service July 
10th, 1865. 

MILLS, W. S., Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and shoulder. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to Broad and Cherry Streets Hospital Philadelphia, July 15th. Returned to duty August 12tli, 1863. 

MONTGOMERY, JOHN, Private, Co. F, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. 
Hanover Junction, Pennsylvania. June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsylvania, July 5th. 
Returned to duty December 10th, 18i>3. 

MORRIS, J., Private, Co. H, 1st Virginia Artillery, aged 20 years. Sabre wound of the scalp. Lynchburg, Virginia, 
June 13th, 1864. Admitted to Post Hospital, New Creek, West Virginia, June 20th. Returned to duty July 6th, 1864. 

MORTSOLF, MARTIN, Corporal, Co. C, 10th New York Cavalry. Three sabre-cuts one of forehead, one of right arm, 
and one of back, extending from left shoulder to right hip. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Prince 
Street Hospital, Alexandria, June 10th. Returned to duty July 6th, 1863. 

N ELLIS, JOHN, Corporal, Co. A, 6th Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. 

NKLMAX, , Private, Co. B, Irish Dragoons, Fremont s Body Guard. Sabre-cut of the scalp and several bruises. 

Springfield, Missouri, October 25th, 1861. As no further record can be found of this case, the injuries were probably trivial. 

NEWKIRK, JAMES C., Private, Co. C, 1st Delaware Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalp. Westminster, Maryland, June 
29th, 1863. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, July 4th. Returned to duty August 25th, 1863. 

O CONNELL, C., Private, Co. C, 5th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Ellisville, Mississippi, June 23d, 1863. 
Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July loth. Returned to duty September 17th, 1863. 

ODELL, CHARLES L., Private, Co. B, 86th New York Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, 
June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington. Juno llth. Returned to duty June 24th, 1863. 

O NEiL, THOMAS, Private, Co. I, 1st Maryland Cavalry, aged 24 years. Accidental incised wound of the scalp. Admitted 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, March llth, 1864. Returned to duty April 14th, 1864. 

OVERTON, GEORGE P., Private, Co. E, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 41 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 21st, 
1865. 

PALMER, DAVID, Private, Co. K, 6th Ohio Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of right occipital region. Yellow Tavern, 
Virginia, May 12th. 1864. Admitted to hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, May 16th. Returned to duty June 28th, 1864. 

PARCKLLS, JOSEPH A., Private, Co. F, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and also over 
the right clavicle. Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Admitted to Chester Hospital, Pennsylvania, July 9th, 1863. Returned to 
duty December 23d, 1863. 

PARRIS, GEORGE W., Private, Co. D, 5th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. September 13th, 1863. Admitted 
to Armory Square Hospital, Washington, September 14th. Returned to duty December 4th, 18(33. 

PATTERSON, JOHN, Private, Co. B, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right side of the scalp. Upperville, 
Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, July 15th. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

PilETTKl LACE, MADISON, Private, Co. I, 23d Ohio Volunteers, aged 35 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, October 23d. Transferred to Tripler Hospital, 
Columbus. Ohio, June 28th. Mustered out of service July 7th, 1865. 

PICKKTT, THOMAS, Private, Co. I, 2d Maine Cavalry. Sabre-cut of left side of scalp. Pine Barrens, Florida, October, 
1864. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty the same day. 

POOL, GEORGE S.. Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head and right wrist. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to Broad and Cherry Streets Hospital, Philadelphia, July 15th. Discharged from service October 3d, 1863. 

PORTELL, PATRICK, Private, Co. B, 10th Massachusetts Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the right side of the head, one inch 
above the frontal protuberance. Gettysburg, July 3d. 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 5th. Returned 
to duty April 22d, 1864. 

I nlli n, T. K., Lieutenant, Co. G, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 30 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Admitted 
to Cliimbor;i/o Hospital. Richmond, Virginia, May 17th. Returned to dutv June 2<ith. 18i>4. 



12 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HUAD, 

PUTNAM, ORRIN J., Corporal, Co. I, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of left side of the scalp. Drains- 
ville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, April 8th. Transferred to Invalid 
Corps March 15th, 1864, and mustered out on expiration of his term of service. 

PYE, OLIVER, Private, Co. K, 1st New Hampshire Cavalry, aged 37 years. Sword wound of the scalp. Newtown, 
Virginia Novemher 12th, 1864. Admitted on the same day to the Cavalry Corps Hospital, and transferred November 20th to 
McKim s Mansion, Baltimore. "Died December 10th, 1864, of " effects of sabre wound." 

QUINN, MICHAEL, Bugler, Co. D, 4th United States Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Franklin, Ten 
nessee, November 30th, 1864. Admitted to No. 15 Hospital, Nashville, December 23d. Returned to duty January 4th, 1865. 

QUINX, PETEU, Private, Co. B, 17th Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 43 years. Severe incised wound of the scalp. Acci 
dental. Admitted to hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana, June 23d, from Ekin Barracks. Returned to duty October 27th, 1864. 

REMINGTON, GEORGE W., Captain, Co. H, 2d New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mount 
Jackson, Virginia, November 22d, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, November 30th. Mustered 
out on expiration of term of service, June 5th, 1865. 

RICE, HORATIO H., Sergeant, Co. A, 10th New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and a gunshot 
flesh wound of the thigh. Trevillian Station, June llth, 1864. Admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June 21st, 
1864. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, June 29th. Discharged December 7th, 1864, on account of expiration 
of term of enlistment. 

Richardson, E., Private, Co. B, 2d Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Admitted to rebel hospital, Petersburg, 
Virginia, December 10th, 1862. Returned to duty December 23d, 1862. 

Richie, J. R. P., Private, Co. H, 12th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre wound of the head. Admitted to Chimborazo Hospital, 
Richmond, Virginia, June 12th, 1863. Furloughed June 24th, 1863, for sixty days. 

Robinson, Charles E., Private, Co. C, 9th Virginia Cavalry, aged 43 years. Sabre-cut of the parietal region three inches 
in length. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washing-ton, June 23d. Transferred to Old 
Capitol Prison August 16th, 1863, for exchange. 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM, Commissary Sergeant, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. September, 1864. Mustered 
out of service September llth, 1865. 

ROGERS, GEORGE A., Private, Co. H, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Brandy Station, Virginia, October 
llth, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis, October 29th ; transferred to Brattleboro, Vermont, December 9th ; transferred 
to Baxter Hospital, Burlington, December 16th. Returned to duty February 25th, 1864. 

Rowie, James H., Private, 5th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aklie Gap, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. 
Paroled. 

Ruffin, Thomas, Major, 1st North Carolina Cavalry. Sabre wound of the head. Admitted to Hospital No. 4, Richmond, 
Virginia, July 22d, 1863. Furloughed July 29th, 1863. 

RUSSELL, GEORGE, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sheridan s Raid in Vir 
ginia, May, 1864. Discharged the service August 17th, 1864. 

RYAN, JEREMIAH, Private, Co. H, 22d New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to De 
Camp Hospital, David s Island, New York Harbor, June 3d, 1865. Discharged from service July 15th, 1865. 

RYAN, SAXEY, Sergeant, Co. G, 13th Indiana Volunteers, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Bermuda Hundred, 
Virginia, June 19th, 1864. Admitted to Filbert Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 6th. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital July 
16th. Returned to duty August 6th, 1864. 

SALISBURY, FREDERICK, Private, Co. C, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Beverly Ford, 
Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty July 
24th, 1863. 

SAUNDERS, EDWARD, Private, Co. M, 7th Michigan Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Front 
Royal, Virginia, August 16th, 1864. Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, August 21st. Returned to duty Sep 
tember 27th, 1864. 

SAXTON, EDWARD P., Private, Co. D, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, 
June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty June 18th, 1863. 

SCHAEFER, GUSTAVUS, Private, Co. B, 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty August llth, 1863. 

SCHEER, WILLIAM, Private, Co. M, 2d United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Beverly Ford, 
Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned to duty July 27th, 1863. 

SCHIEVILBIEN, EDWARD, Corporal, Co. F, 3d Indiana Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Field Hospital, 
Hope s Landing, Virginia, March 23d, 1863. Discharged in consequence of aberation of mind, resulting from the injury, April 
12th, 1863. 

SKCRER, JAMKS, Sergeant, Co. C, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, August 12th. Returned to duty October 2d, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 13 

Shaw, C. C., Private, 1st Virginia Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Warrcnton, Virginia, 
May 3d. 1863. Admitted. to Mansion House Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, May 3d, 1863. Transferred for exchange, well, June 
15th, 1863. 

SHEPHERD. HERBERT L., Private, Co. B, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut, two inches in length, of the right 
parietal region, and slight cut of the hand. Manassas Gap, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, 
Annapolis, Maryland, July 16th. Returned to duty October 5th, 1863. 

SHOTWELL, JOHN, Sergeant, 5th Kentucky Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sherman s Campaign through the Caro- 
linas, 1865. 

Sheffield, John, Private, Co. D, 1st Arkansas Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the forehead. Osage, Missouri, 
October 25th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Scott, Kansas, October 28th. Returned to confinement November 17th, 1864. 
Subsequently exchanged. 

SINGLETON, WILLIAM, Private, Co. B, 16th New York Cavalry. Sabre-out of the scalp. Near Opelousas, Louisiana, 
October 22d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at New Orleans November llth. Returned to duty December 3d, 1863. 

SKID, JOHN, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July, 1863. 
Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty November 27th, 18S3. 

SMALL, JOHN F., Sergeant, Co. H, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Upperville, Vir 
ginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 15th. Returned to duty September 
26th, 1863. 

SMITH, GEORGE W., Private, Co. D, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to hospital at Gettysburg July 2d. Returned to duty July 9th, 1863. 

SMITH, HENRY M., Private, Co. C, llth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Wilderness, 
Virginia, May 5th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Pittsburg June 23d. Returned to duty March 1st, 1865. 

SMITH, JOHN B., Private, Co. K, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 9th, 

1863. As no further record can be found of this case, the injury was probably trivial. 

SMITH, PATRICK, Private, Co. A, 8th New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Lacey s Springs, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 21st, 
1865. 

SOUTHKRLAND, JOSEPH, Private, Co. D, 1st Illinois Artillery, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. December 25th, 

1864. Admitted to hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, the same day. Returned to duty January 4th, 1865. 

STAFF, ISAAC, Private, Co. H., 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, Virginia, December 
17th, 1864. 

STANTON, C. S., Private, Co. D, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester. Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, October 12th. Returned to duty December 3d. 1864. 

STEAKEM, M., Private, Co. I, 16th Massachusetts Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July, 1863. Admitted 
to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 8th. Returned to duty July 27th, 1863. 

STKIXHAVSER, J., Private, Co. C, 1st United States Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut, two and a half inches long, of 
the right temporal region ; also a wound of the thoracic parieties. Culpeper, Virginia, August 1st, 1863. Admitted to Douglas 
Hospital, Washington, August 2d. Returned to duty October 17th. 1863. 

STELLMAN, CHARLES, Private, Co. B, 6th Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beaver Dam, Virginia, May, 1864. 

Stevens, Daniel, Private, Co. I, 36th Virginia Infantry, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Admitted to West s Building Hospital, Baltimore, October 13th. Transferred for exchange, October 
17th, 1864. 

STIMPSON, ROBERT E., Private, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the head. Gettysburg, July 
2d, 1863. Admitted to Satterlie Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

STKUHLE, L. G., Corporal, Co. A, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted 
to Fort Schuyler Hospital, New York Harbor, July 15th. Transferred to De Camp Hospital, David s Island, February 9th, 
1864. Returned to duty February 20th, 1864. 

Sl LHAM, JONAS G., Private, Co. I, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 40 years. Sabre-cut of the left side of head ; also gun 
shot wound of right side of head, and two bruises of right side of scalp by a revolver barrel. Drainesville, Virginia, April 1st 
1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, April 8th. Returned to duty May 1st, 1863. He was captured June 9th, 1864, 
and died in a southern prison. 

SWAIN, D. P., Sergeant, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Hunterstown, Pennsylvania. July 2d, 
1863. Recovered and returned to duty. Subsequently he was captured, and died in prison at Aiulersonville, Georgia. 

TARSAKI, ADOLPHUS, Private, Co. B, 12th New York Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and right hand ; 
September 29th, 1864 ; for the latter, amputation of the index finger was performed. June 27th, 1865. Admitted to McDougall 
Hospital, New York Harbor. July 9th. Deserted August 3d, 186."). 



14 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Taylor, C. M., Private, Co. D, Jeff. Davis Legion. Sabre-cut of the occipital region; also a gunshot wound of left arm. 
Upperville, Virginia , June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Strmton Hospital, Washington, June 23d. .Transferred for exchange 
August 1st, 1863. 

TEWKSBURY, BENJAMIN P., Private, Co. E, 3d New York Cavalry, aged 46 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and contu 
sion of the back by a fall from his horse. Beam s Station, Virginia, June 29th, 1864. Admitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, 
Virginia, from Regimental Hospital, May 24th, 1865. Discharged July 20th, 1865. 

Thomas, J. W., Sergeant, Co. A, 1st Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Admitted to hospital at Petersburg, 
Virginia, November 18th, 1862. Returned to duty December 2d, 1862. 

Thompson, C. S., Lieutenant, Co. E, 2d South Carolina Cavalry. Sabre wound of the head. Admitted to Hospital No. 
4, Richmond, Virginia, August 6th, 1863. Eurloughed August 12th, 1863. 

THOMPSON, Jonx, Private, Co. C, 7th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Admitted 
to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 16th. Returned to duty August 26th, 1863. 

Thompson, William H., Private, Co. K, 18th Alabama Infantry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Nashville, Ten 
nessee, December 15th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Nashville December 25th, 1864. Transferred to Provost Marshal January 
3d, 1865, for exchange. 

TOMLIX, JOHN F., Captain, Co. M., 3d New Jersey Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sailor s Run, Virginia, April 
6th, 1865. Admitted to Cavalry Corps Hospital April llth. Furloughed April 18th. Mustered out of service August 1st, 1865. 

TOWXE. EDWARD O., Corporal, Co. D, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 39 years. Sabre-cut, three inches in length, 
behind the right ear. Aldie, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 18th. 
Furloughed July 18th, 1863. Returned to duty and mustered out with regiment October 3d, 1864. 

TOWXSLEE, GILES, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and left arm. Hunterstown, Penn 
sylvania, July 2d, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

Traucr, William D., Private, Alabama Reserves, aged 47 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Milton, Florida, December 
24th, 1864. Admitted to St. Louis Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, December 28th. Transferred to Military Prison March 
llth, 1865, for exchange. 

TWEEDALE, T., Private, Co. I, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 

1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty September llth, 1863. 

UPDYKE, EVERETT C., Private, Co. D, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region, three inches 
in length. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned to duty 
August loth, 1863. 

UPDYKE, J. R., Private, Co. B, 5th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of the hip. Han 
over, Pennsylvania, June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Fort Schuyler Hospital, New York Harbor, July 15th. Returned to duty 
August 28th, 1863. 

Walker John B., Private, Co. K, 36th Virginia Infantry, aged 38 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Winchester the following day. Transferred to Baltimore December llth. 
Sent to Fort McHenry January 5th, 1865, for exchange. 

W T ATSOX, Joiix, Private, Co. H, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July, 1863. 
Admitted to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 8th. Returned to duty July 27th, 1863. 

Watts, W. C., Private, Co. D, 14th Virginia Cavalry, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 12th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, AVinchester, Virginia, November 14th. Transferred to Fort McHenry 
December 9th, 1864, for exchange. 

WEED, WILLIAM H., Private, Co. C, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Five Forks, Virginia, April 
1st, 1865. Mustered out of service June 3d, 1865. 

WKKMAN, JACOB, Private, Co. I, 16th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Accident. Admitted to West End 
Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 26th. Returned to duty December 19th, 1863. 

WELCH, HEXRY L., Private, Co. B, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, August 
16th, 1864. Deserted June 23d, 1865. 

WENTWOKTII, GEORGE A., Private, Co. G, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie, 
Virginia, July 6th, 1864. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, July 12th. Returned to duty September 
12th, 1864. 

WILSON, DANA S., Private, Co. K, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 32 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal. Vir 
ginia, August 16th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, August 1.8th. Transferred August 20th, 

1864. Recovered and returned to duty. Subsequently died of chronic diarrhoea, November 13th, 1865. 

Wilson, M. D., Private, Co. H, 14th Virginia Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 12th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, November 14th. Transferred to Baltimore November 
16th, and thence to Fort McHenry, December 9th, 1861, for exchange. 

WIN<;ROVK, GKOIKIE, Piivate, Co. F, 9th New York Heavy Artillery. Sabre cut of the ri-lit parietal region. She],- 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 15 

herd st own, Virginia, August 25tli, 1864. Admitted to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, August 27th. Transferred to Camp 
Parole August 29th. Returned to duty October 5th, 18(>1. 

WINTERS, AUGUST, Private, Co. M, 5th Ohio Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of tlie scalp, and shell wound of the 
arm. Near Fayetteville, North Carolina, March 10th, 1865. Admitted to Grant Hospital, New York Harbor, March 30th. 
Transferred to Camp Dennison, Ohio, ApVil 16th. Discharged from service June 23d, 1865. 

Woon, SAMUEL, Sergeant, Co. L, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the occipital and parietal regions; also wound 
of neck. Culpepper Court House, Virginia, September 13th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, 
September 24th. Transferred to De Camp Hospital, New York Harbor, October 29th. Furloughed October 31st. Returned 
to duty November 21st, 1863. 

Wood son, W. K., Private, Co. B, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region, five inches in 
length. Brandy Station, Virginia, October llth, 1863. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, November 
8th, from Campbell Hospital, Washington. Transferred for exchange, well, March 3d, 1864. 

WmGUT, JOHN Private, Co. K ; 1st Alabama Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sherman s Campaign through the 
Caroliuas, 1865. 

WRIGHT, J. N., Private, Co. C, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp on median line, three inches above the 
forehead, and pistol-shot wound of the thorax. Drainesville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, 
April 8th. Returned to duty May 6th, 1863. 

YEAGL.E, JOSEPH, Private, Co. L, 5th New York Cavalry, aged 32 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, 
June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 25th. Returned to duty June 29th, 1863. 

YOUNG, SETII, Private, Co. D, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of the left leg. 
Admitted to Lovell Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, July 8th. Returned to duty November 18th, 1863. 

Of the two hundred and eighty-two cases of incised wounds of the scalp above 
recorded, six terminated fatally; one hundred and sixty of the officers and men thus 
wounded were returned to duty, or transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps for modified 
duty; one officer resigned; thirty-seven prisoners of war were placed in the custody of the 
Provost Marshal for exchange or parole; fifty-one United States enlisted men were dis 
charged from service on account of physical disability in a few instances only, and com 
monly because of the expiration of their terms of enlistment; twelve .patients deserted; 
four were furloughed from Confederate hospitals and did not return, and eleven remain 
unaccounted for, but undoubtedly recovered without disability, since their names do not 
appear on the mortuary records or the lists of applications for pensions. 

An examination of the record in each individual case indicates that the deserters and 
furloughed men, and the great majority of the discharged men and exchanged prisoners 
fully recovered, and that of the whole number of two hundred and eighty-two wounded, 
three died from some form of encephalitis directly resulting from the injuries received, 
while in five other cases, chronic diarrhoea, intemperate habits, or intercurrent diseases 
contracted in hospitals or prisons, were the proximate causes of the fatal issue. Of those 
discharged for physical disability or invalided or pensioned, two suffered from mental 
aberration, others from vertigo, imperfect vision, headache, persistent pain at the seat of 
injury, ptosis, and amaurosis. Of those who recovered and were returned to duty, three 
were subsequently captured, and died from privation at Andcrsonville. In short, two 
hundred and sixty-three of the wounded recovered, eleven were temporarily or per 
manently disabled, three died from complications, and three from the direct results of the 
injury. 

The treatment of incised wounds of the scalp calls for few comments. Our surgeons 
commonly* shaved a sufficient space about the wound, and after suppressing haemorrhage, 
and, if necessary, cleansing the parts and removing foreign bodies, approximated the incised 



16 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

parts by adhesive plasters.* A compress dipped in cold water and a retentive bandage 
were usually applied. Some surgeons were not averse to sutures, silver-wire sutures 
especially, and employed them without disadvantage in cases in which slanting sword 
cuts had raised flaps of integument. Surgeon S. W. Gross,- U. S. V., alludesf to a case 
which came under his care during the war, but which has not been reported in detail, in 
which a large semilunar flap, raised from the vertex and side of the head, presented a 
wound thirteen inches in length. He approximated the wound by nine points of silver 
suture. On the fourth day, union was perfect. There can be no doubt that exaggerated 
apprehensions have been entertained with respect to the employment of sutures in wounds 
of this class; but, as the scalp has but slight elasticity, and retracts but little after division, 
stitches are rarely indispensable. NeudorferJ makes the practical observation that when 
wounds of the scalp are approximated by adhesive strips the lips are inverted, and the 
healing of the wound is long delayed by the growth of the hair. On this account he 
greatly prefers to unite such wounds by points of suture. Hennen and Guthrie and 
Adams also sanction the employment of sutures in scalp wounds where there is much 
retraction of the edges. Whatever the mode of coaptation adopted, the importance of 
leaving sufficient intervals for the escape of discharges was generally recognized. 

There was not sufficient hemorrhage in any of the cases above enumerated to require 
the employment of ligatures. Pressure, which can be so conveniently applied over almost 
any part of the skull, was adequate to arrest bleeding in every instance. 

It does not appear that rest in bed, spare diet, and an antiphlogistic regimen, were 
often enjoined in this class of cases. It is probable that the unfavorable issue of a certain 
proportion of the cases was due to the neglect of these precautions. While many military 
surgeons of the present clay call in question the rigid rules of the older surgeons for the 
general treatment of scalp wounds, and contest the utility of purging, of antimonials, of 
cold lotions, and of strict diet, none have the hardihood to deny that quiet and abstinence 
from stimulating food and drink are imperatively demanded in such cases. 

INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. Forty-nine cases of incised wounds of the 
head are recorded on the registers. They furnish illustrations of all the varieties of such 
injuries: the superficial marking of the outer table, the division of the outer table and 
diploe, the section of both tables and more or less profound penetration of the cranial 
cavity, and the separation of an osseous flap.|| 

Adams, J. F., Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 34 years. Sabre fracture of the left parietal bone. Front 
Royal, Virginia, November 12th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, January 31st, 1865. Transferred 
for exchange, well, February llth, 1865. 

ALLKX, ROHERT, Private, Co. I, 4th Kentucky Volunteers. Sabre fracture of the frontal bone over the external portion 
of the left orbital ridge. Chickamauga, Georgia, September 20th, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Stevenson, Alabama, October 
4th, 1863. Returned to duty October 22d, 1863. Mustered out August 21st, 1865. 



* Surgeons in the field were supplied with two kinds of " sticking plaster;" isinglass plaster (Emplastrum Icthyocolla?) 
and adhesive plaster (Emplastrum Resinse, U. S. P.) The first was readily detached if water dressings were applied over it ; the 
second was thought by many surgeons to be two irritating to be used in scalp wounds. French surgeons recommend strips of 
muslin spread with diachylon for the coaptation of these wounds. Strips of linen, secured at the ends by collodion, have also 
been employed. 

t lift-ieic of Works on Military Surf/cry, in Am. Join-, of Mcd. faiences. N. S. Vol. LVL, p. 427, October, 1867. 

{NKUDORFER. Handbuch der Erieyschirurgie. Leipzig, 1867. Zweite Halfte. 

HKXXEX. Military Suryery, p. 236; GUTHKLE. Commentaries on the Sur;/cry of the War, etc., 6th London ed., p. 387 ; 
ADAMS. Additions to Cooper s Dictionary, 8th London ed , p. 374. 

II The whimsical designations of these accidents by the older surgeons, as hcdra, (superficial cut;) cccope, (perpendicular 
cut); diacope, (oblique section); and aposkeparnismos, (detachment of portions of bone,) have become obsolete. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 



17 




FIG. 1. Interior view of a segment of the parie- 
tals and occipital, divided by a sabre-cut. Spec. 
](i~:>, Sect. 1, A.M. M. 



ARMSTRONG. MAIITIX, Sergeant, Co. M, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre fracture of the cranium. Fail-field. Penn., 
July 3d, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, September 20th. Died October 4th, 18f>3, of pyaemia. 

BASSKR, ADAM, Private, Co. F, 6th United States Cavalry, aged 27 years, received a sabre wound of the scalp at Gettys 
burg, July 3d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, August 4th. Transferred to Annapolis Junction, April 9th, 
1864; thence to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, April 27th; thence to Pittsburg, June 7th, where it was found that there was a 
loosened exfoliation of the outer table of the skull. This was removed; tho wound then healed, and the man returned to 
duty, cured, July 2 2d, 1864. 

B , JAMKS F., Private, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cavalry, was .captured at Gettysburg July 3d, 1863, his horse being 

shot under him. He was hurried to the rear with other prisoners. In the subsequent retreat of the rebel army he was unable 
to keep up with the column, and, all efforts to goad him on being unavailing, a lieutenant in command of the provost guard cut 
him down, and left him for dead by the roadside. He was brought in by a scouting party, and was admitted to the Cavalry 
Corps Hospital. On the 25th of July he was sufficiently rational to give the above 
account to Surgeon Rulison, 9th New York Cavalry. He was in a very depressed 
state at this time. His pulse was weak, and beat from forty to fifty per minute. 
He was indisposed to mental exertion ; but when aroused and interested was 
quite rational. He lingered until August 15th, 18ii3, the tendency to stupor increas 
ing towards the close. The autopsy revealed a sabre-cut six inches long, which 
had raised an osseous flap, adherent at its base, from the left parietal, and cloven 
the right parietal, with great splintering of the vitreous plate. The sabre had pene 
trated the dura mater on the left side, and on the right side the meninges were 
injured by the depressed inner table. The posterior lobes of both hemispheres of 
the brain were extensively disorganized. The specimen, with the above history, 
was contributed by Surgeon W. H. Rulison, 9th New York Cavalry, since killed 
in battle. An external view of the specimen is presented in Figure 55, page 
40, Circular No. 6, Surgeon General s Office, Washington, 1865. An internal view is given in the adjacent wood-cut. (FiG 1.) 

BLOOD, A. N., Corporal, Co. C, 1st New Hampshire Cavalry. Sabre-fracture of the skull. Newtown, Virginia, November 
12th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Winchester, Virginia, on the same day. Inflammation of the brain supervened, and 
he died, November 30th, 1864. 

BRADLEY, ALEXANDRIA Private, Co. E, 5th New York Cavalry, aged 23 years. Compound comminuted fracture of the 
occipital bone by a sabre. Hanover, Pennsylvania, June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, November 
17th. Seventeen spiculae of bone were removed. Returned to duty November 28th, 1863. 

BKOWX, JAMKS W., Musician, Co. F, 13th Ohio Volunteers, aged 30 years. Sabre-fracture of the cranium. Atlanta, 
Ga., August 17th, 1864. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tenn., August 27th. Discharged from service May 18th, 1865. 

Buowx, S. L., Private, Co. G, 8th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the left parietal bone. 
Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. A segment of bone removed primarily. Insensibility lasted seven days. Admitted to hospital at 
York, Pennsylvania, July 19th. Returned to duty November 24th, 1863. 

CANFIKLD, J. N., Corporal, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 55 years. Fracture of the cranium, with depression of 
the inner table by a blow from a sabre. Newmarket, Virginia, December 21st, 1834. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Mary 
land, December 23d. Discharged from service May 2Uth, 1865. 

CLARK, RICHARD, (colored,) officer s servant, aged 19 years. Sword fracture of the left side of cranium. Iceport, 
Mississippi, February 2d, 1865. Admitted to Strader Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, March 23d, from Field Hospital. Trans 
ferred March 26th, 1865, to New Albany, Indiana, Floating Hospital. Returned to duty June 27th, 1865. 

COLVIN, Jonx, Corporal, Co. B, 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry, being detached for service with the provost marshal of the 
brigade, while in the performance of his duty, received, on January 2cl, 1864, a sabre-cut on the forehead. The right parietal 
bone was badly fractured near the sagittal and frontal sutures. About one square inch of the bone being loose, was removed, 
together with several spiculac, and a sharp projection was removed by Key s saw. The integuments were replaced over the 
opening in the skull by means of sutures, and the wound healed nearly by first intention. No unpleasant symptom, save one 
delirious night, occurred after the injury, and the man was returned from the Cavalry Corps Hospital to his regiment on 
January 28th, 1864. The operation was performed by Dr. George W. Colby, surgeon in chief of the brigade, and the case was 
reported by Assistant Surgeon A. F. Herrmann. 

D , THOMAS, Private, Co. G, 5th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 48 

years, was wounded at Chantilly, Virginia, on September 1st, 1862, by sev 
eral sabre blows over the right ear. He was taken to Washington, and ad 
mitted to Douglas Hospital on September 5th. He was then suffering from 
partial hemiplegia, with mental hebetude. There was great tumefaction of 
the scalp. It was found that the right parietal was very extensively frac 
tured, (FiG. 2,) one fissure running near the temporo-parietal suture, and 
others upwards and backwards from the ear. Near the parietal eminence 
there was a marked depression. It was determined to raise the depressed 
bone, and on September 6th, Acting Assistant Surgeon J. W. Williams 
applied the trephine, and, after removing a button and several fragments 
of bone, he excised a sharp depressed angle by a Hey s saw. It was ascer- 
3 




Fro. 2. Vault of the cranium, showing 1 several sabre-cuts 
of the right parietal. Spec. 235, Sect. I, A. M. M. 



18 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



tained that tlie dura mater had been injured by the sabre-cuts. After the elevation of the depressed fracture, the paralysis of the left 
side was relieved. The head was shaven, and cold applications were perseveringly employed. For ten days subsequently the case 
appeared to progress favorably; but, on September 14th, the patient began to be heavy and drowsy, and the following day there 
were clonic spasms of the left side and pleurosthotonos. At night the breathing was stertorous, the pupils were dilated, and the 
general symptoms of compression of the brain were very marked. Death took place on September IGth, 1862. There was a 
larn-e coagtilum of extravasated blood under the scalp near the vertex, as though the man had fallen upon bis bead after 
being wounded. A po t mortnn examination was made on September 17th. On removing the calvaria, which was remarkable 
for its extreme thinness, it was found that the dura mater was perforate ) beneath the intersection of the wounds, and that, for 
a space of several inches, there was thickening, with other evidences of inflammatory action. The arachnoid and pia mater 
were disintegrated in this vicinity, and a space comprising nearly half of the right cerebral hemisphere was occupied by an 
abscess. The calvaria was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum by Assistant Surgeon Warren Webster, U. S. Army. It 
is represented by FlG. 2, on the preceding page. 

I) , J. M., Private, Co. M, 1st New Jersey Cavalry, aged 24 years, in a skirmish with the retreating enemy, 

near Burkesville, Virginia, on April 6th, 1805. received a sabre wound on the right side of the head. There was a cut through 
the scalp and pericranium three inches long, extending into the outer table of the skull and diploe, from the parietal eminence 
downwards and backwards. The wounded man was conveyed to the Cavalry Corps Hospital, and thence to the Base Hospital 
at City Point, and thence by water to Baltimore, where he was admitted to West s Building Hospital, on May llth. 1865. 
No report of his symptoms is given until his admission to the Baltimore hospital, when Acting Assistant Surgeon W. G. Knowles 

records that he suffered se 
vere paroxysms of pain, re 
curring frequently, and an 
nounced by loud screams. 
In the intervals, he answered 
questions readily and ration 
ally. In the evening of May 
llth, he became composed 
and slept tranquilly. He 
manifested signs of intelli 
gence until within half an 
hour of his death, which oc 
curred on May 12th, 1855. 
On May 13th, thirty-seven 
days after the reception of 
the injury, an autopsy was 
made by Acting Assistant 
Surgeon J. H. Butler. The 
incised fracture of the outer 
table was two and a half 

inches in length. At one point it penetrated through the diploe. Its edges 
were necrosed and suppurating. On removing the vault of the cranium, a splinter of the internal table, one and threefourths of 
an inch in length and one-quarter of an inch wide, was found under the cut, depressed about two lines. This fragment was 
covered by a thick deposit of lymph, which filled the angles of the depression, and adhered to the dura mater. In this mem 
brane there were two small perforations, due to ulceration. These communicated with an abscess of the right hemisphere, 
rilled with offensive pus. The dura mater was thickened and softened near the fracture, and discolored on its inner surface over 
a space an inch in diameter. The specimen is preserved at the Army Medical Museum as a wet preparation, and is numbered 
4206 of the Surgical Section. It is represented in the adjacent wood-cuts. (FlG. 3 and FlG. 4.) 

DUNN, GEORGE, Corporal, Co. E, 79th New York Volunteers. Fracture of the left side of the frontal bone, near the 
coronal suture, by a sabre. There was a depression of both tables of the skull one inch in extent. Admitted to Carver Hospital, 
Washington, November 30th, 1862. Deserted March 21st, 1863. 

ENGLEKKE, WILLIAM, Private, Co. B, 54th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 33 years. Three sabre wounds of the occipital 
region, and one of the left superciliary ridge. The latter fractured the outer plate of the frontal bone, and destroyed the vision 
of the left eye. There were also three cuts over the dorsum of the right hand. Saltville, Virginia, December 23d, 1864. 
Admitted to hospital at Lexington, Kentucky, January 8th, 1865, and discharged from service and pensioned, May 19th, 1865. 
On March 4th, 18G7, the examining surgeon of the Pension Office reported his disabilities as permanent. 

FKEYUKIJT, ADAM, Private, Co. B, 1st Maryland Cavalry, aged 34 years. Compound comminuted fracture of the left 
parietal bone by a blow from a sabre. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annap 
olis. Maryland, June 21st. Returned to duty April 21st, 1864. On the expiration of his term of service, be re-enlisted in the 
1st Regiment, 1st Army Corps, (Hancock s Corps,) in the spring of 1865. On July 18th, 1865, he was treated at Stanton 
Hospital, Washington, for catarrh, was furloughed, and then transferred to Douglas, and thence to Harewood Hospitals, and 
finally discharged on surgeon s certificate of disability, February 21st, 1866. From the hospital records it appears that he 
suffered little or no inconvenience from his head injury, and that he was probably an incorrigible malingerer. 

GODSMAUK, GEOUGE A., Private, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region, four 
inches in length, with partial fracture of the bone. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Admitted to Harewood Hospital, Washington, July 





FIG. 3. Sabre-cut of the rig-lit parietal. Spec, 420G, 
Sect. I, A. M. M. 



FlG. 4. Interior view cf the foregoing specimen. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 



19 




f 



24th, where a spiculffi of buiie, one inch in length, was removed. August 18th, the patient was much improved, and the wound 
was nearly healed. The intellect at times was dull and impaired, with defective hearing. Returned to duty November llth, 1863. 

HAINKS, WALTER F., Corporal, Co. K, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 30 years. Satire-cut of the scalp, two and a half inches 
long, with fracture of the vertex of the cranium. Middleburg, Virginia. June 19th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, 
Annapolis, Maryland, July 9th. Returned to duty September 13th, 1863. 

HALL, ASA A., Private, Co. K, 1st New Hampshire Cavalry, aged 35 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, injuring the 
cranium. Lacey s Springs, Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Taken prisoner by the enemy, and admitted to hospital December 
25th. Exchanged, and admitted to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, February 23, 1865, from Annapolis. On May 23d 
fragments of the outer table were removed. Transferred to Hicks Hospital, Baltimore, June 14th. Discharged the service 
June 25th, 1865. Surgeon T. Sim, U. S. V., reports the case. 

H - , ROBERT, Private, Co. C, 6th United States Heavy Artillery,* (colored,) aged 18 years, while sick in hospital at 
Fort Pillow, Tennessee, received, at the capture of that work, April l 2th, 1864, three sabre-cuts over the left parietal bone, and 
a blow from some blunt weapon, which produced a depressed fracture of the right 
parietal. One of the sabre wounds fissured the inner table, and drove a portion 
of it, an inch and a quarter in length, through the dura mater. As he raised his 
arm to protect his head, he received a sabre-cut on the left hand, nearly severing 
the index finger. The patient was conveyed by water to the hospital at Mound 
City, Illinois, and was admitted there on the 14th of April. The case book of the 
hospital describes him as very low, and at times irrational. On the 17th, the record 
states that he was weak and very restless, disposed to sleep in the day-time, and 
it is added that his appetite was tolerably good. On the 18th, he was "very bad." 
On the 19th, he was at times delirious. He died at half past ten in the morning of 
April 21st, 1864. At one in the afternoon an autopsy was made by Acting Assistant 
Surgeon Alelvin L. Rust, when a large extravasation of blood was found over the 
left cerebral hemisphere, and a piece of the vitreous lamina, an inch and a half 
long and an inch wide, detached from the left parietal by the severest of the sabre- 
cuts, was driven through the dura mater, into the substance of the brain. The 
calvaria, which is depicted in the accompanying wood-cut, (FiG. 5,) was forwarded 
to the Army Medical Museum by Surgeon Horace Wardner, U. S. V. The detached 
fragment of bone was lost in transportation. The superior portions of the external 
table of the parietals is discolored, as if from ecchytnosis. 

H - , JAMES, Private, 27th Company, 2d Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 22 years, a patient at Ricord Hospital, 
Washington, in an altercation with one of the hospital guards, on the 25th of January, 1865, received a sabre wound, two and a 
half inches in length, on the left side of the forehead, a little within the left frontal protuberance. A cleft, an inch long, was 
made in the outer table of the bone. The patient was conveyed into the hospital, and the wound was closed by silver sutures, 
and simple dressings were applied, and he was restricted to low diet. On the 25th, the man was feverish, and his bowels were 
constipated. He had a dose of salts, which was repeated on the 27th. On the 28th, he complained of headache, and was 

ordered a mixture with bromide of potassium, lupulin, and hyoscyamus, and 
was allowed full diet. On the 31st, the report says that his appetite was good , 
but he was ordered a drachm of tincture of gentian thrice daily. On February 
2d, he was reported as having passed a restless night, and was ordered eight 
grains of Dover s powder at bedtime. On February 6th, he was very comfort 
able, and walked about the ward. On the next, day, his bowels being sluggish, 
he took three grains of blue pill and six of the compound extract of colocynth, 
and was placed on light diet. On the afternoon of the 8th, he complained of 
headache, which was aggravated at night On the next morning he was par 
tially insensible. He was roused with difficulty ; he answered questions slowly, 
but rationally. The pupils responded to light; the tongue when protruded, 
after great effort, did not deviate laterally. He had a dose of salts, a blister, 
three by five, to the nucha, and, later in the day, a terebinthinate enema. He 
had several involuntary dejections, and his urine dribbled away. In the evening 
he seemed brighter, and the control of the sphincters was re-established. On 

February 10th, he was perfectly rational. The urine and freces were discharged 
FIG. f>. Cavity of nn abscess in the cerebrum, * , ,. . , ! . , , ., 

resulting from a sabre wound. Spec. 3fi85, Surg. Sect, voluntarily; the tongue when protruded deviated slightly to the right; the 

pulse was weak at 70 ; slight cephalalgia. February llth, lie had passed a bad 

night, and he had but little appetite. From the 12th to the 15th. anorexia, weak pulse, regular bowels, no aggravation of the 
head symptoms. On the 16th, the patient complained of severe headache at 4 A.M., and soon after began to breathe ster- 
torously. At 7 o clock he was perfectly unconscious ; the pupils were slightly but equally contracted, and did not respond 

* In the brief iibstruet of this case given at page 40 of Circular No. (!, S. G. O., 1FG5, it is stated that the patient WHS a private of the 7th Colored 
Regiment, I . S. Artillery. In the report of the Congressional Committee on % the Conduct of the War. (lif- th Congress, 1st session, House of Representa 
tives. Report No. <;."., ].. ">r>.) Robert Hall is named as of (lie 1st Alabama Artillery. The Adjutant General of the. Army informs the compiler that the 
organization in which this man enlisted v,as first known as the " 1st Al.,b:ima Siege Artillery." Its designation was afterwards changed to " lith II. S. 
Artillery, (colored"), afterwards to "7th I . S. Heavy Artillery," and finally to "11111 I . S. Colored Trcoj s." 




20 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

to light; there was stertor, with foam about the lips. Coma became more and more profound, and at half past twelve on the 
following dav, February 17th, 186. r >, the patient expired. At the autopsy, an incised fracture, an inch long, involving the 
outer table only, was found near the left frontal protuberance. The condition of the diploe beneath it is not mentioned. 
The left side of the os frontis was sent to the Army Medical Museum. It is numbered Specimen 3684 of the Surgical Section, 
and is figured bv a wood-cut on page 34 of the Catalogue.* Two discolored spots on the specimen are stains from iron rust, acci 
dentally made during the preparation of the specimen. An abscess was found in the left anterior lobe of the cerebrum, measuring 
two and one-half inches antero-posteriorly, and one and one-half inch laterally, the anterior and superior portions extending on 
the left nearly to the surface of the cerebral substance, and within six lines of the median line of the cerebrum. It contained two 
ounces of pus. Pus had also found its way through all the ventricles, largely distending the left lateral, and, from the fourth 
ventricle, had passed between the substance of the medulla oblongata and its membranes as low as the origin of the twelfth 
nerve. The boundaries of the upper and posterior portions of the abscess are indicated in FlG. 6. Specimen 3571 of the 
Surgical Section of the Army Medical Museum shows the remaining portion of the abscess. 

HINNAN, HENRY, Private, Co. F, 1st New York Mounted Rifles. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the external 
table of the cranium. Suffolk, Virginia, May 17th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty in the same 
month. 

HOWARD, JOHN A., Private, Co. G, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years, was wounded in the engagement of the 
2d Cavalry Division with the enemy near Jettersville, Virginia, April 5th, 1865, by two sabre-cuts, one of the right side of the 
head, and the other on the back. He was admitted to the Field Hospital of the Cavalry Corps on the day of his injury, when 
it was ascertained that the wound in the back was not serious, but that the cut on the head, six inches in length, and nearly 
parallel to the coronal suture, had involved the external table of the parietal bone. The hair was shaven, the wound approxi 
mated by adhesive strips, and cold water dressing applied. There were no grave cerebral symptoms, and on April 28th the 
wounded man was sent to the Base Hospital, at City Point, and thence, on April 30th, to Harewood Hospital, at Washington. 
A day or two after his admission, a photograph of his wound was made, by direction of Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. Vols., 
which is preserved as No. 16 of Volume I, Photographs of Surgical Cases, A. M. M. The middle figure in the preceding litho 
graph of "Sabre wounds of the head" is a faithful copy of this picture. His case progressing very favorably, Howard was 
transferred, on May 18th, to Mower Hospital, at Philadelphia. He was mustered out of service on .Inly 18th, 1865, with a 
pension of six dollars a month. In December, 1867, Howard was living at Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. He writes that he 
suffers greatly from dizziness, and that there have been several exfoliations from the parietal bones since he went to his home. 

HOXEY, MARTIN B., Private, Co. B, llth Connecticut Volunteers. Fracture of the outer table of the left parietal bone 
by a sabre-cut. Antietam, Maryland, September 17th, 1862. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, October 1st. 
Insanity was subsequently developed, and he was discharged from service December 23d, 1862. 

Hulston, John A., Private, Co. H, Ti estoe s Cavalry, aged 20 years, received a sabre fracture of the occipital bone, 
with penetration of the skull, at Independence, Missouri, October 22d, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Leaven worth, Kansas, 
October 25th. Died November 5th, 1864. 

KAUTNKR, CHARLES H., Private, Co. E, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years. Sabre fracture of the cranium. 
Drury s Bluff, Virginia, May 16th, 1864. Admitted to Chesapeake Hospital, Fort Monroe, May 18th. Transferred, June 5th, 
to De Camp Hospital, David s Island, New York Harbor. Furloughed July 6th, 1864, and did not return. 

LAMBERT, JOSEPH C., Corporal, Co. G, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre fracture of the cranium, and incised wound 
of the left hand. Jettersville, Virginia, April 5th. 1865. Admitted to Cavalry Corps Hospital, April 12th. Transferred to 
Second Division Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, April 15th. Returned to duty May 8th, 1865. 

Lmder, David E., Sergeant, Co. E, 3d Missouri Cavalry, aged 29 years. Sabre-cut of the left side of the skull, with 
fracture of the cranium. Little Blue River, Missouri, October 2lst, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
October 27th, and transferred, on November 13th, 1864, to Post Hospital. He subsequently recovered and was released. 

LUCAS, PHILIP, Private, Co. G, 1st New York Cavalry, at Winchester, Virginia, June 13th, 1863, received a sabre 
fracture of the anterior edge of the occipital bone; also a sabre-cut of the right shoulder, fracturing the head of the scapula. He 
was discharged from the service on August 24th, 1864, and in May, 1865, was examined by Dr Charles Rowland, Pension 
Surgeon at Brooklyn, New York, who reported that there was an extensive indentation of the skull, and that Lucas suffered 
from partial loss of memory, and frequent attacks of vertigo, resulting from his injury. 

MAHONEY, DENNIS, Private, Co. C, 132d New York Volunteers, aged 20 years. Incised wound four inches in length, 
extending from frontal protuberance along the temporal ridge, with fracture of the cranium; also a cut two and one-half inches 
long in the left parietal region, and the little finger severed, by a sword in the hands of the officer of the guard, April 4th, 1863. 
Admitted to Foster Hospital, at Newberne, North Carolina, April 5th. Tetanus supervened, and death resulted on April 25th. 
1863. 

Marshall, Thomas, 7th Virginia Cavalry, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the cranium. Orange 
Court House, Virginia, August, 1862. Admitted to Old Capitol Prison, Washington. Exchanged September, 1862. 

McGEE, WILLIAM, Orderly Sergeant, Co. F, 1st New York Mounted Rifles. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the 
external table of the cranium. Suffolk, Virginia, May 17th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty during 
the same month. 



* Catalogue of the Surgical Section of the United States Army Medical Museum, Washington, 1866, p. 34. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 



21 





MclNTOsn, FRANCIS, Private, Co. B, 80th Illinois Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the cranium at the vertex. Day s Gap, 
Alabama, April 30, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 3d. Returned to duty September 
7th, 1863. 

MOSIER, JACOB, Private, Co. G, 86th New York Volunteers, aged 21 years. Sabre fracture of the left parietal and occi 
pital bones, while on picket dutv at Petersburg, Virginia, October 2d, 1864. Admitted to Armory Square Hospital, Washington, 
October 29th. Died November 5th, 1864. 

MULLEN, CHARLES, Private, Co. D, 69th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received a sabre-cut on the left side of the head at 
South Mountain, September 14th, 1862. The blow of the sabre was directed obliquely, and inflicted a wound commencing near 
the left frontal protuberance, extending two inches backwards along the parietal ridge, and downwards over the squamous por 
tion of the temporal, the scalp, muscles, and periosteum, and possibly a portion of the external table being included in the flap. 
The man fell to the ground senseless. After a primary dressing he was placed in a field hospital, and thence, on October 2d, he 
was conveyed to Frederick, and admitted to Hospital No. 5, under the charge of Surgeon H. S. Hewit, U. S. Vols. The wound 
was suppurating profusely at this time. The patient lay in a stupor, and was unable to articu 
late. It was supposed that he had traumatic meningitis, and the treatment was conducted in 
accordance with this diagnosis. There was a very gradual amendment; but after several months 
the mental hebetude disappeared, and the power of speech returned. On January 2d, 1863, the 
patient was transferred to Hospital No. 1, at Frederick, under the charge of Assistant Surgeon 
R. F. Weir, U. S. A. At this date, there was an open granulating wound, at the base of which 
dead bone was exposed ; the pericranium was separated from the bone near the margins of the 
wound. In the middle of March the cranium was exposed to a much greater extent. The 
patient complained much of headache, and there was partial hemiplegia of the right side. The 
bare portion of the parietal was necrosed, and was felt to be partly detached. Cataplasms were 
applied continuously for a few days, when it was decided that the necrosed portion of bone was 
sufficiently detached to warrant an attempt to remove it. On March 28th, Acting Assistant Sur 
geon Paulliu performed the operation. The entire necrosed part was exposed by an L incision 
connecting with the wound. The fragment was then seized by forceps, and, by gentle traction, 
was readily removed. The lips of the wounds were then approximated by adhesive plasters, 
over which compresses dipped in cold water were applied. The case progressed satisfactorily 
until April 2d, when the patient had spasmodic movements of the muscles. These ceased upon 
the removal of a detached, blackened bit of bone, half an inch square, from the anterior portion 
of the wound. Another small scale of dead bone was extracted on April 10th. In May the 
patient s general condition was excellent, and the wound was healing rapidly; in the latter part 
of the month it had. closed except at one small point, from which there was a constant puru 
lent discharge. On June 8th, Mullen was discharged from service on account of hemiplegia. 
His mental faculties were much impaired. The exfoliation which was removed is represented 
in FIG. 7. Mullen was pensioned at the rate of eight dollars per month. On September 
4th, 1887, the examining surgeon of the Pension Office reported that the hemiplegia continued, and that the disability would 
probably be permanent. 

O HARK, BARNEY, Private, Co. A, 6th New York Cavalry, aged 35 years, of robust constitution and health, received at 
the hands of a sentinel, at Camp Scott, Staten Island. New York, November 13th, 1861, a sabre-cut on the left side of the head, 
extending from near the outer angle of the eye across the temporal region nearly five inches. The squamous portion of the 
temporal and the parietal were incised for about two inches, and, in the middle of the incision, the bone and subjacent mem 
branes were penetrated. Nearly two drachms of brain substance escaped. The wound was immediately dressed, and there 
being much cerebral disturbance, and the pulse full and bounding, fifteen grains of calomel were given and twenty-one ounces 
of blood was taken from the arm, and the eighth of a grain of tartarized antimony was given every two hours. Next morning 
the man was sitting up, and stated that he was quite comfortable. Surgeon A. P. Clark, 6th New York Cavalry, who reports 
the foregoing particulars, proceeds to state that the scalp wound healed by first intention, and that on November 22d, 1861, nine 
days after the reception of the injury, the man returned to duty, and that no subsequent untoward symptoms appeared. O Hare s 
name does not appear on the Pension Lists. In October, 1864, he was employed as a blacksmith at the Headquarters of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

PISTORIUS, WILLIAM, Private, Co. E, 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 39 years. Sabre-cut, with fracture and depression 
of the parietal bone. Petersburg, Virginia, June 9th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Hampton, Virginia, June llth. Died 
June 18th, 1864, from compression of the brain. 

REED, JAMES T., Private, Co. C, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 29 years, was wounded in a charge at Boonsboro, 
Maryland, July 6th, 1863, receiving two sabre cuts, one on the head, the other on the left arm. The first was a slanting cut on 
the right parietal, which uncovered the dura mater, completely detaching a portion of the bone, the piece of the external table 
sliced off being two and a half inches in length and an inch and a quarter in breadth, while the portion including the diploe and 
internal table was much smaller. The integumental flap was not entirely separated from the scalp. The second cut involved 
the left elbow, and chipped oft the olecranon process. The head was shaved on the field; the piece of bone sliced off was sepa 
rated from the flap, and the integument was replaced and secured by adhesive straps. Water dressings were applied to the 
wound of the elbow, and the arm was placed in a sling. On July Kith, the patient was admitted to Hospital No. 1, Frederick, 
Maryland. The wound of the head had almost entirely healed. The elbow was swollen and painful. On .Inly 2llth, there was 
an attack of erysipelas of the arm. This subsided, and the limb was placed, flexed at a right angle, in a starched bandage, the 




FIG. 7. Exfoliation from the 
left parietal, resulting from a sabre 
wound. Spec. 3803, Sect. I, A. M. 
M., natural size. 



22 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

wound being- exposed. There was a copious discharge of pus mixed with synovia! fluid. At this date the wound of the scalp 
was completely healed. On September 2<Jth, the patient had recovered with anchylosis of the elbow. He suffered from head^ 
ache and from fixed pain at the seat of the head injury, especially when he was exposed to the sun. On January 23d, 1864, he 
was transferred to the 1st Battalion of the Veteran Reserve Corps, and on September 26th, 1864, he was discharged from 
service on account of disability. 

RICK, MARCUS M., Corporal, Co. K, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 39 years, received a sabre fracture of the frontal bone, 
and a wound of the right thigh, at Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Brattleboro, Vermont, August 5th. 
Returned to duty November 24th, 1863, and mustered out with his regiment on February 22d, 1865. 

Koycrs, Thomas K., Private, Co. C, 5th Alabama Infantry, aged 41 years, was Wounded near Petersburg, Virginia, April 
2d, 1865, by a sabre-cut over the left supra-orbital ridge extending upwards and backwards two inches, and fracturing the 
frontal bone. On April 8th, he was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington. A few days after his admission his photograph 
was taken for the collection of Photographs of Surgical Cases of the Army Medical Museum. The picture is No. 6 of Volume 3 
of that series. It is well copied in the right-hand figure of the group in Plate I. On April 20th, the patient showing ^symptoms 
of compression, Surgeon J. Cooper McKee, U. S. Army, applied the trephine about one inch above the supra-orbital ridge and 
elevated the depressed bone. On May 2?th, the patient was recovering rapidly, having manifested no bad symptoms since the 
removal of the bone. The large incision in the integument was cicatrizing favorably, covering the dura mater, so that pulsation 
wab no longer visible. On June 14th, 1865, the patient had completely recovered, and, upon taking the oath of allegiance, he 
was released. 

ROYALL, WILLIAM B., Captain, 5th U. S. Cavalry, received several sabre wounds on June 13th, 1862, near Old Church, 
Hanover county, Virginia. While posted, in observation, on the extreme right of General McClellan s army, his small com 
mand was overwhelmed by the Confederate cavalry column of General J. E. B. Stuart. Captain Royall made a stubborn 
resistance with his squadron. Though surrounded, and grievously wounded, he escaped from the field. On joining the main 
body, his injuries were examined by Surgeon C. M. Ellis, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. There were two sabre contusions on the 
right side of the head, a cut two inches long on the forehead through the scalp only, along cut on the left cheek which bled pro 
fusely, a cut on the right wrist dividing the tendon of the extensor proprius pollicis, and an incised fracture four inches long of 
the left parietal, dividing the outer table and diploe. Entire rest and restricted diet, with cold applications to the head, were 
enjoined; but after a few days the patient was removed to Washington. Here he was attended by Surgeon General C. A. 
Finlev, and Surgeon G. E. Cooper, U. S. A., who directed a continuance of the antiphlogistic regimen. The flesh wounds soon 
cicatrized ; but the incised fracture continued to suppurate for almost three months, after which the wound firmly healed. A 
condition of extreme nervous irritability persisted for many mouths, with attacks of headache and vertigo which incapacitated 
the sufferer for active service. In May, 1862, Captain Royall was brevetted Major, and in June Lieutenant Colonel, and, in 
October, he was assigned to duty as mustering officer at Louisville, Kentucky. He was promoted Major December 7th, 1863, 
and brevetted Colonel March 13th, 1865. In April, 1866, he was examined at the Surgeon General s Office. His health was 
still impaired from the effects of his injuries, but was gradually improving. In 1869, his health was good. 

SHAW, JOHN HKXRY, Private, Co. I, 10th New York Cavalry, received a sabre-cut of the left side of the scalp, with 
fracture of the outer table of the frontal bone, at Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. He was admitted to First Division 
Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, on June 13th, and returned to duty June 30th, 1863. 

SHUREY, AMOS, Saddler, Co. H, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry, was wounded by sabre-cuts at the affair at Jettersville, 
Virginia, April 5th, 1865. The outer tables of the parietal bones were fractured, and also the ulna and fifth metacarpal bone. 
He was admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, April 15th, and on May 9th he was transferred to the Second 
Division Hospital at Annapolis. He died May 12th, 1865. 

SIDERS, HIRAM, Private, Co. H, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the skull, producing a com 
minuted fracture of the left parietal bone. Amelia Court House, Virginia, April 6th, 1865. Admitted to Carver Hospital, 
Washington, April 16th. Discharged from service June 21st, 1865. 

STF.ELE, JACOB, Private, Co. E. 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 20 years, received at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 1st, 1863, three sabre-cuts of the head, fracturing the cranium ; also a cut on the neck, a gunshot wound penetrating the 
left lung, and a wound of the right arm. He was found lying in a barn in a state of insensibility. The ball was removed from 
the lung, the wounds were dressed, and he was admitted to Camp Letterman Hospital, at Gettysburg, on July 6th. Transferred 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 19th ; thence to West s Buildings, July 21st, and finally to Carver Hospital, Washington, on 
the 25th. He recovered and returned to duty October 20th, 1863. 

SXRANDBURG, ANDRKW, Private, Co. II, 5th Minnesota Volunteers, aged 42 years, was admitted on December 18th, 1864, 
to the Cumberland Hospital, at Nashville, Tennessee, for a gunshot wound of the scrotum, received at the battle on the previous 
day before that city. The wound was not dangerous ; but the man had epileptic fits, and it was remarked that there were 
several depressions in the cranium on the right frontal and parietal regions. The patient stated that he had been wounded 
several years previously by a sabre blow upon the head, and that he had ever since been subject to convulsions, which were 
commonly slight, but occasionally severe and frequent. A wounded captain of his regiment stated that the patient s fits had 
rarely disqualified him for duty. After his admission to hospital, Strandburg had recurrences of epileptic seizures, at first every 
two or three days, and then at shorter intervals, until at last the intermissions between the attacks were of half an hour s dura 
tion only. The intensity of the attacks increased with their frequency. He died in one of the convulsions. January 3d. 1865. 
At the autopsy, the upper portion of the anterior lobe of the right hemisphere was found to be softened. There was a collection 
of about two ounces of limpid serum above the right orbital plate of the frontal bone. The brain, in this vicinity, was darker 
in color than natural. Over the right frontal and parietal regions the dura mater was very firmly attached to the skull. The 



-. ?. . 







-. .---j 

^ 

v^u::- r "%<r ; x-t&gJki ^M W 




INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 23 

right orbital plate was fractured. The calvaria, which was contributed to the Army Medical Museum by the attending medical 
officer. Surgeon S. C. Ayres, U. S. Yols., exhibited multiple united sabre fractures ot the os frontis, and united linear fractures 
of both parietals, and disjunction of the coronal suture on the light side. Most of the fractures had penetrated the lamina vitrea, 
which was much thickened in the vicinity of the fractures. Several detached fragments of the inner table had reunited, and 
exhibited an eburnated appearance. Along the sagittal and coronal sutures, and in the neighborhood of the incised fractures, 
there were osseous deposits of long standing. An internal and external view of the calvaria is presented in the accompanying 
lithograph. 

SWEENEY, 1)., Private, Co. D, 2d United States Artillery, received several severe sabre-cuts of the scalp, one of which 
fractured the cranium. November. 1853. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, November 23d. Returned to duty 
December 9th, 1863. 

VERNOU, FOSTER, Private, Co. E, 1st New York Mounted Rifles, received a sabre-cut of the left parietal region two and 
a half inches in length, which partially fractured the outer table of the skull. Smithfield, Virginia, May 17th, 18(53. Admitted 
to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, May 25th. Returned to duty August 9th, 1863. 

Of the forty-nine patients with incised fractures of the cranium above enumerated, 
forty-four were Union and five Confederate soldiers. Of the whole number, thirteen died, 
ten were discharged, four were paroled, two deserted, and twenty were returned to duty. 
In the thirteen fatal cases, death resulted from epilepsy, several years after the reception 
of the injury, in one instance; in another, tetanus was the cause of death; and, in a third, 
pyremia. In the ten remaining fatal cases, death resulted from inflammation of the brain or 
its membranes, or from compression. In three of the thirteen fatal cases, the fractures were 
incomplete, extending through the external table and diploe only. Of the ten patients 
who were discharged for disabilities resulting from sabre fractures of the skull, one became 
insane, one lost vision in an eye, three suffered from attacks of vertigo or dizziness, and, 
in two of these, -the mental faculties were impaired, loss of memory being particularly 
noticeable. A sixth patient was hemiplegic, and his mind was much deteriorated. The 
other four men discharged, and the four paroled men, suffered only from occasional head 
aches or from slight disabilities. In eleven of the forty-nine patients, fragments of bone 
were removed by the forceps, elevator, Hey s saw, or trephine. But one of these eleven 
cases terminated fatally. In thirty-seven cases, the site of fracture is definitely described. 
The frontal bone was principally involved in seven cases. Two of these terminated 
fatally; from tetanus, in one instance; in the other, with fracture of the outer table only, 
secondary encephalitis and abscess of the brain supervened. There were two fractures 
of the temporal region, which recovered. In twenty-two cases, one or both parietals were 
fractured, and six of these cases resulted fatally. Of six patients with incised fractures 
in the occipital region, three recovered and three died. These statistics corroborate the obser 
vation of Hennen 1 and others, that sabre wounds on the top of the head are not, by any 
means, so dangerous as those of the sides. Boyer insisted emphatically on this distinction, 
citing cases from La Motte, (Traitc de Chir. Paris, 1732, T. II, p. 238, Obs. 139,) Marchetti, 
and Bohn, of numerous recoveries from very free incisions of the upper part of the skull, 
with injury of the membranes or to the brain. He pronounced incised fractures of the 
lateral parts of the head, with penetration of the brain tissue, far graver, and, indeed, 
almost invariably fatal accidents. Of two cases of recovery from sabre fractures in the 
temporal region mentioned in the foregoing return, (Laiuler, p. 20, and O lLvRE, p. 21,) 
the contents of the cranium were uninjured in one instance, and in the other, the incision 
ran across the squamo-parietal suture, and the hemisphere was probably wounded at its 
upper portion. The very rapid recovery in the latter case is sufficiently surprising. In 
the three cases of recovery from sabre fractures of the occipital region, (BRADLEY, p. 17, 



l IlKNXEN, Principles of Military Surgery, 3d cd. London, 1829, p. S. 8(i. 
I30VEK, Traits di-s Maladies C hirurgicales, 5 ed. Paris, 1847, T. IV, ]>. 2">(i. 



24 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

ENGELKEE, p. 18, LUCAS, p. 20,) there was no evidence of lesions of the encephalon, and 
in two of these three cases, the incisions appear to have implicated only the outer table 
and diploe. The seat of injury is specified in eleven of the thirteen fatal cases of incised 
fractures of the cranium, and was low down laterally or posteriorly in nine. 

In five, of the eleven instances in which operative interference was employed in the 
treatment, it consisted in the early removal of detached or depressed fragments ; in three 
cases, in the extraction of loose exfoliations at a later period; and, in three cases, in the 
formal application of the trephine.* The five patients treated by the early removal of 
fragments recovered, and three were returned to duty; one of them, however, suffering 
from deafness and dullness of intellect; while two were invalided, partly on account of 
disabilities unconnected with the head injuries. The three patients who had exfoliations 
removed, eleven, seven, and thirty-two months, respectively, from the date of the reception 
of their injuries, also recovered, and one was returned to duty, and two were discharged 
and pensioned; in the former, and one of the latter, necrosis involved the outer table only; 
the third patient suffered from hemiplegia and mental dullness. Two of the three patients 
subjected to trephining, on the first and eighteenth day, respectively, recovered; and the 
third, trephined on the sixth day, survived the operation ten days. These cases will be 
further considered in the discussion of the results of trephining for gunshot injuries. 

When sword-cuts slice away parts of the skull and the detached fragments of bone 
adhere to flaps of integument not entirely separated from the scalp, the treatment to be 
pursued has been a subject of discussion from an early period, 1 and is still a disputed 
question. Denonvilliers and Gosselin, 2 Legouest, 3 and Jamain, 4 advise that the isolated 
fragment of bone should be removed from the integument, and that the latter should then 
be replaced and kept in position by adhesive straps if possible, or else by sutures inserted 
at such intervals as to admit of the free discharge of pus. They follow the teaching of 
Dupuytren, 5 based on the dangers of protracted suppuration, of necrosis of the detached 
fragment, and of secondary meningitis, from leaving the bone to act as a foreign body. 
But these dangers would appear to be overrated, and John Bell, Hennen, Guthrie, and 
Macleod, were in favor of the practice of Pare, the re-application of the flap, bone and all. 

Berengarius de Carpiensis, (Opera Omnia, p. 640,) Fallopius, (De Vulner. Capitis, 
Cap. XXII,) and Magatus, report instances of recovery after the removal of the detached 
section of bone and the re-application of the flap of integument. Larrey and Lombard, 
(Remarques sur les .Lesions de la Tete, Strasbourg, 1796,) followed successfully the prac 
tice of Berengarius, and cite many interesting cases of recovery from sword cuts in the 
head, through the bone. Pare ((Eavres Completes, ed. Malgaigne, Book VIII, Chap. 7) 
advises that the osseous flap should be re-applied and kept in place by a few stitches, a 
practice which he successfully adopted in the case of Captain Hydron," and he quotes 

* Since the foregoing sheets were in print, some additional information has been obtained in relation to the case of $. L. BHOWN, (p. 17.) 
The sabre cut ran along the lower border of the left parietal for two and a half inches, and produced a depressed fracture. The patient was conveyed, 
in an insensible condition, to a field hospital, and was trephined, a button of bone and a detached fragment of both tables, an inch and a half in length 
being removed. He was completely unconscious until July 8th, when he recovered from his profound stupor and was perfectly rational, lie was kept 
on a strict antiphlogistic treatment for ten days longer, and was then conveyed to a hospital at York, Pennsylvania. 

1 Thtgavn-s Chirvrgice, continent prcestantissimorrm Artorvm, vtpote AMBKOSII PAREI PAKISIKNSIS, IOANNIS TAGAVLTII 
AMIUANI VIMACI, ALPHOXSI FKKIUI NEAPOLITAN!, GVILELMI FABHITII HILDANI, etc., Opera Chiruryica, nunc vere in vnum 
collectapcrPi -.TKVM UFFENBACHIUM. Francofvrti, anno MUCX, p. 11)9. 

- Compendium de Chiruryie Pratique, T. II, p. 570. 

3 Traite de Chiruryie d Armee, p. 319. 

* Manuel de Patho/oyie et de Clinitjue Chiruryicales, 2<1 ed. Paris, 1867, T. 1, p. 580. 

5 Clintque t hiruryicale, T. VI, p. 151. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. ZO 

Celsus (De re medica, Liber VIII, Cup. IV) in support of his precept. Sabatier (De la 
Mi d. Operatoire, ed. 1832, T. II, p. 18) cites other examples of successful results by Paro s 
plan from Leaulte, 1 Le Dran, (Observations dc Qliirurgie, T. I, p. 156, Paris, 1731,) and 
Platner, (Opuscula, Lipsiae, 17-48.) In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, at 
London, there are ten skulls, which have suffered from severe slicing cuts. The large portions 
of bone cleft from these crania have reunited, often a little out of their proper places. The 
fissures are all in a state of progress towards being filled up by bone; and the patients must 
have survived their respective injuries months, if not years. These crania are said to have 
been collected from a cemetery near a military asylum in Germany. Several remarkable 
examples of the reunion of osseous flaps sliced off by sabre-cuts are preserved in the 
Museum of the School of Val de Grace. Hennen (Principles of Military Surgery, 3d ed., 
p. 286) saw, in the Peninsula, many cases of this nature successfully treated by replacing 
the parts with the aid of a few stitches and of a supporting bandage. Macleod records (Sur 
gery of tlie War in the Crimea, p. 181) the case of a Russian soldier under his charge, 
who recovered perfectly, the osseous flap being left undisturbed. Guthrie (On Injuries of 
the Head affecting the Brain, p. 96) adduces examples of recovery under both methods 
of treatment, and teaches that when the detached portion of bone adheres firmly to the 
pericranium or integumental flap, it should be reapplied; but if it has but little adher 
ence, it should be removed. 

The reports of these slanting cuts of the head, with detachment of a flap of bone, in the 
records of the American war, are insufficient in number and details to decide this question. 
In the case of Bedel, (ante p. 17,) an osseous flap from the occiput, attached to the integu 
ment, and partially adherent at its base to the skull, was reapplied, and had nearly 
reunited through the deposition of new bone, at the date of the man s death, forty-two 
days after the reception of the injury. Evidently, the presence of the slice of bone in 
the flap had not been injurious; the fatal issue having been due to the irritation caused 
by the splinters of the inner table, driven in on the right side. In the case of Strandburg, 
(p. 22,) illustrated by Plate II, detached fragments had completely reunited, the man 
surviving his injuries for years. On the other hand, in the cases of S. L. Brown, ^p. 17,) 
and Reed, (p. 21,) the fragments of bone sliced off were removed from the integumental 
flaps, which were then replaced and retained, and both men made excellent recoveries. 
Little is known of the practice of Confederate surgeons in this particular. Dr. Chisolm 2 
advises that all sabre-cuts should be closed by adhesive strips or sutures, followed by cold 
water dressings. Dr. E. Warren 3 suggests that the osseous flap should be reapplied; but 



1 Observations in Surgery, written originally in French, by H. F. Lc Dran, Senior Master of the Company of Surgeons at 
Paris. Translated by J. S., 2d ed., London, 1770, p. 77. The XXII Observation, reported by M. Leaulte, sworn surgeon at Paris, 
relates to a sabre-cut of the occiput, "taking off about the extent of a shilling from the first table of the occipital bone, and from 
the internal table the bigness of a silver groat, without offending the dura mater, only leaving it uncovered." Leaulte attempted 
the reunion of the teguments and the bone." M. Le Dran, "being at Tuernoy with the Mareschal de Villiers, came to visit 
the patient, and apprehended that it would be necessary to separate the bone from the teguments entirely; but, upon second 
thoughts, we concluded," says Leaulte, " that I had always time enough to propose this operation, if my former intentions did 
not succeed ; and therefore we agreed to continue the same manner of dressing, which afforded me the satisfaction, in a few days, 
of approximating the pieces, and securing them so well to the neighboring parts that they perfectly reunited, forming a cicalrix 
in the space of twenty-five days, without the least accident." 

- A Manual of Military Surgery for the use of Surgeons in the Confederate States Army; by J. JULIAN CHISOLM, M. I)., 
3d ed., Columbia, S. C., 1^6-1, p. ^13. 

:! An Epitome of 8nrgry for Field a.id Hospital ; by EnwAun WAUKKX, M. D., Richmond, Virginia, 18G3, p. 353. 
4 



26 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

does not present facts in support of the recommendation. The other Confederate surgical 
writers are silent on the subject. 

Although the clangers from permitting the flap of bone adherent to the scalp to remain 
have, perhaps, been exaggerated, yet it is probably safer to remove it, if it can be detached 
without much difficulty. That the dangers are n.ot altogether imaginary, is proved by the 
examples of necrosis of the segment of bone cited by Ravaton and Baerwindt. Should the 
bone fragment comprise only the outer table and diploe, it seems useless to preserve it; 
for the brain cavity remains closed by the vitreous table and a flap of scalp alone has, 
incontestably, a tendency to reunite more promptly than an osseous surface. If the portion 
of bone sliced off includes the entire thickness of the cranial wall, and is reapplied with the 
integumental flap, cicatrization must be necessarily slow, and there will be a period ot 
many weeks, during which complications are liable to arise. 1 

Had it been practicable, the cases of incised fractures of the skull would have 
been arranged in accordance with the classification proposed by Mr. J. Adams, 2 viz : 
"First, the simple section of the outer table, in which a mere superficial mark is left; 
secondly, the division of both tables by a perpendicular section; thirdly, an oblique 
or horizontal cut, where both tables are divided, but not completely detached; and, 
fourthly, the entire ablation of a piece comprising both tables, in which the bone 
adheres to the soft parts, or is completely removed with them." But the records 
are so incomplete that it has been possible to determine these distinctions in only 



1 The literature of the subject has only been glanced at above. The question seems to have been a favorite topic ot 
discussion with the older surgeons. La Motte ( Traite complet de Chirurrjie. Paris, 1771, pp. 534, 535, 556, 597) recorded four 
cases (Obs. 140, 141, 157, 161) of slanting sabre-cuts producing osseous Haps, which, in three cases, included both tables of the 
skull, and in the fourth, the outer table only. In all four cases, the fragments of bone were removed, the integumental Hap 
reapplied, and recovery promptly ensued. Bilguer, J. M., (Chiruryiscke Wahrnehmungen in. dcnem Koniylich Preussischen Feld 
Lazarethen, Berlin, 1763, pp. 89, 114, 143, 145, 147,) cites five cases of the same nature, all of which recovered after the removal 
of the detached flap of bone, (Obs. 15, 23, 35, 36, 37). D. J. Larrey reports, altogether, eleven cases of this description. 
(I! /tit/on Historique ct C/iiruryicale de I Expedition de I Armej d Orient. Paris, 1803. p. 290 ; Cliniqac Chiruryicale, Paris. 1829, 
T. I, pp. 140, 188, 285, 306, et T. V, pp. 11, 40, 322; Mem. ds Chir. Mil. ct Campajncs. Paris, 1812, T. Ill, pp. 140, 260.) In 
seven of these cases, the piece of bone sliced off was removed, and six of the patients recovered ; in four cases the flap of bone 
was reapplied, and two patients recovered, and two died. M. II. Larrey (Relation Chirurgicale des Erenemens de Juillet, 1830, 
Paris, 1831, p. 35) cites the case of a locksmith, who, supposing himself to In- followed by a large body of insurgents, rushed 
upon a squadron of grenadiers and received eight or ten sabre cuts on his head. There were several flaps; one, including a 
large portion of the parietal, fell over the right ear, exposing the dura mater over a space two inches long and an inch broad. 
Another, behind and above the left ear, contained a detached fragment of bone. M. Magistel dressed the wounds, removing 
entirely the fragments of bone, and adjusting the flaps by sutures and adhesive strips. The patient was then placed in the 
Beaujon Hospital, under the care of Marjolin and Blandin. Complete recovery followed in about six weeks, and the man was 
presented to the Academy of Medicine. H. Meyer (Heilun-j ran Srhiidverletzunytn, in Langenbeck t Arcliiv., 13. II, S. 91 und 
101. Berlin, 1862) cites two cases of this nature; in one, the severed segment of bone was removed and the patient recovered; 
in the other, it was replaced, and the patient died of meningitis. The pathological preparation from the latter case is specimen 
1052, at the Museum of the University of Zurich. Baerwindt (Die Jiehandlnn;/ von Kranken und Vcrwundeten unter Zelttn im 
Sonnner 1866. Wiirzburg, 1867, S. 93) relates two cases of replacement of the segment of bone, followed by necrosis, the 
patients recovering after the extraction of the exfoliation. Ravaton (Chirurgie d Armee, Paris, 1768, p. 549) also reports, 
in detail, two cases with a similar history. Ravoth und Vockc (C/tiruryische Klinik, Berlin, 1852, S. 437) record two 
examples of recovery after removal of the osseous flap. B. Beck (Krieys-Cfiirurgische Erfahrunyen Wiihrend des Feld- 
zu jes, 1866, in Suddeutschland. .Freiburg, 1867., 8. 161) cites a very interesting case of recovery after the removal of a 
large segment of bone and the reapplication of the flap of integument. On the other hand, Wepfer (Observations Medico- 
Practice de Affcctilrs Capitis, Scaphusii, 1827, p. 34, Obs. 16) reports a very successful case in which the osseous Hap was 
reapplied. Another is cited by Baudens, (Clin. des Plaies d Arm<>s a Feu, Paris, 1836, p. 122,) a complicated and very unprom 
ising case at the outset. Theden (Xeue fiemerkunf/cn und Erfahrunyen, 1782, Thiel. I, S 77) approves of replacing the hone. 
Chopart and Desault (7V. iff des M<tlndi<s C/i/mri/i -ales ct dc.i Operations. Paris, 1796, p. 70.) arc of the same opinion, and 
C. J. M. Langenbeck (jVbsofoyf und Therapie Chirur<ii*rhc.n Kr/tnkhcit.rn, Gottingmi, 1830. S. 57) inclines in that direction. 
The authorities are about equally divided ; but the facts adduced seem to favor the practice of removing tlu: detached or 
partially detached segment of bone. 

- Additions to the Elr/htli Edition of Cooper s Dictionary of I ractirul Siirr/ery, London. 18fil, Vol. I, p 8 !.">. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. Z/ 

thirtv-one of the forty-nine cases reported. Fifteen cases, of whiek two were fatal, 
would be included under the first head; eight cases, four recoveries and four deaths, under 
the second; six cases, three of which were fatal, under the third; and two cases, a recovery 
and a death, under the fourth. In only one of the cases reported (R. Hall, p. 19j, did the 
question arise of the treatment to be pursued in the event of a complete ablation of a 
portion of the skull, together with the integument, the connections of the flap with the 
head being entirely severed In tins case, the complications were so grave that the ques 
tion was of little interest. It is not impossible that, if the portion of scalp shorn off, the 
fragment of bone being removed, were immediately replaced, and secured by stitches, 
reunion might ensue. But no example of such a plastic procedure has been recorded. On 
the contrary, authors advise that the dressing should be that of a wound with irreparable 
loss of substance, a simple dressing: for example, a compress spread with cerate and a 
retentive bandage. 

The utility of the trepan in incised fractures of the skull will be considered in the 
general discussion of the subject of trephining, at the close of this chapter. It will, 
therefore, be unnecessary to make any further observations on the treatment of incised 
fractures of the cranium; since, unless it be decided that the symptoms demand operative 
interference, the treatment should be identical with that of incised scalp wounds. (See p. 15.) 

The returns confirm the observation of Thomson, 1 renewed by Dr. Macleod, 2 on the 
remarkable rarity of hernia of the cerebral substance after sword, or compared with gun 
shot wounds. This complication did not supervene in any of the cases reported, although 
in many of them the membranes of the brain were divided, while in several there was 
loss of brain tissue. 

In addition to those figured in previous pages of this section, the Army Medical 
Museum possesses eleven crania affording excellent illustrations of almost every variety 
of incised fractures of the skull. As these specimens do not pertain to the Surgical His 
tory of the American War, the reader must be referred to the Catalogue of the Museum for 
full descriptions of them. 4 

The three hundred and thirty-one cases of incised wounds of the scalp or cranium 
recorded in the earlier part of this section, comprise all of the sabre or sword cuts of the 
head entered on the registers of the Surgeon General s Office that can be satisfactorily 



1 Report of Observations made in the Urittxh Military Hospitals in lielijium after the battle of Waterloo, Edinburgh, 
p. 50. Thomson cites :i remarkable cast of removal of the upper part of the occipital bone along with the dura mater, in which 
"a tendency to protrusion of the brain took place during an attack of inflammation ; a slight degree of stupor, with loss of 
memory occurred; but on the inflammatory state having been subdued the brain sank to its former level, the stupor went oft* 
and the memory returned." Further on, he remarks : we bad frequent opportunities of seeing the upper, and the lateral parts 
of the cerebrum exposed by sabre wounds; but, in no case, except that which I have mentioned, did any tendency to protrusion 
of the brain present itself to our notice." 

Xotes on the N }// >// f tin- IVar in the Crimea, by Gr.OKGK H. B. MACLKOD, M. D., London, 1858, p. 181. 

:i Report of the Operations of the Medical Department at the Battle of Pea Eidr/e, Arkansas, on March 6th, 7th. and 8th, 
18(r>. Hound MSS.. S. G. O., Div. Surg. Kec., A. 1 25. 

Specimens 970 and 971, Section I. are crania of Araucanian Indians, killed by Chilian troops. No. 970 shows nine 
sabre-cuts, illustrating almost every variety of such injuries. It is figured at p. 33 of the Catnlor/ue of the Snri/ical Section of 
Ann ji Medical, Museum. No. 971 shows four cuts, which have sliced off a large portion of the left parietal. No. 5107 is a skull 
obtained at Waterloo, by Professor William Gibson, and exhibits a long perpendicular cut through the right parietal. Nos. 
5*249 and 5*2.~0, are crania of California Indians, killed near Fort Crook, and exhibit incised fractures of the vault of the skull 
bv the tomahawk. No. 55*29 is the skull of a Mataco Indian, showing two clean cross cuts on the vertex, and a deep oblique 
cleft in the left parietal ; the inner table is divided without splintering; the wounds were inflicted by a very sharp sabre. Nos. 
5530, 553*2, 5534, 5537, are crania of California Indians, showing multiple incised fractures of the vault. No. 5544 is the 
skull of a I onka squaw, showing a deep oblique section of the occipital by a sword ; the inner table is cleanly divided. The 
last nine specimens will be fully described in the next edition of the Surgical Catalogue. 



28 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



verified. Others are alluded to by medical officers, but so indefinitely that identification 
has been impracticable. Thus, for example, Surgeon D. S. McGuigan, 3 3d Iowa Cavalry, 
in his report after the battle of Pea Ridge, refers to several sabre fractures of the skull, 
which do not appear upon the casualty lists, nor on any of the nominal or numerical 
returns of wounded : 

"The cavalry were pursued by Texan cavalry and mounted Indians, 
armed with a short and heavy sabre, made from largo saw-mill files, and 
manufactured by their own mechanics. One blow with this rude weapon 
would crush through the integuments and bony walls of the cranium, into 
the brain." " The wounds were mainly produced by rifle balls, 

and by the sword or knife already described. A number were killed l>y 
one stroke of this weapon, and I saw several who were severely wounded 
by it." * * * " The cavalry were wounded more frequently on the 
upper, part of the trunk or the face, upon the head or upper extremities." 
"Here, too," [at Leetown, Arkansas,] Surgeon McGuigan 
continues, "I found several wounded by the sabre, two on the head. The 
integument only was divided in one case, and, in the other, the weapon 
had penetrated the calvarium, through the prominence of the left parietal 
bone, in a horizontal direction, and had divided the membranes, through 
which portions of the cerebral substance protruded I also found three of 
our men with sabre-cuts upon the head and upper extremities, and several 
with minor injuries from the same weapon. These wounded were carried 

the early part of the / r^ -ii ~\r- t n 

American War.* 10 UaSSVllie, MlSSOUH. 

A number of the reports of medical directors and chief medical officers contain remarks 
on sabre wounds, that will be quoted in the general observations in the concluding volume 
of this work. 

The records of miscellaneous wounds and injuries include no cases of incised fractures 
of the skull, and but few of incised wounds of the scalp. These cases were commonly 
entered numerically, on the monthly report, under the rubric "incised wounds," or "vulnus 
incisum," and rarely by name. The total number of "incised wounds" reported during 
the four years of the war was twenty-one thousand four hundred and forty-four, with one 
hundred and ninety-six deaths; but it is impossible to determine how many of these were 
injuries of the head, since the seat of the wounds is not designated. 

The following cases of incised scalp wounds, which it is thought best to separate from 
the sword wounds, were reported by name: 

HUNT, .Toiix M., Private, Co. K, 61st Illinois Volunteers, aged 23 years, received an incised wound on the left side of 




1 There is no regimental surgical register of the 3d Iowa Cavalry on file, at the Surgeon General s Office, for the dates 
referred to. No monthly sick reports for March and April, 18(52, were received from the medical officer in charge of the 
regiment. There are no records on file from Cassville, Missouri, prior to February, 1805. The records of the military hospitals 
at Kolla, Springfield, Jefferson City, and St. Louis, Missouri, and of Keokuk and Davenport, Iowa, whither wounded were 
conveyed after the battle of Pea Ridge, have been carefully searched and found not to contain, at the period mentioned, the 
name of a single wounded man from the 3d Iowa Cavalry. The Death Registers" and the Casualty Lists of the Medical 
Director are equally silent respecting the killed and wounded of this regiment at the battle of Pea Ridge. The regimental 
officers of cavalry had peculiar difficulties in making prompt and accurate returns. When the commands were engaged in 
scouting and picket duty, they wen; dispersed in small detachments, and casualties took place of which the regimental surgeon 
was not cognizant; when they were engaged in expeditions in large columns, or raids, the marches were so rapid that there 
was little time for clerical work. 

* Similar weapons were carried by a large number of the Cofederate soldiers captured at Roanoke Island, February 8th, 

862. These knives were styled by those who wore them : "Yankee-killers." They were from eighteen inches to twenty-four 

inches in length, and were made from scythe-blades or long files, sharpened to an edge, and set in wooden hilts They were 

not used offensively at Roanoke Island, no disposition for hand-to-hand combat being manifested after the intrenched position 

was carried. The wood-cut is copied from two specimens procured at Roanoke Island, by the compiler of this work. 



INCISED WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 29 

the head by a knife, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 4th, 1865. He was admitted to hospital on the same day, and returned 
to duty, cured, on April llth, 18G5. 

JACKSON, JOHN, Freedman, was cut on the scalp by a knife, in an affray at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 8th, 1864. He 
was received into the Freedman s Hospital, whence he deserted on May 12th, 1864. 

LEWIS, JOHN, Private, Co. K, 13th New York Artillery, aged 22 years, received an incised wound of the scalp by a 
a knife, on April 25th, 18G5. He was admitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, on the following day. He was 
discharged from service on June 17th, 1865. 

MCFARLAND, JOHN, Private, Co. I, 8th Ohio Cavalry, aged 25 years, received an incised wound of the scalp by a blow 
from a knife, on January 7th, 1865. He was admitted to Island Hospital, Harper s Ferry, Virginia, on January 9th, and 
returned to duty on March 6th, 1865. 

SCIIUALA, JOSEPH, Private, Co. K. 12th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 32 years, on May 7th, 1865, was struck by a 
comrade with a knife on the left side of the scalp, producing an incised wound. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington, on June 24th, and was discharged from service on July 31st, 1865. 

GREEN, F. M., Private Co. H, 45th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 19 years, received an incised wound of the scalp over 
the superior angle of the parietal bone by a blow from an axe, on December 16th, 1864. He was admitted to hospital at 
Lexington, Kentucky, on December 21st, and returned to duty on April 1st, 1855, for muster-out of service with his regiment. 

LENIIIEN. DANIEL, Private Co. F, 20th New York Volunteers, on November 3d, 1864, received a blow on the head from 
an axe, which produced an incised scalp wound. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, on November 15th, and 
returned to duty on December 17th, 1884. 

SMITH, JOEL, Private, Co. I, 127th New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, was admitted to No. 1 Hospital, Beaufort, 
South Carolina, on February 21st, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp, produced by a blow from an axe. He was trans 
ferred to hospital at Hilton Head on May 28th, and discharged from service on June 8th, 1865. 

WYOX, FREDERICK, Private, Co. G, 6th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 17 years, received an incised wound over the left 
parietal and occipital regions, by a blow from an axe, on March 5th, 1865. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, 
on April 4th, transferred thence to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, on April 7th, and, on May 31st, he was received into the 
Harvey Hospital at Madison, Wisconsin. He was discharged from service on July 13th, 1865. 

In the following examples of incised wounds of the scalp, the nature of the weapon 
by which the wound was inflicted is not reported: 

ABLE, HENRY, Private, Co. A, 107th U. S. C. T., aged 27 years, was admitted to Crittenden Hospital, Louisville, Ken 
tucky, on July 30th, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp. He returned to duty on July 31st, 1865. 

Atlas, Georye, Private, Co. I, 32d North Carolina Regiment, aged 37 years, received an incised wound of the scalp at 
Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 10th, 1864. He was received into the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria, on May 14th, and 
transferred to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, on May 26th, whence he was sent to the Old Capitol Prison on June 1st, 1864. 

BOSTON, JAMES, Private, Co. 1, 5th Missouri Cavalry, was received into the Post Hospital, Schofield Barracks, St. Louis, 
Missouri, on September 28th, 1864, with an incised wound of the left side of the head. He returned to duty on October 3d, 1864. 

BOWERS, J., Private, Co. H, 12th New York Cavalry, aged 34 years, was admitted to Foster Hospital, Newberne, North 
Carolina, on September 25th, 1863, with an incised scalp wound. He was returned to duty December 9tb, 1863. 

BUTTERFIELD, S. H., Unassigned Substitute, aged 18 years, received an incised scalp-wound, and was admitted to 
hospital at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on May 20, 1865. He was discharged from service on May 27th, 1865. 

DIXXK, MICHAEL, Private, Co., B, 19th Pennsylvania Cavalry, received an incised wound of the scalp on February 22d, 
1864, at West Point, Mississippi. He was admitted to Washington Hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee, on February 27th, and 
returned to duty March 28th, 1864. 

GAFFNEY, J., Private, Co. B, 169th New York Volunteers, aged 36 years, received an incised wound of the scalp at 
Fort Fisher, North Carolina, on January 15ht, 1865. He was admitted to McDougal Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York, on 
January 25th, and discharged from service on May 25th, 1865. 

HALL, A., Private, Co. A, 169th New York Volunteers, aged 51 years, received an incised wound of the scalp, and was 
admitted to McDougal Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York, on June 6th, 1865 He was discharged from service on July 

18th, 1865. 

HOWARD, JOHN, Private, Co. B, 3d Rhode Island Volunteers, aged 23 years, was admitted to Sickel Hospital, Alexan 
dria, Virginia, on May 5th, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp. He returned to duty on May 18th, 1865. 

JOHNSON, F., Private, Co. E, 39th Ohio Volunteers, aged 19 years, was admitted to Crittenden Hospital, Louisville, 
Kentucky, on June 25th, 18(55, with an incised scalp wound. He was returned to duty on July 18th, 1865. 

KKLLY, J., Private, Co. D, 2d Louisiana Cavalry, aged 30 years, received, in an affray, a severe incised wound of the 
, scalp. He was admitted to hospital at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on May 25th, and returned to duty June 13th, 1864. 

McCRACKEX. W. N., Private Co. M, 5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, aged 18 years, received an incised wound of 
the scalp on October 7th, 1854. He was admitted to 3d Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, on October 10th, and returned 
to duty January 21th, 1865. 



30 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THK HEAD, 

MCDONALD, F., Private, Co. G, 55th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 29 years, was received into Main Street Hospital, 
Covinfton Kentucky, on April llth, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp, not received in action. He died on May 8th, 18G5. 

Satterwhite, M., Private, Co. A, 44th North Carolina Regiment, received an incised-wound of the scalp on June 26th, 
1SG3. He was admitted to Hospital No. 4, Richmond, Virginia, and furloughed on July 6th, 1863. 

STHUBE, JOHN J., Private Co. K, 178th New York Volunteers, aged 20 years, received an incised scalp-wound, and was 
admitted to Jefferson Barracks Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, September 20th, 18G4. He was returned to duty on September 
27th, 18G4. 

VARBLE, HENRY, Private, Co. C, 22d Indiana Volunteers, aged 21 years, received an incised scalp wound at Franklin, 
Tennessee, on November 3Uth, 1864. He was admitted to Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, on June 21st, 1865, and 
mustered-out of service July 24th, 18G5. 

WILLIAMS, A. M., Private, Co. G, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was admitted to Cavalry Corps Hospital at Gallatin, 
Tennessee, on January llth, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp. He was transferred to Nashville on February 25th, 
and discharged from service July 28th, 1865. 

WYMAN, JOSEPH, Lieutenant, Co. H, 9th Minnesota Volunteers, received an incised scalp-wound, and was admitted to 
Post Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, on May 19th, 1854. He returned to duty on May 30th, 1864. 

YOUNG, H. C., Private, Co. F, 20th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 28 years, received an accidental incised scalp wound, on 
February 28th, 1865. He was admitted to Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, on June 7th, 1865. He was furloughed, 
and returned to duty on July 29th. 1865. 

Of these twenty-eight cases of incised wounds of the scalp by various weapons, one 
resulted fatally. Fifteen of the patients were returned to duty, one deserted, and eleven 
were mustered out, or paroled, or discharged, not for disability, but because their terms of 
enlistment had nearly expired.* 

PUNCTUKED WOUNDS OF THE HEAD.- -The experience acquired in the late war con 
firms the common impression that punctured wounds of the integuments of the cranium, 
or perforations of the cranial bones by bayonet or lance, or sword thrusts, are rare in 
modern times. On the infrequent occasions on which they are used offensively, these 
weapons are commonly directed against the chest or abdomen of an adversary. The 
majority of punctured wounds of the scalp or skull met with in military practice at the 
present day, result from accidents, or are inflicted in private quarrels, or by sentinels. 

PUNCTURED SCALP WOUNDS. Only eighteen cases of this nature are recorded. 
Nine were inflicted by sentinels, or received in broils or attempts to desert. Nine were 
received in action. 

ARMSTRONG, EBENEZER, Private, Co. K, 86th Illinois Infantry. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Kenesaw Mountain 
Georgia, June 27th, 1864. Returned to duty. 

BALL, PATRICK, Private, Co. H, 49th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 37 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Wilder 
ness, Virginia. May 8th, 1864. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, May 13th. Returned to duty May 16th, 1864. 

BLAKE, THOMAS, Private, Co. B, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp, in an attempt to desert. 
Admitted to post hospital at Albany, New York, December 26th. Deserted, December 30th, 1863. 

CALL. JOHN W., Private, Co. D, 8th Regiment, 1st Army Corps, aged 24 years. Bayonet wound of occipital region 
and of left eyebrow. May 23d, 1865. Admitted to post hospital at Camp Stoneman, May 25th. Returned to duty June 7th, 
1865. 

DAVIS, JOHN, Private, Co. G, 2d Maine Volunteers, aged 21 years. Bayonet wound of the right temporal region. Falls 
Church, Virginia, July 18th, 1861. Patient remained unconscious for eight days. Was returned to duty in October, 1861. On 
June 27th, 1862, constitutional symptoms were manifested, and he was admitted to Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, and 
again returned to duty. On November 18th, 1862, he was admitted to Eckington Hospital, Washington, and discharged the 
service December 23d, 1862, for partial imbecility and such symptoms as dizziness, faintriess, and sensitiveness to pressure 
over the scat of the wound. He was pensioned at four dollars per" month, and on September 13th, 1867, his pension was 
increased to six dollars per month. The pension examiner at Bangor, Maine, Dr. Jones, reported, February 15th, 1867, that 
dizziness had increased and was constant, and that the pensioner often fell, and became unconscious. He drew his pension on 
March 4th, 1869, but his condition at that time is not reported. 



* The total number of incised wounds returned during the four years of the war, on the monthly reports of white troops 
in the United States service, was twenty-one thousand four hundred and forty-four (21.444,) with one hundred and ninety-six 
(19G) deaths; but there is no means of determining how many of these were injuries of the head. 



PUNCTURED WOUNDS OF THE HEAD. 31 

DUXMORE, GEORGE, Private, Co. E, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 22 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. 
Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 5th, 1864. Admitted to Knight Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, June 19th. Deserted, June 
25th, 1864. 

Fox, JOSEPH, Sergeant, Co. G, 148th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp. August 25th, 1804. 
Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, August 30th. Returned to duty September 21st, 1864. 

KOSCHICO, GULTILL, Private, Co. 0, 13th Connecticut Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp. March 25th, 1864. 
Admitted to University Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana. March 26th. Returned to duty July 1st, 1864. 

LAIIK.Y, AXDKEW, Private. Co. C, 10th Tennessee Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp. May 4th, 1864. Admitted 
to Hospital No. 2, Nashville, Tennessee, May 6th. Died from inflammation of the brain, May 6th, 1864. 

LEXTEMAR, FREDERICK, Corporal, 4th Ohio Battery, aged 27 years, received a punctured wound of the scalp on March 
10th, 1865, and was received into Hospital No. 2. at Nashville, Tennessee, on the following day. He recovered, under simple 
dressings, and was returned to duty March 18th, 1865. 

. McCAKTY, GEORGE, Private, Co. G, 23d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 2d. 18. >4. Admitted to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, June 13th. Returned to duty July 10th, 
1864. 

MeDoxALD, JOSEPH W., Private, Co. D. 75th Illinois Volunteers, aged 35 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Colum 
bus. Georgia, November 24th, 1864. Admitted to Hospital No. 5, Quincy, Illinois. December 8th. Returned to duty February 

7th. 18.55. 

MoGixpsEY, HUGH W., Sergeant, Co. E, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 22 years. Bayonet wound of the 
occipital and parietal regions. October 6th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, the same day. Returned 
to duty February 25th, 18o5. 

McGoVERN, PHILIP, Private, Co. B, 158th New York Volunteers, aged 25 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. March 
28th. 1864. Admitted to hospital, Beaufort, South Carolina, March 28th. Returned to duty April 27th, 1861. 

MEADE, MICHAKI,, Private, Co. B, 60th New York Volunteers, aged 22 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Chicka- 
inauga, Georgia, September 20th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1. Louisville, Kentucky, February 17th. Returned to duty 
February 22d, 1884. 

TOMONEY, EDWARD F., Private, 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 33 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Peters 
burg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, April 27th. Deserted May 15th, 1865. 

TURXEY, JAMES, Private, Co. K, 105th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received a bayonet wound of the side of the scalp at 
Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31st, 1862. He was sent to the rear and admitted to the Hospital at Mills Creek, on June 4th, 1862. 
The patient died on June 13th, 1862. The particulars of the treatment are not recoided. The case is reported by Surgeon A. 
P. Heichhold, 105th Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

WARNER, GEORGE, Private, Co. I, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 21 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. March 
25th, 1835. Admitted to hospital at Elmira, New York, April 4th. Returned to duty. 

Of the eighteen patients with punctured scalp wounds, eleven were returned to 
duty; three deserted; one was discharged for disability ; and two died. Punctured wounds 
of the scalp, when made by a weapon directed perpendicularly to the skull, are necessarily 
slight in depth; when made obliquely, the point of the weapon soon penetrates from 
within outwards, on account of the convexity of the cranial vault They are occasionally 
complicated by erysipelas, burrowing of pus under the occipito-frontalis aponeurosis, or by 
haemorrhage; but are commonly trivial in extent and importance. When uncomplicated, 
the treatment consists in shaving the surrounding scalp and keeping the wound covered 
with a compress saturated with cold water or some resolvent lotion. The complications 
which existed in the two fatal cases above noted are not reported in detail. 

PUNCTURED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. Only six examples of punctured frac 
tures of the skull, by sharp-pointed weapons, have been reported. Five of these were 
inflicted by the bayonet, and one by a sword. 

A I.I. EX. D. K., Private, Co. F. 50th Ohio Volunteers, aged 20 years, received a punctured bayonet wound of the scalp, 
with fracture and depression of the left parietal bone, at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30th, 18:54. Admitted to Dennisoii 
Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, January 18th. 1865, from Madison Hospital, Indiana. Temporary insensibility, paralysis ot right 
arm, and aphonia, followed the injury. A portion of the bone, one and a half inches in length and three-fourths of an inch 
in breadth, was removed. The wound healed, the scalp adhering to the dura mater. Furloughed March 16th, 1865, and 
never returned to hospital. He was examined by Surgeon John C. Hupp, at Wheeling, West Virginia, July, 1865. There was 



32 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

a depressed cicatrix over the solution of continuity of the skull. The aperture in the parietal seemed to be about an inch in 
length, bv three-fourths of an inch in breadth. The patient s speech was interrupted and stammering. There was defective 
seiiHation in the riirht hand, and numbness over a tract extending from the seat of the wound to the left side of the bone. Exer 
cise of body or mind occasioned pain in the cicatrix and left temporal region. Any jolting, or stooping, effort in lifting, or any 
sudden or loud noise produced a sensation as of straining of the brain substance through the aperture. The patient described 
this sensation as very painful. In March, 1839, this pensioner resided at Bridgeport, Belmont county, Ohio, and the examining 
surgeon of the Pension Bureau reported that he was totally and permanently disabled, and required cautious and watchful care 
by night and day. 

BUCKLEY, JOHX B., Corporal, Co. D, 62d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 years, received a bayonet wound of the 
forehead, through the right superciliary ridge, at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3d, 18f53. It was found, on examination, that 
the weapon had penetrated the frontal sinus, and passed horizontally backwards into the brain. The patient was transferred to 
Washington, and was admitted to Finley Hospital on the 9th, in a perfectly conscious condition, with a natural pulse and free 
dom from febrile excitement. Acting Assistant Surgeon Lewis Heard passed a bougie along the track of the wound into the 
right anterior lobe of the brain the distance of four inches, without force, and without the least pain to the patient. The perfo 
ration in the skull barely admitted the point of the index finger. There were found a few small fragments of bone still hanging 
at the inner edge of the orifice. There was no haemorrhage. Perfect quietness was strictly enjoined, a saline laxative was 
ordered, and cold water dressings were applied. The diet was light. On May 14th, he continued conscious and comparatively 
comfortable, complaining of but little pain in the head. Temporizing treatment was continued. Eor the next two days signs of 
mental disturbance were noticeable, and partial loss of vision, with optical illusions. He complained of headache, and a febrile 
movement arose, with intense thirst. The bowels were kept open by Epsom salts. Pus and disorganized brain tissue were dis 
charged from the wound. At noon, on the 16th, he moved his arms about tremulously, catching at imaginary objects, arousing, 
occasionally, from the stupor into which he had fallen, complaining of increased pain in the head, and then talking incoherently. 
The skin was of natural temperature, and the pulse at 80. On May 17th, the patient had passed a quiet night. The pulse was 
at 123 ; there was greater tremulousness of the arms, with increased stupor, and vision was nearly extinct. The patient had 
great thirst, but no appetite. The discharge of pus and disorganized brain substance continued. Slight convulsions occurred 
in the afternoon, and the patient sank gradually, and died at six o clock P. M., thirteen days after the reception of the injury. 
At the post mortem examination, made fourteen hours after death, the sinuses and the dura mater were found to be highly 
engorged with blood. The right hemisphere of the brain was sliced off, and over tha right lateral ventricle a slight prominence 
was observed, which, on being punctured, gave exit to a quantity of pus. The wound penetrated through the anterior lobe of 
the brain under the right edge of the corpus callosum, opened the right lateral ventricle, and extended back to the posterior 
crus of the fornix, which seemed to have sustained injury. The two lateral and third ventricles were filled with pus, and pus 
was also found in the fourth ventricle, and beneath the cerebellum around the medulla oblongata. Acting Assistant Surgeon 
Lewis Heard reported the case.* 

G , THOMAS, Private, Co. B, 90th Ohio Volunteers, was admitted, on November 27th, 1883, to Hospital No. 1, 

Nashville, Tennessee, with a bayonet wound behind the left parietal eminence, inflicted by a sentinel. Eor several days the 
patient was in a state of stupor, and was obstinately constipated. Both of these conditions were removed by the use of powerful 
purgative medicines. Maamvhilc the cicatrization of the wound progressed rapidly, and on December 8th it had nearly closed. 
On this day the patient complained, for the first time, of severe headache. A probe, passed through the small orifice of the 
wound, indicated denuded and detached bone at its base. A "T-shaped incision was made, and several fragments of dead bone 
were extracted. On the llth, there was somnolence and cephalagia, and in 
creased stupor, with slight intolerance of light and sound ; the pulse was full 
and slow, forty-eight beats per minute. The scalp was tumid; the wound gaped, 
and was filled with fungous granulations. The incisions in the scalp were ex 
tended, and some of the loose bits of bone were removed. An ice bladder was 
applied to the head, and purgatives, with purgative enemata, were administered. 
On the 12th, the patient had some little appetite. The pulse was 44 and feeble. 
There had been no alviue evacuations, notwithstanding repeated doses of calo 
mel and rhubarb, epsom salt, podophyllin, with terebinthinate enemata. In the 
forenoon, pills containing half a drop of croton oil were ordered to be given 
every hour until the bowels moved. On the 13th, the patient was freely purged. 
A fungus began to protrude from the wound. On the 14th, the headache was 
slight but constant, the skin cool, the pulse 42 and feeble. The cerebral hernia, 
tense and elastic, and indolent on pressure, still covered by the meninges, was 
steadily increasing in size. He was ordered half an ounce of wine every hour, 
with beef tea. On the 15th. the membranes covering the hernia sloughed, and ne !!^217!)!u^. Sec*" A.M?M^ ^ * bay " 
the fungous appeared with a dark red granulated surface, not sensitive to the 

touch, nor bleeding readily. When the patient, in his restless sleep, rolled over upon the fungous growth, he would awake with 
a start. For the next two days he took wine in gradually augmented doses. His pulse became more feeble, and rose to 90 
pulsations. Respirations 13, sighing. On December 19th, the whole fungous mass sloughed away. There was delirium and 
subsultus tendinum. The other symptoms were unchanged. Death took place on December 23d, 18133. At the autopsy, an 
abscess of the left hemisphere, and diffused arachnitis, were observed. The baynnet had penetrated an inch or more into the 
cerebrum. The calvaria was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum by Assistant Surgeon C. J. Kipp, U. S. Volunteers, with 




American Merlical Times, June 10, Ibtili. Vol. VI, p. 292. 



PUNCTURED WOUNDS OF THE HEAD. 33 

the foregoing notes of the case. It is represented in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 8.) It shows a perforation of the left 
parietal behind the protuberance. The opening is egg-shaped ; but the edges suggest its original triangular outline. The edges 
are rounded, and the texture of the bone near the solution of continuity is porous, particularly on the inner table. A slight 
fissure exists in the outer table. 

II , Jonx, Private of the Hospital Guards at the Lovell General Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, aged 

25 years, was confined four hours on the night of February 28th, 1863, as a punishment for bringing spirits into the camp and 
attempting to run the guard. When released from his cell by order of the officer of the guard, lie rushed upon the latter and 
struck him in the face, whereupon the sergeant drew his sword, and, stepping back a pace, put himself in guard, holding the 
gripe of his sword firmly against the right hip, with the point slightly elevated. While in this position the prisoner again rushed 
upon the sergeant; but the ground being uneven, and the grass covered with a heavy frost, the assailant slipped and fell on the 
point of the sword, and then heavily forwards on the ground. When taken up he was insensible, and breathed heavily. On 
washing from his face the blood, which had flowed copiously from a slight wound in the right, nostril, the officer of the day, an 
acting assistant surgeon, who was immediately summoned, detected no other injury than the trivial incision of the right ala of 
the nose. The man had been drinking freely, and, under the supposition that he was suffering onlv from the stupefying effects 
of liquor, increased by the fall upon his head, the surgeon remanded him to the guard-house, where lie laid in a state of stupor 
until the following morning, when he was removed to one of the wards of the hospital. He was found to be still unconscious, 
and breathed stertorously, and moaned occasionally. The pulse was full and slow. The eyelids were closed, showing, when 
forcibly opened, the pupils dilated and immovable. The remedies usually employed in cases of apoplexy were directed, hut 
consciousness could not be restored, and the patient died on the succeeding morning, March 2d, 1803, thirty-one hours after the 
reception of the injury. An autopsy was made nine and a half hours after death. Rv/or mortis well pronounced. No external 
mark of violence was perceptible, except a wound five-eighths of an inch in length and one-eighth of an inch in depth on the 
external edge of the right nostril. The nostril was filled with coagulated blood. There was no sign of fracture of the nasal 
bones. On removing the calvarium, the blood vessels of the membranes of the brain were found to be engorged, and upon 
reflecting the membranes, the convolutions over the whole of the right hemisphere were found to be covered with extravasated 
blood. This extravasation extended along the whole of the base of the right side, and, to a slight degree, on the left, covering 
the whole surface of the cerebellum, increasing at the base and towards the medulla 
oblongata. The brain was then removed, and the posterior clinoid process of the 
sphenoid was found to be fractured transversely, and the middle and lower part of 
the superior turbinated hone was pierced. A small indentation, corresponding with 
the point of the sword, was found in the right clinoid process. The lungs were 
considerably engorged, but healthy and cropitant throughout. There was a slight 
adhesion found at the apex of the posterior part of the left lung. A portion of the 
sphenoid bone was removed to exhibit this very rare and interesting fracture. 
Unfortunately it was somewhat injured during maceration, but still gives a good 
illustration of this unusual form of injury. The portion of the sword which inflicted 
the injury was filed off, and was found to fill exactly the perforations of the ethmoid 
and sphenoid bones. The sword had penetrated about four inches from the nasal Fie. 10 Transverse fracture of the posterior 
spine. The history of the case was carefully compiled by Acting Assistant Surgeon *" 1 L TM M^ 
E. Seyffarth, and the specimen, represented in the accompanying wood-cut, (FiU. 
10, ) was forwarded by Surgeon L. A. Edwards, U. S. A., in charge of Lovell Hospital, to the Surgeon General. 

Sauitder, G. W., Private, Co. D, 7th North Carolina Regiment, received at the battle of Gaines Mills, June 26th, 1862, a 
bayonet thrust in the forehead, which probably penetrated the frontal bone. He was conveyed to Richmond, and admitted, on 
June 2/th, into Ward No. 3 of Chimborazo Hospital. He died on July 5th, 1862. Surgeon E. H. Smith, C. S A., reports the 
case. 

WoonuRiimi:, WILLIAM T, Musician, Co. F, 15th Indiana Volunteers, received on October 1.1th. 1863, a punctured 
wound of the skull from a bayonet thrust, which perforated the left parietal bone near its posterior superior angle. Two days 
after the injury he was received into the City Hospital at Indianapolis. Indiana, suffering with convulsions, and symptoms of 
meningitis and inflammation of the brain. On October 21st, several small fragments of bone were extracted; but the symptoms 
were not alleviated, and the patient died on October 27th, 1863, from abscess of the brain. Acting Assistant Surgeon J. M. 
Kitchen reports the case. 

Of the six patients with punctured fractures of the cranium, one survived, though 
permanently disabled; and five died, with extravasation of Llood in one case, cerebral 
hernia in one, encephalitis in one, and abscess of the brain in two cases. 

The very intractable and fatal nature of such injuries is well known. The diagnosis 
is commonly difficult, the small dimensions of the external wound forbidding satisfactory 
exploration. It the external table only is punctured, it is true that there is not much more 
danger than in a wound of the soft parts; and recoveries take place when both tables are 
pierced, if there is no extravasation of blood, or wound of the membranes or the brain by the 
weapon, or by depressed splinters of the vitreous table. But when the puncture is small and 




34 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



narrow, it is very difficult to determine its depth. The information obtained by the probe 
is unsatisfactory, and its use is not unattended by danger. When the brain is wounded, 
symptoms of cerebral mischief are frequently delayed until extravasa 
tion or the pent-up products of inflammation produce pressure. Thus 
the surgeon is restrained from interference until a period when inter 
ference is likely to be of little benefit. 

AYhen arrows and lances were commonly used in warfare, this 
class of injuries were not uncommon, and many interesting examples 
of them are reported by authors. 1 The Indian hostilities in the west 
ern part of the United States still afford examples of punctures of the 
cranium by arrows. 2 

In the late war, the lance was not used to any extent, and no 
cases were reported of wounds of the head by this weapon. Two 
regiments were armed with it; but the nature of the country which 
\J was the theatre of war was regarded as ill adapted to the manoeuvres 
of lancers ; and, after serving for a while on escort duty, the regiments 
changed their equipment. 

A very grave complication of punctures of the cranium consists 



, / 



AT?. lcaL<m?n$neiJdi . in the breaking off of the penetrating weapon, which is sometimes so 

From specimens furnished the ,, , ...... -. T rv 1 

A.M.M.bycapt.T.G.Benton, firmly wedged that its removal is a matter ot great dimculty. 

Ordnance Corps. / > 

The treatment of punctures of the cranium will consist of the ordinary simple 
dressing of wounds of the scalp, until symptoms of cerebral disorder arise demanding 
mechanical interference. Recognizing the great probability of dangerous complications, 
the surgeon will insist on strict precautionary measures, and will incise the scalp, and 
expose the fracture, and remove spiculse or foreign bodies, or elevate depressed bone as 
soon as he is satisfied that the brain or its membranes are injured. 

Besides the six examples of puncture of the cranium by sharp-pointed weapons, 
reported on the preceding pages, the Army Medical Museum has specimens of punctures 
of the skull by arrows and tomahawks. 3 These preparations will be fully described in 
the next edition of the Museum Catalogue. 

See Par6, (Euvres Completes, ed. Malgaigne, livre 8 e ); Morgagni, (De Causis et Sedilus Moruorum, Vol. I); Briot, 
(Histoire de V Etat et des Prorjres dc la Ckiruryie Militaire, Besancon, 1817, p. Ill) ; Percy, (Manuel du Chiruryien d Armee, 
Paris, 1830, p. 101) ; Desport, ( Traite des Plaies d Armes a Feu, Paris, 1749, p. 374) ; Larrey, (Relation Mid. de. Camp, et Voyages, 
Paris, 1841, p. 381 ; et C Unique Chiruryicale, Paris, 1829, T. I, pp. 156 et 192 ; et T. V, Paris, 1836, p. 323) ; Hennen, Princi 
ples of Military Suryery, London, 1829, p. [284) ; Eogers, Transactions of the Royal Medico- Chirurgical Society, Vol. XIII); 
South, (Chelius s System of Surgery, Am. ed., Vol. I, p. 437); Hewett, (Dublin Med. Jour., 1851, p. 347) ; Legouest, (Chirurr/ie 
d Armee, p. 277) ; Bormefous, (Jour, de Med. de Montpellier, 1860) ; Bruns, ( Die Chiruryischen, Krarikheiten, Tubingen, 1854, 
S. 32, u. s. v.); Hyrtl, (Handuuch, S. 86); Velpeau, (Dictionnaire de Medccine, Paris, 1844, 2 u; ed. T. XXIX, p 559); Fritze, 
(Nassauische Jahrluc/ier, Heft. VII, S. 64); Schneider, ( Die Kopfcrlctzunrjcn in Medicinish-gerichtlicher Hinsiclit, Stuttgart, 
1848, S. 58.) 

2 For a very interesting account of arrow wounds, with numerous illustrative cases and judicious suggestions as to treat 
ment, based on extensive observation of such injuries, the reader is referred to an article by Assistant Surgeon [now Surgeon 
and Bvt. Lieut. Colonel] J. H. Bill, U. S. Army, in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, N. S., Vol. XL1V, p. 365. 

! No. 5528, Section I, A. M. M., is the cranium of a Tonkaway warrior, with two punctures in the right parietal by the 
sharp point of a tomahawk. It was obtained near Fort C obb, Washita River, I. T., by Dr. E. Palmer. No. 5531, is a cranium 
penetrated through the left antrum and orbit, by a stone-headed arrow. It was obtained from a grave in Alaineda county, Cali 
fornia, by Dr. C. Yates. No. 5644, is a segment of the anterior portion of the skull of a Mexican herder, with a perforation of 
the frontal, above the left superciliar ridge, by an iron arrow head, which had been driven deeply into the brain, in an Indian 
fight, seventy miles north of Fort Concho, in the summer of 1868. It was presented by Bvt. Major W. M. Notson, Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. Army. 



CONTUSIONS AND LACERATED WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 35 



SECTION II. 



MISCELLANEOUS INJURIES. 



In this section such injuries of the head as are common to the soldier and the civilian 
will be considered. These comprise the results of railroad accidents, of falls, of blows 
from blunt weapons, of kicks from horses and mules, of the falling of trees or masonry, 
and other accidents. 

It is impracticable to determine the total number of cases that should have been 
referred, during the war, to this category. On the monthly reports of sick and wounded, 
the contusions and lacerated wounds, and simple fractures, were entered numerically, 
without indication of the seat of injury. Cases of concussion and compression of the 
brain were returned separately, but these statistics were vitiated, because instances of 
gunshot wounds were oftentimes included. The information that can be gleaned from this 
source will be recorded at the end of this section. Abstracts of a few cases, cited from 
special reports, or from the histories of specimens in the Army Medical Museum, will 
illustrate the principal varieties of injuries of this class. 

In movements of large bodies of troops by rail, the men crowded upon platforms 
and roofs of cars, contusions and lacerations of the scalp, concussions of the brain, and 
fractures of the skull, were not infrequent. 

RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. The following are examples of contusions from this cause: 



a. 



CASK. Second Lieutenant John II. Masterson, Co. E, 100th [I. S. C. T., aged 38 years, was thrown from a railroad car 
and received a severe contusion of the scalp, July 1st, 13(14. He entered the Officers Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, the 
following day; recovered, under simple treatment, and was returned to duty July 23th, 18G4. 

CASE. Private John Jenkins, Co. G, 15th U. S. C. T., aired 23 years, fell from a railroad car at Nashville. Tennessee, 
December 26th, 1864, and received a severe contusion of the head. He was treated at Hospital No. 16, at Nashville, by cold 
applications, and was returned to duty, well, on January 4th, 1865. 

CASE. Private Ganin McCoy, Co. C, 16th Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 57 years, received at Petersburg, Virginia, 
August 14th, 1863, a severe contusion of the forehead and right side of the head, by fulling from a car in motion. He was 
admitted to York, Pennsylvania, Hospital, and discharged from service on January 8th, 1864, on account of persistent pain in 
the head. 

CASK. Sergeant J. C. Williams, Co. B, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, aged 20 years, received in a railroad collision, 
on August 19th, 18(54, a contused wound of the scalp. He recovered, under simple dressings, at the hospital at Lexington, 
Kentucky, and returned to duty August 22d, 1864. 

CASK. Private L. J. Learned, Co. B, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, aged 22 years, was similarly injured at the same 
time and place, but with greater severity. He was transferred to Park Hospital, Milwaukie, Wisconsin, on September 18th, 
and was discharged from service December 26th, 1861. 

CASK. Private 8. Croyton, Co. G, 6th Virginia Cavalry, aged 17 years, received near Carlisle, Illinois, June 21st, 1865 
several severe contused wounds of the scalp, in a railroad accident. He was treated witli cold local applications at the Marine 
Hospital. St. Louis, Missouri, and recovered, and was discharged from service July 19th, 1365. 



36 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

The following men also received, in railroad accidents, contusions of the head, of a 
slight nature, probably, as all were speedily returned to duty: 

C ASES . private J. Burns, K, 71st New York Volunteers, near Wilmington, Delaware, September 21st, 1864. 

Captain D. Cornelius, C, 212th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Baltimore, September 17th, 1804. 

Private Peter Daly, G, 140th New York Volunteers, near York, Pennsylvania, January 7th, 1865. 

Private L. P. Daniels, I, 2d Ohio Artillery, near Knoxville, January 29th, 1865. 

Private W. Fogarty, A, 21st New York Cavalry, near Grafton, W r est Virginia, July 22d, 1864. 

Private J. H. Fritton, A. 33d Illinois Volunteers, New Orleans, March 2d, 1865. 

Private J. Jaide, E, 1st Missouri Militia, near St. Louis, April 29th, 1864. 

Private D. Jones, A, 145th Ohio Volunteers, near Washington, May 21st, 1864. 

Private W. Kennan, E, 14th Veteran Reserve Corps, near Baltimore, March 24th, 1864. 

J. T. Lan<?ston. Military Train, near Summit Point, Maryland, November 16th, 1864. 

Private J. N. Moore, C, 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Pittsburg, March 23d, 1864. 

Private A. Russell, I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, near Knoxville, January 29th, 1865. 

Corporal S. Shipman, F, 88th Illinois Volunteers, near Jefl ersonville, Indiana, December 16th, 1864. 

J. Slacher, Unassigned Recruit, near Elmira, New York, April 2Gth, 1865. 

Sergeant F. Wright, B, 16th New York Cavalry, near York, Pennsylvania, January 7th, 1865. 

Corporal C. Zuraff, A, 33d Illinois Volunteers, near New Orleans, Louisiana, March 3d, 1865. 

Iii the following cases of contusions of the head, the injuries were of a severe character, 
probably, since the patients were discharged from service for disability: 

CASES. Private G. A. Campbell, I, 2d Ohio Art y, near Knoxville, Tenn., January 29th, 1865. Discharged May 12th, 1865. 
Private J. Carney, C, 43d New York Volunteers, near Albany, N. Y., March 7th, 1865. Discharged July 6th, 1865. 
Private P. Coyne, A, 1st N. Jersey Artillery, near Washington, D. C., June 13th, 1865. Discharged July 10th, 1865. 
Private T. Little, F, 122d Ohio Volunteers, near Washington, December 3d, 1864. Discharged January 23d, 1865. 

Lacerations of the scalp were produced in the following cases: 

CASE. Private Philip A. Adams, Co. G, 8th Indiana Cavalry, aged 39 years, received June 30th, 1864, near Chatta 
nooga, Tennessee, a severe lacerated wound of the scalp, by falling from a railroad car. He was admitted to Hospital No. 3, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on June 30th, and on January llth, 1865, he was transferred to Gallatin, Tennessee. He was discharged 
the service for disability on June 5th, 1865. 

CASE. Private Clifford Allen, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 16 years, received a contused and lacerated wound 
of the left temporal region on January 29th, 1865, near Knoxville, Tennessee, from a railroad accident. He was admitted to 
the Asylum Hospital, at Knoxville, and recovered, under simple treatment, and was returned to duty on February 16th, 1865. 

CASE. Private Richard Bogles, Co. G, 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years, received on April llth, 1884, a 
severe lacerated wound of the right side of the scalp, by falling from a railway car, and was admitted to Grafton Hospital, 
\Vest Virginia, on the same day. The wound did well under cold water dressings, and he was returned to duty on June 2d, 1864. 

CASK. Private Robert Boyd, Co. F, 8th New Jersey Volunteers, fell from a railway car near Wilmington, Delaware, 
on June 21st, 1864, and received a lacerated wound of the scalp. He was immediately conveyed to the Tilton Hospital. 
Simple dressings were applied, and he was returned to duty July 8th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Albert Edgar, Co. G, 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years, was wounded on the same occasion, 
and the preceding history applies to his case. 

CASE. Private L. J. Frence, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 21 years, received a severe contusion, with a 
lacerated wound of the scalp, on the same occasion as the preceding, and returned to duty at the same date. 

CASE. Private John B. Glynn, Co. H, 24th Missouri Volunteers, received a severe scalp wound by a fall from a rail 
way car, on March 1st, 1883. He was admitted to Lawson Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, and returned to duty June 1st, 1863. 

CASE. Private G. W. Haines, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 36 years, was wounded in the same accident, and 
was treated in the same hospital. He had a wound of the scalp, with a very severe contusion, and recovered slowly. He was 
discharged from service on May 21st, 1865. Surgeon F. Meacham, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private G. W. Marvin, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, nged 20 years, was wounded at the same time and place, 
receiving a laceration of the scalp, extending from behind the left ear to the occipital protuberance. He recovered, under simple 
treatment, and was discharged from service May 24th, 1865. Surgeon F. Meacham reports the case. 

The following were returned to duty after receiving, in railroad accidents, slight 
lacerations of the scalp: 



CONCUSSION OF THE BRAIN FROM RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. 37 

CASKS. Private G. W. Francis, C, 112th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Philadelphia, November 7th, 1864. 
Private G. Gormer, K, 2d Maryland P. U. V. 13., near Cumberland, Maryland, Oetober 20th, 1804. 
Private W. Gunnin, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers, near Albany, New York, June 8th, 1804. 
Sergeant J. H. Jackson, G, 149th Indiana Volunteers, near Indianapolis, Indiana, August 25th, 1865. 
Sergeant A. Mitchell, 27th Michigan Volunteers, near Cincinnati, Oiiio, April 13th, 1803. 
Private L. H. Palmer, K, 97th Illinois Volunteers, Algiers, Louisiana, November 1st, 1803. 
Private T. W. Peverley, A, 33d Illinois Volunteers, near New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2d, 1805. 
Private T. Powers, II, 97th Illinois Volunteers, near Algiers, Louisiana, November 1st, 1863. 
Private D. Swinger, A, 19th Veteran Reserve Corps, near Baltimore, September 3d, 1864. 
Private J. Williams, L, 193d New York Volunteers, near Baltimore, May 18th, 1805. 

The following were discharged from service on account of lacerations of the scalp of 
a graver description : 

CASKS. Private J. Fallon, A, 1st New Jersey L. Artillery, near Washington, June 13th, 1805. Discharged July 10th, 1805. 
Private R. S. Harper, A, 1st Virginia Artillery, near Columbus, Ohio, February, 1865. Discharged May 29th, 1865. 
Private A. Kimball, G, 10th Vermont Volunteers, near Brattleboro, Vt., June, 1865. Discharged July 14th, 1865. 
Private M. Eice, G, 86th New York Volunteers, at Bristol, Pa., March 7th, 1865. Discharged June 7th, 1805. 

In four of these forty-nine cases of contusions and lacerations of the scalp, erysipe- 
latous inflammation supervened, and others were complicated by sloughing and burrowing 
of pus. The patients all ultimately recovered, 

In the following cases, concussion of the brain was the most important feature : 

CASK. Captain W. W. dishing. Co. I, 125th Ohio Volunteers, aged 27 years, was admitted to the Officers Hospital, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on March 12th, 1865, laboring under concussion of the brain, resulting from a railroad accident on 
March 1st. He was furloughed on March 13th, 1805, and did not report subsequently. 

CASK. Private A. Faigue, Co. B, 153d New York Volunteers, received, in a railroad accident, near Harper s Ferry, 
Virginia, April 20th, 1865, a severe contusion of the head, accompanied by concussion, and probably laceration, of the brain. 
He was admitted on the same day to the Island Hospital, at Harper s Ferry, and survived but a few hours. Acting Staff Sur 
geon N. F. Graham reports the case. 

CASK. Joseph M. Grace, unassigned recruit, aged 16 years, jumped from the cars while in motion, near Bowling Green, 
Kentucky, on November 4th, 1864. He was admitted to Hospital No. 3, at Nashville, Tennessee, on November 5th. There 
was a severe contusion on the head, and signs of grave concussion of the brain. He recovered from the head symptoms, but 
died on April 5th, 1865, from some pulmonary complication. Surgeon J. R. Ludlow, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Patrick King, aged 23 years, a laborer in the employ of the subsistence department, fell from a railroad car July 
22d, 1863, and was admitted to the General Hospital at Frederick, Maryland, on the following day, in a semi-comatose condi 
tion, in consequence of a severe contusion of the forehead, with concussion of the brain. As the stupor passed off. there was 
mild delirium ; but the patient gradually improved under the use of saline cathartics and a low diet, and was returned to duty, 
August 14th, 1863. 

CASK. Corporal T. J. Smith, Co. G, 6th Virginia Cavalry, aged 20 years, was wounded, on the night of June 21st, 1865, 
by a collision of trains on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, near Carlisle, Illinois. The regimental surgeon, Dr. A. II. 
Thayer, reports that there were very grave symptoms of concussion of the brain. The patient was conveyed to the Marine 
Hospital, St. Louis, where Assistant Surgeon E. M. Horton, U. S. A., reports that arteriotomy was performed without any 
beneficial result. The patient died on June 23d, 1865. 

CASK. Private John Taft, Unassigned Recruit, received, in an accident en the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, 
March 30th. 1805, near Wilmington, Delaware, a severe contusion of the head, with concussion, and probablv laceration, of the 
brain. He was conveyed to Tilton Hospital, at Wilmington. Every effort to bring about reaction was unavailing, and the case 
terminated fatally on the following day. March 31st, 18G5. No autopsy was held. The case is reported by Surgeon E. J. 
Bailey, U. S. Army. 

CASK. Sergeant T. Wisp, Co. K, 134th Ohio Volunteers, aged 35 years, received, in a railroad accident, June 6th, 1804, 
near Print of Rocks, Virginia, a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to Judiciary Square Hospital, and after 
reaction had taken place, he was treated by purgatives, rest, and low diet. He recovered, and was furloughed for- forty days, 
and failed to return, but joined his regiment "of three months men," on October 20th, 1864, to be mustered out. Assistant 
Surgeon Alexander Ingram, U. S. A., reported the the case. 

Iii the following cases, without injury to the walls of the cranium, there appears to 
have been some obscure injury to its contents: 

CASK. Private James Bnekland, Co. IT. 2d Missouri Artillery, received, in a railroad accident near St. Louis. August 
13th. 1864, a severe contusion of the head. He was received into Sehoficld Barracks Hospital on the same day. with symptoms 
of severe concussion of the brain. His condition was relieved in a short time, but, after a few days, paralysis of the motor 
nerves of the lower extremities was observed, and symptoms indicative of softening of the brain ensued. The ease terminated 
fatally, September 14th. 1S64. from ramollissement. Assistant Surgeon E. M. Powers. U. S. V., reports the case. 



38 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Lieutenant William Harrington, 29th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 28 years, fell from a railway car in motion, 
near Chester, Pennsylvania, March 1st, 1864. He was admitted to the Citizens Volunteer Hospital, in Philadelphia, on the 
following day. There were signs of severe concussion of the hrain ; but no evidence of fracture could be detected. He died 
on March 4th, 1864. The relatives refused to permit an autopsy. Surgeon R. S. Kenderdine, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private Edward McKeeby, Co. C, 19th Illinois Volunteers, aged 30 years, on June 12th, 1864, while riding on 
a railroad car, received a contusion of the right side of the occiput, by striking violently against a bridge. He was admitted, 
on June 13th, into Hospital No. 8, Nashville, Tennessee, at which time there were no external marks of violence, and no pain. 
Occasional delirium was the only indication of mischief to the contents of the cranium. On the third day the symptoms were 
greatly aggravated. Coma supervened, with involuntary discharges ; and death took place on June 25th, 1864. At the autopsy, 
there was found upon the superior surface of the right cerebral hemisphere, and beneath the pia mater, a small collection of 
pus, and upon the left side a coagulum of blood. The inferior surface of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons varolii, and 
optic commissure, were covered with a thick coat of pus. The right lateral ventricle and choroid plexus were likewise covered 
with pus. A clot of blood was found interposed between the dura mater and cranium, below the right lobe of the cerebellum. 
There was a contusion, with extravasation of blood, beneath the scalp on the right side of the occiput. No fracture could be 
detected. The thoracic and abdominal organs were normal in appearance. Surgeon R. R. Taylor, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Sergeant S. Warner, Co. C, 34th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 31 years, near Beverley, New Jersey. July 15th, 
1864, fell from a railway car in motion, and received a very severe contusion of the head. He was taken to the Beverley Hospital, 
and presented the symptoms of severe concussion, but, in addition, the pupils were quite irresponsive to light, and vision was 
extinct. The symptoms of compression were speedily relieved, but vision did not return. On April 4th, 1865, the patient was 
transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, and was discharged from service May 24th. 1865, for traumatic amaurosis, 
completely, and probably permanently, blind. Assistant Surgeon Dallas Bache, U. S. A., reports the case. 

The following cases of railway accidents were attended by fractures of the skull: 

CASE. Sergeant Charles Dougherty, Co. C, 69th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 38 years, while in an intoxicated 
condition, fell from a railroad car, on April 16th, 1864, receiving a severe contusion of the left temporal region, and a compound 
fracture of the right humerus. He was admitted to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsylvania, on April 18th. The arm was 
dressed in an angular splint, and stimulants were administered. There was much ecchymosis about the temple and orbit. The 
general symptoms approached those of delirium tremens. There was apparent improvement for the first twenty-four hours, 
when obstinate vomiting began, and recurred with brief intermissions. On the morning of the fifth day, the patient was in a 
moribund condition, pulseless at the wrist, bathed in a cold perspiration, and delirious. There was a general capillary 
congestion amounting to cyanosis almost, and an excessive dilatation of both pupils, with insensibility to light. Coma grad 
ually came on, and death on April 20th, 1864. The autopsy revealed extensive congestion of the membranes and substances 
of the brain, softening and laceration of the spleen, with extravasation of blood in the abdominal cavity, congestion of the base 
of the right lung, and a multiple fracture of the right humerus. Assistant Surgeon H. S. Schell, U. S. A., reports the case. 

CASE. Walter Fitch, in the employ of the Quartermaster Department, aged 19 years, received a fracture of the vault 
of the cranium, by being thrown from a railroad car in motion, May 18th, 1864. He was admitted to the field hospital at 
Bridgeport, Alabama, on May 19th, with symptoms of compression of the brain. Death took place on May 26th, 1864. Assistant 
Surgeon H. T. Legler, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Private Edwin French, Co. F, 3d Delaware Volunteers, aged 18 years, was thrown from a railway car, on 
June 21st, 1862, and the fall produced a linear fracture of the skull near the vertex. He was admitted to hospital at 
Frederick, Maryland, August 22d, 1862. The treatment was expectant. He was transferred to Race Street Hospital, Phil 
adelphia, on September 27th. The case is entered on the register as one of "general debility." He was transferred on 
January 14th, 1863, to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, and complained of great dizziness and pain in the head. On February 
15th, he had a severe chill, due apparently to malarious influences, since quinine prevented the recurrence of other paroxysms. 
In May he was well enough to perform duty as a nurse in the ward. He was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps on 
August 27th, and was sent to modified duty 011 September 3d, 1863. 

CASE. Private George H , Co. I, 3d Delaware Volunteers, fell from a railroad car, on June 22d, 1862, his head 
striking the ground with great violence. He was taken up in a stunned and 
insensible condition, and was conveyed to the neighboring post hospital at 
Winchester, Virginia. Acting Assistant Surgeon W. Draine found a severe 
contusion over the right parietal eminence, and, as grave symptoms of com 
pression of the brain were apparent, he made a free crucial incision through 
the scalp, with the expectation of finding a depressed fracture of the skull. 
But, although the- skull was freely exposed by reflecting the flaps of integu 
ment, no evidence of fracture was observed. The patient lingered, comatose, 
for a few days, and died on June 26th. 1862. At the autopsy, a fissure seven 
inches in length was discovered, commencing in the squamous portion of the 
right temporal bone, passing through the right parietal protuberance, crossing 
the sagittal suture at right angles, and running forward on the left parietal 
bone. The specimen (Fio. 12) was forwarded by Dr. Draine to the Army 
Medical Museum, and the facts above recorded were reported by Surgeon 
Georce Sucklev T T S V Fl(i - 12 - Fissure of the vault of the cranium from a 

uckley, L . h. V . fil]1 from a rail . oar in m(> t\, m .Si>ec. 130, Sect. I, A. M. M. 




FRACTURES OF THE SKULL FROM RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. 39 

CASK. Private A. Mitchell. Co. E, Gth Indiana Cavalry, aged 28 years, received, in a railway accident, near Murfreesboro, 
Tennessee, on October 30th, 1804, a severe lacerated wound of the head, with fracture of the right parietal bone. He also 
had a compound fracture of the right fore- arm. He was conveyed to Nashville, and subsequently was transferred to Jefferson 
Barracks, St. Louis, on December Gth, 1864. There had not been, at any time, signs of compression, and, on his arrival at St. 
Louis, the cerebral symptoms had disappeared. After undergoing an amputation at the arm, he recovered, and was discharged 
from service, well, on April 5th, 1865. 

CASE. Private G. Spancell, Co. A, 105th Illinois Volunteers, in a railroad accident near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Sep 
tember 10th, 1863, received a compound fracture of the skull. He was placed in hospital under the care of Surgeon W. Threl- 
keld, U. S. V. The case was complicated by laceration of the brain, and extravasation of blood within the cranium, and death 
took place within a few hours after the accident. September 10th, 1863. 

CASE. Private Zachariah Ward, Co. II, 139th Indiana Volunteers, aged 17 years, fell from the cars in motion, near 
Mumfordsville, Kentucky, July 4th, 1864. He was taken to the military hospital at Mumfonlsville, where a simple linear 
fracture of the frontal bone was diagnosticated. There were no symptoms of compression, and the treatment was of the 
expectant nature. On August 14th, he was transferred to Clay Hospital, at Louisville, Kentucky, and again, on September 
10th. to the City Hospital, at Indianapolis. Indiana. "With the exception of slight vertigo and headache, he had quite recovered 
at this date, and two weeks subsequently, September 24th, 1864, he was returned to duty with his regiment. 

CASIO. Private Matthew Young, Co I, 1st Ohio Artillery, aged "9 years, received a compound fracture of the left 
parietal bone, with a terrible laceration of the scrotum, on November 29th, 1864, in a railroad accident, near Knoxville, 
Tennessee. He was taken to the Asylum Hospital, at Knoxville. It was found that the symptoms did not justify operative 
interference. The testes had been quite torn away, and the constitutional depression was great. The patient lingered in great 
suffering until December 16th, when he died. The case is reported by Surgeon B. Barnum, 25th Michigan Volunteers. 

The next case appears to furnish an example of fracture of the base of the cranium 
by contre-coup: 

CASE. Private Joseph Weber, Co. C, Gth New York Cavalry, fell, or jumped, from a railroad car in motion, near 
Newark. New Jersey, on January llth, 1865. He was carried to the Centre Street Branch of the Ward Hospital, at Newark. 
It was found that there was a compound comminuted fracture of the frontal bone. He was sensible, and conversed with 
readiness, and walked up stairs to his bed. Meningitis soon supervened, indicated by nausea, rigors, contracted pupils, with 
intolerance of light, and severe headache. These symptoms were unavailingly combatted. by cold applications to the head, 
purgatives and revulsives. The case terminated fatally on January 15th, 1865 At the autopsy, it was found, on removing the 
scalp, that the frontal bone was badly fractured, being comminuted near the right frontal eminence, while fissures, penetrating 
both tables, extended backwards, nearly to the coronal suture, and downwards, quite into the right orbit. On removing the 
calvarium, a large clot was found on the dura mater, below the right frontal eminence. The membranes were much congested, 
and were covered in places with fibrinous exudations, and elsewhere were strongly adherent to the calvarium. The cerebrum, 
and particularly the right hemisphere, was found in the same highly congested state. The removal of the encephalon disclosed 
a second simple fracture, of the base of the cranium, extending through the basilar process of the occipital bone, nearly to the 
foramen magnum. The case is reported by the late Assistant Surgeon J. T. Calhouu, U. S. A., the report of the post mortem 
examination being furnished by Acting Assistant Surgeon W. S. Ward. 

FALLS. Injuries of the head by falls were not uncommon, especially in the cavalry. 
The following are examples of contusions or lacerations of the scalp from this cause: 

CASES. The men named in this category, by being thrown from their horses, or falling from heights, received injuries 
of the scalp of sufficient severity to be admitted into General Hospitals, whence they were returned to duty, after intervals of 
from two to one hundred and thirty-six days : 

Private F. Albrecht, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cavalry, Alexandria, Virginia, October 20th, 1863. 

Private B. F. Alsop, 3d Iowa Cavalry, near Vicksburg, Mississippi, March 10th. 1864. 

Private F. Andrews, A, 12th Ohio Cavalry, Lexington, Kentucky, April 15th, 1864. 

Private R. F. Barton, L, 1st Kentucky Cavalry, near Knoxville, Tennessee, July 6th, 1864. 

Private F. Beal, 1st Provisional Cavalry, Washington, D. C., December llth, 1865. 

Corporal J. Blethmie, 37th Co., 2d Battalion Veteran Reserve Corps, near Washington, D. C.,. January 31st, 1865. 

Private S. S. Burridge, E, 9th New York Volunteers, Alexandria, Virginia, September 28th, 1863. 

Private F. Campbell, II, Gth United States Infantry, Hilton Head, South Carolina, November 1st, 1865. 

Private A. B. Chamberlain, H, 4th Vermont Volunteers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 13th, 1863. 

Private P. Crow, C, 1st Missouri Artillery, Holla, Missouri, May 21st, 18G3. 

Private J. Dailey, E, 30th Massachusetts Volunteers, New Orleans, Louisiana, September 19th, 18G3. 

Private H. Egbert, D, 7th Illinois Volunteers, Fayetteville, North Carolina, March 14th, 1865. 

Private M Fesby, F, 29th U. S. C. T., Point of Rocks, Virginia, March 31.st, 1865. 

Private J. Haley, 18th Massachusetts Volunteers, near Boston, Massachusetts, December llth, 18G4. 

Sergeant T. Haley, 1st Delaware Volunteers. Gettysburg. Pennsylvania, July 3d. 1863. 

Private J. A. Hern, E, 12th New York Volunteers, near Alexandria, Virginia, December 20th, 1862. 

Lieutenant D. Hillis, I, 3d New York Artillery, Newberne, North Carolina, May 22d, 1864. 

Private T. Marin, I, 3d New .Jersey Battery, near Fort Monroe, Virginia, August 1st, 1864. 

First Lieutenant J. D. McBride, II, 44th Missouri Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 1st, 18;>1. 



40 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private, S. McCarty, B, 10tli New Jersey Volunteers, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 7th, 18f>4. 

Private P. McDougal, 61st Massachusetts Volunteers, near Galloup s Island, Massachusetts. January, 1865. 

Private J. McFurland, K, 2d New Jersey Cavalry, Memphis, Tennessee, December 28th, 18G4. 

Private G. L. McKenzie, A, 10th New York Cavalry, York, Pennsylvania, July 6th, 1863. 

Private G. Meyers, G, 41st Missouri Cavalry, St. Louis, Missouri, June 30th, 18G5. 

Private F. Munch, 1$, llth Indiana Volunteers, Columbia, Tennessee, January 14th, 18:55. 

Private P. O Donald, F, 15th New York Cavalry, near Alexandria, Virginia, June 30th, 1865. 

Private P. Palmer, I, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, Washington, D. C., February 13th, 1864. 

Private W. Pomperi, F, 71st New York Volunteers, Shipboard, February 2d, 1864. 

Private J. Regan, C. 50th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, April llth, 18;54. 

Private M. Rigel, 15, 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, Martinsburg, Virginia, June 2d, 1864. 

Private B. L. Roberts, K, 39th Kentucky Volunteers, Lexington, Kentucky, June 12th, 1864. 

Private S. Smith, C, 1st Iowa Cavalry, Memphis, Tennessee, March 26th, 1865. 

Private J. Steves, E, 91st New York Volunteers. Baltimore, Maryland, February 23d, 1865. 

Private E. Sullivan, M, llth Kentucky Cavalry, Lexington, Kentucky, November 18th, 1864. 

Private F. Tarbox, H, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, Harper s Ferry, Virginia, April 20th, 1865. 

R. Taylor, Government employe, near Harper s Ferry. Virginia, June 10th, 18(55. 

Private J. E. Thomas, G, 115th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 1st, 1863. 

Private L. Turner, H, 29th Illinois Volunteers, near Mobile, Alabama. March 27th, 1865. 

Private T. Trempeman, E, 16th Illinois Cavalry, Camp Butler, Illinois, July 29th, 1863. 

Private P. Vincentio, B, Native California Cavalry, San Francisco, California, January 20th, 1864. 

Private J. N. Wise, B. 1st Pennsylvania Artillery, Washington, D. C., May 4th, 1864. 

Private E. York, G, 3d Ohio Volunteers, Columbia, Tennessee, January 14th, 1865. 

Private J. Yorkman, B. 23d Michigan Volunteers, Columbia, Tennessee, November 26th, 1864. 

The following are examples of severer contusions of the head, resulting from falls. 
Many of them terminated in such disabilities as to disqualify the patients from further 
active service: 

CASE. Private W. Alentharpe, Co. M, 9th Indiana Cavalry, was thrown from his horse at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 
18th, 1865. and fell upon his head. He was admitted to McPherson Hospital, and wns^found to have a severe lacerated wound 
of the right parietal region, with grave symptoms of concussion of the brain. He partially recovered, and was discharged from 
service June 15th, 1865. Assistant Surgeon J. A. White, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Private A. Alteman, Co. G, 1st Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 40 years, fell from his horse July 1st. 1864, striking 
his head on the left temporal region. He received a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to hospital at Chambers- 
btirg, Pennsylvania, and was returned to duty on September 2d, 1864; but instead of rejoining his regiment, he proceeded to 
the York Hospital, where he remained until January 18th, 1865, when he was transferred to the military hospital at Pittsburg. 
Here he remained until June 5th. 1865, when he was transferred to Chester, Pennsylvania, whence he was discharged from 
service for disability July 26th, 1665. The disability appears to have been due to chronic rheumatism, rather than the effects 
of the injury. Surgeon T. H. Bache, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Private J. C. Baumbach, Co. E, 65th Ohio, was admitted to hospital at Camp Chase, Ohio, December 23d, 1864. 
He had been thrown from his horse, and, falling upon the left side of his head, had suffered a severe concussion of the brain. 
There was entire loss of vision of the left eye, and the vision of the right eye was impaired. After a time deafness of the right 
ear supervened. The patient Avas discharged from service May 17th, 1864, for disability. The case is reported by Surgeon S. 
S. Schultz, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Frank Clune, 15th New York Cavalry, was thrown from his horse at Louisville, Kentucky, July 20th, 
1865, and fell violently upon his head. He was admitted to Crittenden Hospital immediately after the accident, and died in a 
few hours, July 20th, 1865, from the effects of concussion and probable laceration of the brain. No fracture or extravasation of 
blood was detected. It was impossible to bring about reaction from the condition of extreme depression resulting from the 
concussion. Assistant Surgeon J. C. G. Happersett, U. S. A., reports the case. 

CASK. Private Dexter Cole, Co. I, 25th Michigan Volunteers, in October, 1862, received a severe blow upon the head 
by a fall, and was admitted into Stanton Hospitalat Washington, on February 1st, 1863, completely deaf, in consequence of the 
commotion or concussion of the brain. Every method of treatment for the restoration of his hearing having been employed 
unavailingly, he was discharged from service February 26th, 1863, on the certificate of Surgeon John A- Lidell, of his total 
disability. 

CASK. Private J. D. Davis, Co. F, !0th Indiana Volunteers, aged 42 years, was admitted to Cumberland Hospital, 
Nashville, Tennessee, December 6th, 1864, on account of a fall from a horse on the previous day. He had a bad contusion of 
the scalp and concussion of the brain. He recovered, and was sent to Jeffersonville Hospital on January 7th, 1865. He was 
treated for chronic rheumatism till February 22d, when he was transferred to Hospital No. 15. at Nashville, where he was 
tieated for asthma until May 24th, 1865, when he was finallv discharged from service. r Phe case is reported by Surgeon W. M. 
Chambers. U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Henry Drimeyer, Co. C, 28th Ohio Volunteers, aged 28 years, a somnambulist, fell from a second story 
window while walking in his sleep, in July, 1863, and, striking on his head, received a severe contusion and concussion of the 



CONTUSIONS AND CONCUSSIONS FROM FALLS. 41 

brain. He was admitted to the Marine Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio. He recovered from the immediate effects of the accident, 
but his idiosyncrasy was regarded as such a dangerous one for a soldier, that he was discharged from service August 16th, 1863. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon John Davis reports the case. 

CASE. Sergeant D. H. Gleason, Co. H, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 28 years, was thrown from his horse in a 
charge at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863, and received a very severe concussion of the brain. He was sent to the hospital at the 
Cavalry Depot at Camp Stoneman, Washington. After recovering from the symptoms of concussion, he suffered from persistent 
pain in the head, and on Marcli 7th, 1864, he was sent to Finley Hospital, Washington. He recovered, and returned to dflty 
October 1st, 1864. The case is reported by the late Surgeon G. L. Pancoast, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private P. Goodman, Co. C, 13th New York Cavalry, aged 46 years, received a severe injury of the head, by 
being thrown from his horse, February 13th. 1864. He was admitted to Campbell Hospital, and was discharged from service, 
with complete loss of vision in his right eye. Marcli 6th, 1864. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Corporal J. B. Hefler, Co. D, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 25 years, was thrown from his horse, at Louisville, 
Kentucky, April loth, 1864, falling between his own horse and that of a comrade, and striking upon his head. His injury was 
supposed to be of a slight character ; but he suffered from constant headache until the 29th of August, when an abscess 
commenced to form over the right parietal. The abscess was opened on November 30th. The patient was then transferred to 
the hospital at Madison, Indiana. On his admission, his pulse was ninety, his skin dry, his tongue coated, and bowels consti 
pated. On examining the seat of injury the parietal bone was found to be denuded, and externally necrosed for a space one 
and a half inches in width, by two and a half inches in length. On December 21st, the scalp was freely divided and the flaps 
reflected, with a view of removing the necrosed bone; but upon examination the necrosed portion did not seem to be sufficiently 
separated to justify operative interference. On January 1st, 1865, very marked symptoms of compression were ushered in 
suddenly, convulsions recurring in rapid succession for two days, when a comatose condition supei vened, which lasted until the 
patient s death, on January 13th, 1865. At the autopsy, a large abscess was found in the right hemisphere of the cerebrum 
communicating with the lateral ventricle, and containing several ounces of pus. There were evidences of inflammation of the 
cerebellum and meninges of the brain. The necrosed portion of bone was, in two or three places, perforated. It was observed 
that the walls of the cranium were very thin. The thoracic and abdominal viscera were normal in appearance. The notes of 
the case were furnished by Acting Assistant Surgeon H. F. Bosworth. 

CASE. Lieutenant J. Hendrick, Co. H, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was thrown from his horse in August, 1863, and his 
head struck the ground with such violence as to produce a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to the Officers 
Hospital at Philadelphia, with partial hemiplegia of the right side, and occasional attacks of delirium. With rest and restricted 
diet, these symptoms gradually disappeared, and this officer was returned to duty, well, on February 5th, 1864. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon W, Camac reports the case. 

CASE. Private C. S. Miller, Co. I, 18th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 30 years, fell from a bridge at Harper s Ferry, 
Virginia, October 27th, 1864, and received a severe contusion of the scalp with concussion of the brain. He was sent to the 
hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, on the following day, and was transferred to Frederick, on November 2d. He gradually 
recovered his physical health, but dullness of intellect persisted, and he was discharged from service for disability, on May 
21st, 1865. Assistant Surgeon T. H. Helsby, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASE. Private John Miller, Co. E, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 31 years, fell from a tree, on June 16th, 1863, and 
struck upon the left side of his head, and upon his shoulder, fracturing the left clavicle. He was admitted, a few hours 
afterwards, to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, in a semi-conscious condition, partially insensible, the surface pale and cold, with 
other symptoms of severe concussion of the brain. Stunulants were administered. He failed to react. On the following day 
his respiration became more labored, and, failing gradually, he died on June 18th, 1863. Surgeon G. S. Palmer, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

CASE. Private J. P. Schneider, Co. L, 1st Missouri Engineers, aged 30 years, was thrown from a wagon, near New 
Madrid, in November, 1863, and, striking on his forehead, was badly stunned, and received a contused and lacerated wound 
of the integuments. He was treated in several hospitals, at Chattanooga, Cumberland, and Jefferson ville, and is reported 
as suffering from indigestion, hernia, neuralgia, and other ailments, and finally, at Mound City Hospital, Illinois, on December 
1st, 1864, with ulceration of the frontal bone, over the sinuses. He was discharged the service on account of incurable disease 
of the frontal sinuses and turbinated bones, on March llth, 1865. Surgeon H. Wardner, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private Charles Sherman, Co. A, Todd s Scouts, was thrown from his horse, on August 18th, 1863, and, striking 
upon the right side of his head, received a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to Camp Dennison Hospital, Ohio, 
a few hours after the reception of the injury, at which time respiration was almost extinct, pulse soft and feeble, and extremities 
cold. Complete insensibility existed, although he could swallow stimulants in small quantities. Sinapisms were applied to the 
back of the neck and to the extremities, and reaction was slowly established. On August 19th, he remained unconscious, with 
irregular and labored respiration, pulse 60, full, slow, and incompressible, with involuntary discharge of urine, and partial 
paralysis of the right arm. During the evening of the same day symptoms of improvement and returning consciousness were 
manifest. At 9 p. m. the pulse was 110, and full. He was bled, and the pulse increased in frequency, but afterwards fell to lit*. 
Upon the application of cold to the head the respiration became natural. On August 20th, he opened his eyes when sharply 
spoken to, his respiration was natural, pulse 78, and compressible. He continued in this condition until August 26th, when his 
symptoms improved still more, and he replied to questions readily. He had no paralysis, and took liquid nourishment freely. 
He recovered completely, and was returned to duty on October 22d, 1863. Surgeon B. Cloak, U. S. V., reported the case. 

6 



42 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private F. Tillotson, Co. B, 7th Kansas Cavalry, aged 25 years, received a severe concussion of the brain by a 

fall from his horse, near Memphis, Tennessee, and was transferred from a hospital at that city to the Marine Hospital at St. 
Louis, on September 16th, 1864. He was furloughed on November 20th, and on December 24th, 1864, he deserted. Surgeon 
A. Hammer, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private T. J. Wittermode, Co. I, 14th Indiana Volunteers, was admitted to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, 
March 16th, 1863, with a very severe contusion of the scalp, occasioned by a fall. A puffy tumor of the scalp, which subsided 
under the use of evaporating lotions, while persistent pain at the seat of injury continued. The patient was transferred to 
McDougal Hospital, New York, on April 22d, thence to Fort Wood, thence to New York City, where he was transferred to 
the Veteran Reserve Corps, on July 27th, 1863, in accordance with G. O. No. 235, War Department, A. G. 0., 1863. 

The next series consists of abstracts of thirteen cases of simple or compound fractures 
of the cranium produced by falls: 

CASK. Private John W. Anderson, Co. E, 19th Michigan Volunteers, fell down stairs in the court-house at McMinns- 
ville, Tennessee, February 2d, 1864, and, striking his head, produced a fracture of both tables of the left temporal bone. He 
was admitted to hospital under the charge of Surgeon John Bennett, 19th Michigan Volunteers, who records the accident upon 
his regimental monthly report. The case terminated fatally on February 6th, 1864. At the autopsy, intense congestion of the 
cerebral vessels was observed, with effusion of serum in the cavity of the ventricles; but no extravasation of blood was observed. 

CASE. Private J. J. Brooks, Co. G, 9th Illinois Cavalry, aged 28 years, was thrown from his horse on April 5th, 1864, 
and fell upon his head. A fracture, involving the frontal, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and upper maxillary bones, was pro 
duced. The patient was taken to the Adams Hospital at Memphis, Tennessee. He died a few hours after his admission, and it 
w..s found that the brain had been extensively contused and lacerated. Acting Assistant Surgeon F. Impey reports the case. 

CASE. Private James Carr, Co. G, 6th United States Cavalry, aged 24 years, fell from his horse on July 6th, 1863, 
receiving a wound of the frontal region with fracture, and depression of the inner table of the skull. He was admitted to 
Carver Hospital, Washington, on July 24th, in an irritable, morose, and restless condition. Three days subsequently he was 
slightly delirious, and respiration was difficult. In the afternoon he became completely unconscious, with insensible pupils and 
stertorous breatliing, and death ensued in a few hours, on July 27th, 1863. The autopsy revealed a depression of the inner 
table of the frontal bone, and an abscess immediately beneath, filled with sanious pus, and surrounded with plastic lymph. 
Many of the sulci were adherent, and patches of lymph were distributed on the anterior and middle lobes of the brain. Surgeon 
O. A. Jndson, U. S V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private William Day, Co. C. 57th Illinois Volunteers, aged 44 years, an epileptic subject, a deserter from his 
regiment, had a severe fall, April 1st, 1864, and was admitted, in a delirious state, to the Marine Hospital at Chicago, Illinois. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon R. M. Isham, who reports the case, does not describe the symptoms, or the appearances at the autopsy ; 
but states that there was a fracture of the base of the cranium, and that compression of the brain, consequent upon a large 
extravasation of blood within the skull, was the cause of death. The patient died April 3d, 1864. 

CASE. Private Hugh Donelly, Co. K, 38th New York Volunteers, received at the battle of Williamsburg, May 5th, 1862, 
a flesh wound of the shoulder. He was made a prisoner. While confined at Richmond he had a fall in prison, striking his 
head, and producing a depressed fracture of the right parietal bone. He was exchanged, and received into hospital at Camp 
Parole, Annapolis, on February 5th, 1863. He was deaf, and his mental faculties were very sluggish and obtuse. He was 
discharged from service for total disability on February 18th, 1863. Surgeon James Norval, 79th N. Y. S. M., reports the case. 

CASE. Sergeant Albert K , Co. A, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, falling violently upon his head, in April, 1862, in 

Washington, D. C., had a fracture of the left side of the occipital bone, attended 
with laceration of the brain. He entered the Judiciary Square Hospital in an in 
sensible condition, with stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, slow pulse, and relaxed 
sphincters. Cold applications to the head, purgatives, and derivatives, were em 
ployed unavailingly. The patient passed into a condition of profound coma, and 
died April 28th, 1862, from compression of the brain. Acting Assistant Sur 
geon C. G. Page made the autopsy, and found a partially organized coagulum 
in the substance of the posterior lobe of the left hemisphere, and in the cavity 
of the left ventricle. The clot is not .recent, and the brain substance in the 
vicinity is firmly contracted around it. It is of a dark brownish-yellow color, 
and spongy in texture, and measures one inch in diameter by one-fourth of 
an inch in thickness. On the surface of the .brain there is a more recent clot, 
black in color, and partially disorganized, measuring nearly the same as the 
first. The specimen was contributed by Dr. Page to the Army Medical Mu 
seum. A view of the clot in the ventricle is given in the accompanying wood- FIG. i:i. Portion of left hemisphere of the brain 
cut (FlG 1 i ) containing u coagulum. Spec. 505, Sect. I, A.M.M. 

CASE. Sergeant J. J. Kent, Co. L, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, aged 29 years, was thrown from his horse February 18th, 
1864, and falling on his head, had a depressed fracture of the left parietal bone near its coronal suture. It can only be learned 
of the early history of the case that it was treated on the expectant plan. The patient was admitted to Harvey Hospital, at 
Madison, Wisconsin, on July 27th. He made a very good recovery, returning to duty October 10th, 1864. 

CASE. Sergeant Alexander N , Cp. B, 13th New York Cavalry, was thrown from his horse while riding in the 
streets of Washington, on August 10th, 1865, his head striking violently upon the pavement. He was taken to the hospital at 





CONTUSIONS AND LACERATIONS BY BLOWS FROM MUSKETS. 43 

Camp Barrv in :in insensible condition, and, in a few hours, became delirious. He remained so until his death, which took place 

on August 14th, 1865. There was no external evidence of depression or fracture of the skull, but simply a severe contusion o 

the forehead. The autopsy revealed a three-branched linear fracture of the frontal 

bone. Its direction is indicated in the accompanying wood cut. (FlG. 14.) 

Externally one line of fracture passes from the centre of the superior border of the 

bone downward and outward through the right frontal eminence. From the upper 

third of this fissure a second fissure passes nearly at right angles downward through 

the left frontal eminence. This last fissure involves the external table only. The 

inner table is fissured to correspond with the first line of fracture, and there is also 

a short fissure branching upward. The inner table opposite eacli frontal eminence 

is reticulated, and in the centre of the perforated plate on the left side there is a 

small nodule of bone of the size of a grain of wheat. The specimen, with a mem- YIG. 14. FrnctuVe of the frontal bone without 

orandum of the case, was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum by Surgeon displacement, from a fall from a horse. Spec. 297.), 

J. M. Homiston, 3d New York Provisional Cavalry. 

CASE. Lieutenant J. M. Ragan, Co. E, 1st Tennessee Artillery, aged 30 years, was thrown from his horse, June 18th, 
1865, and was admitted into the Officers Hospital, at Knoxville, Tennessee, on the following day, laboring under very grave 
symptoms of compression of the brain. He died, June 25th, 1865, from extravasation of blood, consequent upon the fracture of 
the skull. Surgeon F. Meacham, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private E. G. Stevens, Co. D, 8th Vermont Volunteers, aged 18 years, fell from a second story window, in New 
Orleans, on June lIJth, 1864, his head striking the ground. He was conveyed to the University Hospital, and Surgeon Samuel 
Kneeland, U. S. V., recognized the usual signs of fracture of the base of the cranium. There was also a contused and lacerated 
wound of the vertex. The case terminated fatally June llth, 1864. 

CASE. Private C. Timberman, Co. C, 2d New Jersey Cavalry, aged 19 years, received, April 22d, 1864, a severe fall. 
He was admitted to Gayoso Hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee, on April 30th, and was found to have a compound fracture of 
the occipital bone. There were no symptoms which were thought to justify operative interference, and the treatment consisted 
of cold applications to the head, and purgatives. Death took place on May llth, 1864. Surgeon F. N. Burke, U. S. V., reports 
the case. 

The two following were believed to be examples of fracture by contre-coup : 

CASE. Private John H. Bowker, Co. A, 3d Maine Volunteers, was thrown from a horse, March 26th, 1862, at Fort 
Monroe, Virginia and, falling upon his head, received a fracture of the base of the skull. He was immediately conveyed to 
the Hygeia Hospital, with marked symptoms of compression of the brain. He died, March 27th, 1862. Brigade Surgeon 
R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Private Peter Flynn, Co. H, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, was admitted to the Post Hospital at Munfordsville, 
Kentucky, January 3d, 1864, with a fracture of the skull. He had every symptom of grave compression of the brain, and 
blood was passing from his mouth and ears. He was comatose, and died two hours after his admission. The man had received 
a heavy blow upon the left supra-orbital ridge, whether by a weapon, or fall, could not be ascertained ; but no evidence of 
fracture could be discovered at this point. Surgeon S. Albright, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, who reports the case, believed that 
there must be a fracture of the base of the skull by contre-coup. The post mortem examination proved the correctness of this 
diagnosis. There was a fissure running across the petrous bone, diastasis of the sutures between the occipital and left temporal, 
with a large coagulum of blood in the left cranial fossa. 

BLOWS. Contusions and lacerations of the scalp, concussion of the brain, and frac 
tures of the cranium, were produced by a great variety of blows. When received in action, 
such injuries were commonly inflicted by clubbed muskets, falling trees or branches cut 
down by artillery, or by kicks from horses or mules. In affrays in camp or on the street, 
similar injuries were more generally produced by blows from clubs or axes, slung shot, 
and various other blunt weapons, or by bricks or stones: 

CASES. The nineteen following named patients were admitted to hospital for contusions or lacerations of the scalp by 
blows from muskets, and were returned to duty, the average duration of treatment being about one month : 
Private J. W. Anderson, H, 19th Massachusetts Volunteers, in action, at Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. 
Private D. W. Butler, A, 92d Illinois Volunteers, at Nashville, Tennessee, November, 1864. Deserted. 
Private C. Chamberlain, A, 34th New Jersey Volunteers, November, 1863. 

Private H. W. Jones, K, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, in action, near Jackson, Mississippi, July 14th, 1863. 
Private R. Launtz, C, 54th Pennsylvania Volunteers, in action, at Piedmont. Virginia, June 5th, 1864. 
Private P. Leonard, G, 2d Michigan Cavalry, in action, near Nashville, Tennessee, December 7th, 1864. 
Private J. Linebacker, F, 13th Missouri Volunteers, accidentally, at Rolla, Missouri, December llth, 1864. 
Private M. J. Loud, A, 2d Rhode Island Volunteers, in action, near Appomattox, Virginia, April 6th, 1865. 
Private J. McCracken, A, 5th Tennessee, accidentally, Cincinnati, Ohio, January 22d, 1865. 
Private H. McLaughlin, G, 16th New York Cavalry, near Alexandria, Virginia, July 31st, 1864. 
Private W. Magee, L, 2d Iowa Cavalry, in action, near Nashville, Tennessee, December 18th, 1864. 



44 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private Conrad Osmun, Co. I, 108th Ohio Volunteers, Marietta, Georgia, November 13th, 1864. 

Private W. A. Palmer, A, 146th New York Volunteers, in action, near Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 5th, 1864. 

Corporal T. Kobb, A, 2d District of Columbia Volunteers, Washington, D. C., August, 1865. 

Corporal J. Schinkel, D, 28th Ohio Volunteers, near Beverly, W est Virginia, February 7th, 18f54. 

Private J. Snowdon, F, 30th United States Colored Troops, in action, near Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 1864. 

Private J. Sweeney, G, Second Battalion, 14th United States Infantry, near Annapolis, Maryland, June 9th, 1863. 

Private W. J. True, K, 2d Illinois Volunteers, near Memphis, Tennessee, March 10th, 1865. 

Private A. Wolf, D. 59th New York Volunteers, in action, at Gettysburg. July 2d, 1863. Deserted.. 

CASES. The twelve following received injuries of the head, of a more severe nature, from blows from muskets : 

Private Andrew Berry, Co. B, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 54 years, at Snicker s Gap, Virginia, April 1st, 1865, in 
action. Was sent to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia; thence to McClellan Hospital, July 16th ; thence to Mower Hospital, 
July 20th, and was discharged from service August 24th, 1865, in accordance with G. O., War Department, A. G. 0., May 3d, 
1865. 

Private M. Brown, B, 140th New York Volunteers, in action, at Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864. 

Private W. B. Burns, A, 22d North Carolina Regiment, was admitted to Farmville Hospital, Virginia, August, 1864, and 
was discharged from the Confederate service for total deafness, resulting from a blow received, in action, from a musket. 

Private J. Hewett, Co. B, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, May 5th, 1864, a lacerated woujid of the 
scalp, with concussion of the brain, by being struck with the butt of a musket at the battle of the Wilderness. He was treated 
at the University Hospital, Baltimore, and at the Smith Hospital at Brattleboro, Vermont, and returned to duty July 29th, 1864. 

Private M. Leisure, 173d Ohio Volunteers, aged 30 years, accidentally, at Nashville, Tennessee. Transferred July 1st, 
1865. Not accounted for. 

Private Otis J. Libby. Co. H, 16th Maine Volunteers, was struck on the head by a musket, at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 12th, 1862, and was sent to Alexandria, December 19th, and was discharged from service, totally disabled, on 
March 30th, 1863. The case was recorded by Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V. 

Private J. Logan, Co. C, 6th Maine Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a lacerated wound of the scalp, July 21st, 1861, 
at the first battle of Bull Run. He was treated at the Mason Hospital, Boston, and returned to duty, and was subsequently 
discharged from service on account of epileptic fits, January llth, 1865. 

Private J. O Donnell, Co. K, 12th Maine Volunteers. Insuboi dination, December 9th, 1862. In 1863 and 1864, he was 
serving out his sentence by Court Martial, at Ship Island, Mississippi, and Tortugas, Florida. 

Private J. Parker, Co. K, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 23 years, March 12th, 1864. Partial paralysis of left 
arm. Recovery, and returned to duty, May 6th, 1864. 

Private Sampson Turner, Co. F, 66th Ohio Volunteers, was admitted into the Twentieth Army Corps Hospital, on July 
6th, 1864, much debilitated by malarious attacks. While in hospital, a musket fell upon his head, producing a concussion of 
the brain, and almost instant death, on August 26th, 1864. 

Private W. W r alter, 3d Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteers, June 26th, 1864, lacerated wound of the scalp, at the battle of 
Games Mills, 1862. Examined for 44th Regiment V. R. C., January, 1867. 

Private Robert M. Young, Co. D, 107th Illinois Volunteers. Laceration of the scalp by a blow from the butt of a gun. 
Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, July 17th, 1863. He was transferred to the Invalid Corps, September 16th, 1863. 

The seven following abstracts refer to examples of fracture of the skull resulting 
from blows from muskets : 

CASE. Private Michael B , Co. F, 9th Massachusetts Volunteers, while sleeping on the ground after the battle of 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 4th, 1863, was struck on the head by a musket in the hands of a fellow soldier. The hammer 
of the musket inflicted a wound of the left temple and a depressed fracture at 
the middle of the lower border of the left parietal and adjoining portion of the 
left temporal bone. The patient was conveyed to Baltimore. He was admitted, 
on July 5th, into Jarvis Hospital, in a comatose condition There was a hernia 
of the brain of the size of a walnut. The patient retained voluntary motion of 
the lower limbs. The pupils were irregular and insensible to the light. Con 
sciousness was never restored, and death took place on July 6th, 1863, forty- 
four hours after the reception of the injury. At the autopsy, made fourteen 
hours after death, the left side of the calvarium was removed, and a number of 
long fragments were found imbedded in the middle lobe of the left hemisphere, 
the brain tissue being broken up as far as the left lateral ventricle. Two frag- 
ments, one of the outer and one of the inner table remained attached ; the latter 
and one of the former having their free edges depressed one-fourth of an inch. 

The oval opening made in the skull is represented in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 15.) The pathological specimen and notes of 
the case were contributed by Surgeon D. C. Peters, U. S. Army. 

CASE. Private James II. Burns, Co. F, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, was struck, at Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 
1864, with the butt of a musket, and received a contused wound of the scalp, with fracture and depression of the right parietal 
bone, two and a half inches anterior to the lambdoidal, and two inches external to the sagittal suture. On June 1st, 1865, he 
was transferred to the 6th New Hampshire Volunteers. Cephalalgia, upon exposure to the sun, was the only troublesome 
ymptom. He was mustered out of service on July 17th, 1865. 




CONTUSIONS AND LACERATIONS FROM FALLING TREES OR BRANCHES. 45 

CASE. Private Win. Mclntire, Co. K, 2d Delaware Volunteers, received a blow from the butt of a pistol in a street 
brawl, at Wilmington, Delaware, November 21st, 1863. He was conveyed to Tilton Hospital, where Surgeon E. J. Bailey, 
U. S. Army, who reports the case, found that there was a compound fracture with depression of the left parietal, causing grave 
injury to the brain. Operative interference was deemed inexpedient, and the patient died, November 25th, 1863. 

CASE. Private Jarvis Nunn, Co. A, 12th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 18 years, was admitted into the Old Hallowell 
branch of the military general hospitals at Alexandria, Virginia, February 1st, 1865, with a compound fracture of the skull by 
a blow from the muzzle of a musket in the hands of a comrade. The wound and fracture were situated a little above and to 
the outside of the left frontal eminence. There was no disturbance of the mental faculties, and no especial derangement of the 
physical functions at the date of the patient s admission, except slight constipation, which was overcome by a cathartic. On 
February 4th, a slight febrile movement, with a dull frontal headache and swelling of the left parotid gland was observed; but 
there was no obtuseness of intellect. On the following day, the left side of the face was cedematous. The eyes, particularly 
the left eye, being watery. The bowels were soluble. The wound had now commenced to suppurate, the discharge being 
fetid. Cold applications were made to the head. On the 7th, the pupils were dilated, and the tongue was protruded with 
difficulty. On February 8th, the patient was delirious, deaf, unable to articulate, or to protrude his tongue. He could be roused 
with difficulty from his comatose state. The respiration was at 44, and the pulse thready at 115. It was necessary to evacuate 
the urine by a catheter. On the 9th, the coma became profound; respiration 36; pulse 123; pupils widely dilated, and 
irresponsive to light. On February 10th, the respiration was very labored, the face and neck cedematous ; the eyelids firmly 
closed; but, when forcibly separated, revealing the pupils dilated to almost the extent of the iris. The urine and faeces were 
discharged involuntarily. The surface was covered by a profuse sweat. The radial pulse was imperceptible. Death took 
place at three o clock in the afternoon of February 10th, 1865. At the autopsy there was found, on the left side of the sinciput, a 
wound covered with yellow pus, and beneath, a depressed fracture of the frontal bone; and on removing the skull-cap a dark 
coagulum. The dura mater was not inflamed, but was separated from the bone for some distance around the fracture. The 
anomaly of the right lung being divided into two lobes only was noticed. This lung was emphysematous, and the bronchial 
mucous membrane on this side was thickened and discolored. The tissue of the left lung was crepitant, but red and slightly 
softened. The structure of the spleen was softened. The case was reported by Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Joseph Richards, Co. G, 13th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 52 years, received, at Paint Rock, Alabama, 
December 31st, 1864, a lacerated wound of the scalp, with fracture of the right parietal, by a blow from a musket. He was 
sent to the hospital at Huntsville, where he recovered from the symptoms of concussion at first manifested, and was so far 
convalescent that, on March 31st, 1865, he was transferred to Nashville, Tennessee. On April 13th, he was sent to Crittenden 
Hospital, at Louisville, Kentucky, and thence to Swift Hospital, at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. He recovered from his injury, 
and was discharged from service, on June 30th, 1865. 

CASE. Private David Smith, Co. K, 113th Ohio Volunteers, aged 23 years, was struck on the head by a musket, August 
4th, 1864, in a private quarrel, and received a partial fracture of the frontal and left parietal bones. He was received into 
Adams Hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee, August 17th, 1864. He recovered perfectly, under expectant treatment, and was 
returned to duty December 10th, 1864. Surgeon J. G. Keenon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private E. J. Tripp, Co. B, 7?th New York Volunteers, aged 42 years, in the battle of Spottsylvania, May 10th, 
1864, was struck upon the head with the butt of a musket which produced a severe contusion of the scalp, and a simple fracture 
of the cranium. These injuries seem to have led to no very serious derangement of the cerebral functions since the patient Avas 
able to return to duty in October, and to go into action at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19th, 1864, when he received a 
flesh wound in his groin, for which he was treated in the field hospital of the Second Division of the Sixth Corps, and afterwards 
at Martinsburg, Virginia, whence he was furloughed, on February 1st, 1865, to report at Ira Harris Hospital, Albany, New 
York, on March 12th. He was discharged from service August 7th, 1865, on account of loss of power in the lower extremities, 
and impairment of the mental faculties, resulting from the injury of the head. Assistant Surgeon James H. Armsby, U. S. V., 
rated his disability at two-thirds. 

The following men received injuries of the head from falling trees or branches: 

CASES. The seventeen men named in this series had contusions or lacerations from the above cause of sufficient 
severity to require treatment in general hospitals. They were all returned to duty after a few days or weeks of treatment, with 
the exception of a few who were mustered out of service, or who deserted : 

Private W. R. Bradstreet, Co. B, 19th Maine Volunteers, in action, Wilderness, Virginia, May 9th, 1864. 

Drummer D. Cain, Co. H, 20th Massachusetts Volunteers, Brandy Station, Virginia, May 2d. 1864. 

Corporal G. Chase, Co. H, 4th Vermont Volunteers, March 23d, 1865. 

Private J. Cozzens, 14th Co. Unattached Massachusetts Volunteers, June 22d, 1864. 

Private F. Freeman, Co. I, 25th Wisconsin Volunteers, October 10th, 1864. 

Lieutenant D. B. Greeley, Co. B, llth Iowa Volunteers, in action, at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4th, 1862. 

Private T. Lee. Co. H, 20th Indiana Volunteers, January 13th, 1865. 

Private J. Mclntyre, Co. B, 157th New York Volunteers, Fillih nny, South Carolina, December 6th, 1864. 

Private J. McNulty, Co. D, 26th Massachusetts Volunteers, August 23d, 1864. 

Private J. Maine, Co. K, 162d New York Volunteers, Winchester, Virginia, February 22d, 1865. 

Private J. D. Mansfield, Co. B, 16th Maine Volunteers, February 7th, 1865. 

Private J. Miles, Co. C, 16th Illinois Volunteers, February, 1865. 

Private G. H. Miller, Co. B, 23d United States Colored Troops, Petersburg, Virginia, October, 27th, 1864. 



46 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private E. B. Mitchell, Co. K, 15th Virginia Volunteers, Cumberland, Maryland, August 9th, 1864. 

Private T. Mount, Co. D, 77th Illinois Volunteers, March 27th, 1865. 

Private J. Xavlor, Co. D, 52 d Illinois Volunteers, Koine, Georgia, November 1st, 1864. 

Private J. Talbot, Co. I, 189th New York Volunteers, June 1st, 1865. 

CASES. The fourteen named in this series were dischargedfrom service on account of disabilities, produced by more 
severe injuries, from the same cause : 

Private Edward Harris, Co. H, 120th New York Volunteers, in action, at Hatcher s Run, Virginia, February 8th, 1855. 

Private Peter Hollahan, Co. G, 73d New York Volunteers, January 4th, 1865. 

Private John W. Hudson, Co. A, 60th Ohio Volunteers, June, 1865. 

Private John Larkin, Co. D, 88th New York Volunteers, April, 1865. 

Private William Loveland, Co. F, 21st New York Cavalry, March 23d, 1865. 

Corporal Arthur McCune, Co. D, 7th Indiana Volunteers, January, 1865. 

Private Patrick Malouey, Co. D, 46th New York Volunteers, Petersburg, Virginia, November 3d, 1864. 

Private Otto Nestler, Co. B, 7th New York Volunteers, February 5th, 1865. 

Private Joseph W. Newland, Co. G, 80th, New York Volunteers, Rochester, New York, November 13th, 1864. 

Private D. Rogers, 29th United States Colored Troops, Petersburg, Virginia, October 25th, 1864. 

Private Christian Smith, Co. E, 7th New York Volunteers. April, 1865. 

Private Patrick Sullivan, Co. H, 73d New York Volunteers, May, 1865. 

Private Stephen Twelves, Co. A, 116th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3d, 1863. 

CASE. Lieutenant John A: Porter, Co. C, 36th Illinois Volunteers, aged 23 years, in the engagement at Resaca, 
Georgia, May 15th, 1864, was struck on the head by a limb of a tree which had been cut oft by a solid shot He fell, senseless, 
the blood gushing from his mouth and nostrils. He remained in an unconscious state for forty-eight hours, when he was con 
veyed to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee. On admission, he was speechless, and completely paralyzed in the upper 
extremities and in the muscles of the head and face. On June 18th, he was transferred to Hospital No. 1, at Nashville, whence 
he was furloughed on August 1st, 1864. At this date "the entire upper part of his body was paralyzed." He remained at his 
home until November 10th, when, having regained his strength, and, in a measure, the use of his upper extremities, he returned 
to the hospital, and thence to duty with his regiment at Pulaski, Tennessee. He participated in the engagements at Spring Hill 
and Franklin, Tennessee, on November 29th and 30th, hoping that the excitement would restore his voice. He stated that the 
sound of musketry and artillery firing " almost burst his head." In the early part of December, 1864, after violent and repeated 
efforts to utter a sound, a copious hemorrhage took place from the fauces, and possibly the upper portion of the larynx, preceded 
by a feeling of "cracking and bursting, and a sense of " rushing upward in the head." The haemorrhage was followed by 
complete return of his voice, seven and one-half months after the reception of the injury. During this period tinnitus aurium 
and vertigo existed, at times, to such extent as to deprive him of sight and hearing. He was mustered out of service on October 
8th, 1865, with his regiment. On June 13th, 1866, he was pensioned, to date from October, 1865. The examining surgeon reporting 
a concussion of the right hemisphere of the brain, which caused "general debility, affecting the right leg, arm, and eye" 
He drew his pension at the Quincy Agency, Illinois, March 4th, 1869, and was then reported as permanently disabled. He 
resided at Little York, Warren county, Illinois, and wrote thence, in the spring of 1866, a very detailed account of his .acci 
dent, from which the above abstract is partially compiled. He stated that he suffered so much from dizziness, from flow of blood 
to the head, that he supposed he would never recover his health, and concluded : " I am unable, entirely, for manual labor ; yet 
my wound was received in a glorious cause, and one that I was willing to sacrifice my life for." 

In the next two cases, falling trees produced fractures of the cranium : 

CASK. Private James M. Logan, Co. K, 106th Illinois Volunteers, was, in January, 1863, struck by a falling tree, 
which fractured the cranium at the vertex, just posterior to the coronal suture, involving both tables. He was admitted to the 
hospital at the provisional encampment at Fort Pickering, Tennessee, where he remained under treatment until August 4th, 1863, 
when he was discharged from the service. On August 8th, 1863, Pension Examining Surgeon Thomas B. Henning, examined 
the case, and reports that a portion of the bone was lost, and that the pulsations of the brain were visible. An abscess had 
formed in the left temporal region, and was then discharging. The man was debilitated, and when exposed to the sun, or 
exertion, would suffer from vertigo and headache. 

CASE. Private John Tyler, Co. K, 30th United States Colored Troops, was injured, on December 27th, 1864, by a 
falling tree, which produced a linear fracture of the cranium, extending from the sagittal suture obliquely through the left 
parietal and temporal bones to the middle foramen lacerum. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Twenty-fifth Army 
Corps on the same day, in an unconscious condition, from which he never rallied. His pulse was slow and weak, respiration 
stertorous, and pupils insensible to light. But little nourishment could be given in consequence of impaired deglutition. With 
the exception of slight improvement in his pulse, he continued in the above condition until his death, on December 31st, 1864. 
At the autopsy, effusion of blood in the left parietal and temporal regions beneath the scalp, and slight effusion internally upon 
the dura mater. Beneath the dura mater, on the right side, a thin coagulum extended from the upper surface of the hemisphere, 
down into the middle fossa of the cranium, where it was. one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The convolutions of brain were 
flattened from pressure. The inferior portion of the right middle lobe, for a space of one and a half indies, was much 
ecchymosed and softened, and blended with the coagula. There were two ounces of serum in the sub-arachnoid space, and in 
the lateral ventricles, which were somewhat distended. The left hemisphere was normal; no other organs were examined. Sur 
geon Norton Folsom, 45th United States Colored Troops, reports the case. 



FROM CLUBS AND OTHER BLUNT WEAPONS. 47 

Kicks, from horses and mules, were a not infrequent cause of injuries of the head: 

CASKS. The ten named in the following list were received into hospital on account of contusions or lacerations of the 
scalp by kicks from horses or mules, and were returned to duty after a brief interval : 
Private William Brown, Co. G, 21st New York Cavalry, November 1st, 1864. 
Teamster R. Broyden, Quartermaster s Department, January 13th, 1865. 
Private Alonzo Cole, Co. G, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves, June 30th, 1863. 
Private William Deal, Co, I, 7th Illinois Cavalry, July 28th, 18(54. 
Sergeant R. S. Dow, Co. C, 39th Massachusetts Volunteers, October 15th, 1864. 
Bugler Jacob Horn, Co. K, 5th United States Artillery, Buzzard Roost, Georgia, May 9th, 1864. 
Private Joshua Lewis, Co. A, 5th Michigan Volunteers, July, 1863. Deserted, September 3d, 1863. 
Private Andrew Peters, Co. G, 3d United States Colored Troops, St. Louis, December 4th, 1862. 
Private Edward T. Simmons, Co. G, 1st Delaware Volunteers, May, 1864. 
Private Calvin Starzman, Co. H, 12th Illinois Cavalry, February 21st, 1865. 

CASES. The four following are reported as discharged from service on account of severe injuries of the head, without 
fracture, from kicks: 

Private John W. Forckers, Co. A, 3d Maryland Volunteers, March, 1863. 
Private Andrew Kerr, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry, November 25th, 1883. 
Private Philip Seton, Co. G, 169th New York Volunteers, July 25th, 1865. 

CASKS. The four following are reported as having received simple fractures of the skull from kicks; but the accidents 
were not followed by any very grave symptoms, since the men were returned to duty, or discharged, as well : 
Private William N. Elwood, Co. I, 29th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Returned to duty, June 22d, 1865. 
Private Peter Leiser, Co. C, 67th Ohio Volunteers. Discharged, October 1st, 1863. 
Private George Styles, Co. B, iOth New York Cavalry. Returned to duty, July 12th, 1865. 
Private John L. Weigel, Co. I, 8th Ohio Cavalry. Returned to duty, October 29th, 18G4. 

CASE. Private George A. Teasdale, Co. G, 36th New York Volunteers, received a severe contused wound of the scalp, 
with fracture of the left parietal bone, by a blow from a horse s foot, in a cavalry charge, at the first battle of Bull Run, July 
21st, 1861. He was made a prisoner, and remained in confinement until the termination of the war, in the spring of 1865. He 
was then released, and was examined at Washington for admission into the 44th Regiment Vtteran Reserve Corps. He was 
suffering from very imperfect vision, resulting from the injury he had received. The late Assistant Surgeon W. A. Bradley, 
U. S. Army, reported the case. 

CASE. Abraham, a colored teamster of the Quartermaster s train of the 20th Army Corps, received, September 14th, 
1863. near Stevenson, Alabama, a kick from a mule. The blow was found to have produced a depressed fracture of the left 
temporal bone. Surgeon D. J. McKibben, U. S. V., who records the case, states that the patient died on September 17th, 18G3 
from compression of the brain. 

These cases comprise all the injuries of the head from kicks that have been reported 
by name, with the exception of one, which will be cited among the cases of trephining, at 
the conclusion of this section. 

Injuries of the head, requiring treatment in hospitals, were frequently produced in 
private quarrels, or affrays, by blows from clubs and other blunt weapons: 

CASES. The forty-one named in the following list received contusions or lacerations of the scalp from blows from 
clubs, &c., and were returned to duty after a short period of treatment in general hospital : 
Private Samuel Biland, Co. L, 1st Missouri Artillery, November 26th, 1863. 
Private Abraham Bowen, Co. I, 16th Kentucky Volunteers, June 4th, 1864. 

Private B. F. Boswell, Co. D, 1st District of Columbia Volunteers, October 2d, 1834. Deserted. 
Sergeant Wm. Campbell, Co. K, 33d Iowa Volunteers, March 31st, 1865. 
Private F. E. Conn, Co. F, 1st United States Artillery, January 5th, 1865. 
Private S. F. Conway, Co. D, 1st Virginia Cavalry, December 23d, 1864. 
Private C. C. Daggart, Veteran Reserve Corps, December 13th, 1864. 
Private John Dowler, Co. G, 2d District of Columbia Volunteers, October 10th, 1863. 
Private S. W. Duvall, Co. D, 12th Kentucky Volunteers, January, 1865. 
Private James English, Co. K, 3d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, January 9th, 1865. 
Private John Fitzgibbons, Co. B, 13th New York Artillery, December, 1833. 
Thomas Geary, Quartermaster s Department, July 15, 18(34. 
W. W. Hopkins, Recruit, 5th Michigan Volunteers, April 26th, 1865. 
Thomas Jordan, employe, Quartermaster s Department, March 31st, 1865. 
Private William Johnson, 10th New Hampshire Volunteers, December, 1833. Deserted. 
Sergeant W. Leroy, Co. G, 4th United States Artillery, October 25th, 1864. 
Private Edward Loury, Co. E, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, April 21st, 1864. 



43 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private David McBride, Co. A, 18th Iowa Volunteers, October 17th, 1863. 

Private Michael McCabe, Co. H, 4th Wisconsin Volunteers, January 22d, 1865. 

Private Jerrv McCarty, Co. C, 8th Illinois Cavalry, February 1st, 1864. 

Private Daniel McLaughlin, Co. E, McClellan Guard, June 27th, 1863. Deserted. 

Private Patrick Martin, Co. E, 88th New York Volunteers, May 24th, 1865. 

Sergeant L. Martindale, Co. G, 2d Maine Cavalry, August 13th, 18b 5. 

Private John Moony, Co. H, 5th Connecticut Volunteers, November 29th, 1863. 

Private John Moore, Co. D, First Battalion California Volunteers, December 12th, 1863. 

Private Kenneth Newton, Co. K, 38th Illinois Volunteers, December 10th, 1864. 

Private Edward Ormsby, Co. I, 145th New York Volunteers, November, 1863. 

Corporal Daniel Parker, Co. D, 73d New York Volunteers, February 7th, 1863. 

Sergeant J. D. Place, Co. F, 75th Illinois Volunteers, December llth, 1864. 

Corporal Jacob Paul, Co. E, 16th Illinois Volunteers, December 14th, 1864. 

Private W. E. Redding, Co. G, 2d Tennessee Mounted Infantry, January 20th, 1865. 

Private M. J. Rice, Co. I, 110th Pennsylvania Volunteers, May, 1863. 

Private Peter Smith, Co. C, 1st Missouri Artillery, December 22d, 1864. 

Private James E. Shay, Co. F, 22d Illinois Volunteers, May 24th, 1864. 

Private John Scott, 2d Indiana Battery, January 27th, 1865. 

Private Jacob Smith, 110th Ohio Volunteers, October 4th, 1864. 

Private Silas M. Smith, Co. C, 15th Illinois Cavalry, November 14th, 1863. 

Private Charles Trucksiss, Co. C, 16th Veteran Reserve Corps, September llth. 1864. 

Private Edward Woodruff, Ordnance Corps, January 1st, 1865. 

Private Francis W T irtz, Co. L, 1st Missouri Artillery, November 20th, 1853. 

Private John Williams, Ordnance Corps, January 1st, 1865. 

CASES. The seven following men received injuries of the head from blows, which were followed by grave complications : 

Private G. H. Cutting. Co. D, 8th Delaware Volunteers. Blow from spade. May, 1865. Otorrhea followed. Mustered 
out July 22d, 1865. 

Private Joseph Edwards. Co. A, 28th Illinois Volunteers. Laceration of forehead by a billet of wood. May, 1864. 
Severe erysipelas. Duty, June 30th, 1864. 

Private Henry Loughwell, Co. H, 15th Ohio Volunteers. Contusion of frontal region by a billet of wood, November 
25th, 1864. Discharged, June 10th, 1865. 

Private Michael Miller, 27th Co., 7th Regiment, V. R. C., aged 52. Severe contusion of scalp and concussion of the 
brain from a blow by a whip handle, May 14th, 1665. Discharged, November 14th, 1865. 

Private A. Robinson, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 24. Laceration of forehead by a slung shot, May 23d, 1865. Dis 
charged, July 3d, 1865. 

Corporal William Warner, Co. F, 7th Michigan Volunteers, aged 24. Partial paralysis of the left arm from a blow from 
a fence rail, in action, Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Transferred to 2d Co., 1st Battalion, V. R. C., September 4th, 1863. 

Private James Whissen, Co. F, 13th Ohio Cavalry, aged 21, was struck on the head with a pick-axe, February 16th, 
1864. October 1st he was sent to a hospital at Alexandria, with violent epileptic convulsions. These continued to recur, and 
he was discharged from service March 18th, 1865. 

The fourteen following abstracts afford examples of fractures of the cranium by blows 
from various blunt weapons: 

CASE. Seaman James R. Connor, U. S. Steamer Arietta, aged 19 years, was admitted to the Post Hospital at Beaufort, 
North Carolina, October 31st, 1864, on account of a blow upon his head by an iron stanchion on the previous day. The blow 
had caused a fracture of the vault of the cranium. The patient died November 1st, 1864. Surgeon N. P. Rice, U. S. V., reports 
the case, without particulars of the treatment. 

CASE. Sergeant J. G. Garrabrant, Co. C, 39th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 39 years, was admitted to the Ward Hos 
pital, Newark, New Jersey, on January 8th, 1865, in an insensible condition, with a fracture of the cranium and compression 
of the brain, resulting from a blow received in a street affray a few hours previously. He never regained consciousness, and 
died on January 12th, 1865. At the autopsy, the arachnoid membrane was highly congested, and the smallest vessels were 
visible. Upon the anterior portion of the right lobe of the cerebrum, between the dura mater and arachnoid, there was a clot of 
blood several inches in diameter. The other portion of the brain was normal. The internal table of the occipital was found to 
be fractured in two places, extending from the torcular Heropliili to the foramen magnum. The case is reported by the late 
Assistant Surgeon J. Theodore Calhoun, U. S. A. 

CASE. Private John W. Hogener, Co. E, 120th Ohio Volunteers, received, on board a transport steamer, a blow from an 
iron bolt, which caused a fracture of the frontal bone. He was admitted to Hospital No. 11, at New Albany, Indiana, on 
November 18th, 18G3, and died, on November 21st, 1863, from compression of the brain. Acting Assistant Surgeon A. M. 
Clapp reports the case. 

CASE. David H , U. S. Marine Corps, aged 35 years, was admitted to the post hospital at Vicksburg, Missis 
sippi, February 24th, 1866, with all the toes frost-bitten. This seemed to constitute the only trouble, with the exception of a 
slight headache, which was attributed to the constipated condition of his bowels for three or four days prior to admission. An 



FEACTURES FROM VARIOUS BLUNT WEAPONS. 



49 



aperient was ordered, with simple dressings to the feet. Until February 27th, there was a gradual improvement in the local 
lesion, but the dull, heavy pain in the head continued, with poor appetite, and costive bowels. On February 28th, the patient 
was found comatose, and for the first time there was noticed a slight paralysis of the right side. An incised wound of the scalp, 
an inch or more in length, was discovered in front of the left parietal protu 
berance. A crucial incision was made, and the fiaps were reflected, with a 
view of trephining in the event of a fracture of the skull with depression, but 
as no lesion of the skull could be detected, the incision was closed. No other 
injury of the scalp was found after careful examination. The coma and 
paralysis were ascribed to apoplectic effusion. The patient expired at three 
o clock on the morning of the following day. The antecedent history of this 
patient could not be ascertained, and Acting Assistant Surgeon G. F. Rock 
well, who attended and reported the case, remarks that he was restricted to 
inferences from the clinical history and what the autopsy revealed. On re 
moving the calvarium he found a small coagulum, but its location was not 
under the site of the external wound, but a little back of the coronal suture, 
on the left side, where the internal table was slightly depressed. But the 
chief difficulty was on the right side. When the skull-cap was lifted between 
two and three ounces of blood escaped, still leaving a coagulum covering the 
whole hemisphere. There was a semicircular fissure of the external table 




Fid. Hi. Fracture of the left parietal by a blow from a 
blunt weapon. Spec. iJSTti, Sect I, A. M. M. 



just in front of the left parietal protuberance, and stellate fissuring, with slight depression of the inner table, including a surface 
one inch in diameter. From this point a fissure, involving both tables, extended to the centre of the left branch of the lambdoidal 
suture. There were no traces of attempt at repair. There must have been a rupture of some of the larger vessels to cause such 
profuse extravasation of blood. There was no external wound of the scalp over the fracture of the left parietal. The specimen 
(FiG. l(i) was contributed to the Army Medical Museum by Dr. Rockwell, who believed that the weapon employed must have 
been a billet of wood, or something of that nature. 

CASE. Private William Koran, U. S. Marine Corps, aged 43 years, was admitted to Armory Square Hospital, Washing 
ton, May 14th, 1805, with a bruise of the left side of the forehead, received in a street fight a few hours previously. The injury 
was regarded as a simple contusion of the scalp, and was treated as such. On May 20th, the patient suddenly became comatose, 
and death took place on the following day, May 21st, 18G5. The post mortem examination revealed a slight fissure of the outer, 
and a considerable depression of the inner table. An abscess of considerable size extended for some distance beneath the frontal 
bone. Surgeon D. W. Bliss, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Corporal Michael Lynch, Co. H, 45th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years, was struck with a club July 1st, 
1864. He was admitted into the hospital of the 2d Division 2d Corps on the same day, and was transferred to Stanton Hospital, 
in Washington, on July 4th. Surgeon John A. Lidell, U. S. V., who reports the case, found that there was a comminuted 
fracture of the right temporal bone. Cerebral inflammation supervened, and the patient died July 14th, 18(54. 

CASE. Private E. C. AT -, Co. D, 28th Alabama Infantry, a prisoner of 

war at Rock Island, Illinois, was killed by a fellow prisoner, August 14th, 1864, by 
a blow on the right temporal region with a board. Death was almost instantaneous. 
At the autopsy, it was found that the skull was remarkably thin, and that a nearly 
vertical fissure extended through the squamous portion of the temporal, the great wing 
of the sphenoid, and nearly to the median line of the frontal bone, bifurcating an inch 
from its termination. The right orbital plate of the frontal, which was extremely 
thin, was fissured either by rontre coup, or by the impulse communicated through the 
cerebral substance. There was diastasis of the squamo-sphenoid suture. Large 
branches of the meningeal arteries were ruptured, and death resulted, probably, from 
haemorrhage in the cavity of the cranium. But the condition of the brain and its 
membranes, and the extent of the intracranial bleeding, were not reported. The speci 
men is delineated in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 17.) By an inadvertence of the en 
graver in copying the photograph, the specimen appears reversed, and represents a 
fracture of the left instead of the right side. 




Fie. 17. Fracture of the temporal by a blow 
from a board. Spec. iJSli J, Sect. I, A. M. M. 



CASE. Private J. M. Munroe, Co. E, 26th Massachusetts Volunteers, was admitted to St. James Hospital, New Orleans, 
February 23d, 1863, with a fracture of the skull, produced by a blow. He recovered, under expectant treatment, and was 
discharged from service on May 12th, 1863. The case appears on the report of Assistant Surgeon J. Homans, U. S. A. 

CASE. Private John Murray, Co. D, f!th Illinois Cavalry, aged 23 years, was struck on the head by a slung shot, in the 
streets of Memphis, Tennessee, April 7th, 1864. He; was admitted, on the same day, to Adams Hospital, and his case is recorded 
on the register of that hospital as a contused wound of the scalp. He was furloiighed on July 8th, and admitted to Knight 
Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, on August 24th. He was furloiighed from this hospital on September i>th, and re-admitted 
as unable to travel, two days subsequently. He was again furloiighed on November 2d, 1864, and re-admitted from furlough 
November I5th, and. according to the monthly report of Surgeon 1*. A. Jewett. U. S. V., in charge of Knight Hospital, was 
discharged from service on November 16th, 18(54, ou account of total physical disability, resulting from fracture of the skull. 
The certificate states that the man was unfit for duty in the Veteran Reserve Corps. 



50 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private Francis M. Pettit, Co. G, 12th Kansas Volunteers, is reported by Surgeon C. R. Stuckslager, 12th Kansas 
Volunteers, as having received a compound fracture of the left parietal bone, a little in advance of the protuberance, by a blow 
from the handle pf a table fork. There was depression of bone, with injury of the membranes of the brain, and the patient 
died a few days after the injury, May 7th, 1863. A post mortem examination was made, which disclosed indications of softening 
of the brain and meningitis. 

CASE. Private Michael Smith, Co. F, 7th United States Infantry, arrived at Fort Bascom, New Mexico, August 10th, 
1863, and, on August 20th, he applied to Acting Assistant Surgeon S. Rankin, to have his head dressed. Dr. Rankin found a 
fistulous opening on the right frontal protuberance. The man related that, six months previously, at Fort Union, he had 
received, in an affray, a blow which had broken his head, and that a little matter had flowed from the wound ever since. A 
simple dressing was applied, and the man did not report again on the sick list until September, 1863, when, after getting on a 
frolic, he was attacked with grave symptoms of cerebral disorder, and died, from cerebritis, September 20th, 1863. At the 
post mortem examination, Dr. Rankin found a piece of bone two inches long and one inch wide, consisting of the inner table, 
altogether detached, lying pressing upon the brain, which had undoubtedly been in the same situation the previous spring when 
he received the injury. 

CASE. Alfred Sypole, Farrier, Co. M, 4th Virginia Cavalry, on February 26th, 1864, was knocked down by a blow 
from an axe, while making a furious assault upon a non-commissioned officer of his company. For several hours afterwards he 
was insensible, and then partially recovered ; but remained moody and stupid. On March 2d, he was admitted into the post 
hospital at New Creek, West Virginia, under the care of Surgeon S. B. Smith, U. S. V., who reports the case. Dr. Smith found 
a small wound, suppurating freely, over the left temporal bone, and a fracture without depression. The mental faculties were 
confused. The patient complained of severe pain on the opposite side of the head. An emollient poultice was applied to the 
seat of injury, and a brisk cathartic was ordered, which promptly relieved the pain in the head, and was followed by a restora 
tion of clearness of intellect. At this time, the patient seemed to convalesce rapidly. In two days, he walked about and enjoyed 
himself, entering freely into general conversation, and expressing himself with ease and clearness. On the evening of the 16th, 
he became sullen and depressed in spirits, and had a recurrence of severe pain on the opposite side of the head from the wound. 
On the following morning, the patient had convulsions, and death took place in a short time, March 17th, 1864. On a post 
mortem examination, it was found that there was a fracture of the temporal bone, triangular in shape, an inch and a half in 
length, and about one inch in width at the base. The dura mater was not injured, and the bone was not depressed. In the 
middle lobe of the left hemisphere there was an abscess near the fracture containing an ounce and a half of pus. No abnormal 
appearances could be detected on the opposite side of the brain, where the intense pain had been experienced. There was but 
little injection, anywhere, of the pia mater. 

GASP:. Private James Wiggins, Co. C, 1st U. S. Cavalry, was admitted to the Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, 
April 10th, 1865, with compression of the brain, resulting from a fracture of the frontal bone by a blow over the left superciliary 
ridge, received a few hours before admission. The roof of the orbit was depressed, as well as the lower part of the skull, over 
the anterior portion of the left hemisphere. An operation was deemed inexpedient. Cold applications to the head, blisters to 
the nape of the neck, and stimulants, constituted the treatment. Assistant Surgeon J. H. Frantz, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASE. Private J. E. Wilkinson, Co. B, 46th Virginia Regiment, was struck on the head by an iron bar, used in starting 
a steam engine, and had a fracture of the right parietal bone. He was treated at the Farmville Hospital, Virginia, on the 
expectant plan. Epileptic convulsions ensued, and the patient was discharged from service, permanently disabled, on Sep 
tember 23d, 1864. Surgeon H. D. Taliaferro, C. S. A., records the case on his monthly report. 

The following are examples of contused and lacerated wounds of the scalp produced 
by stones, bricks, and similar missiles: 

CASES. An officer and eight men of the 6th Massachusetts Militia received contusions or lacerations of the scalp, by 
paving stones, bricks, etc., on the occasion of the memorable attack upon that Regiment by insurgents in Baltimore, on April 
19th, 1861 : 

Privates G. Alexander, C. H. Chandler, and Sergeant W. H. Lamson, of Co. D; Sergeant G. G. Durrell, Co. D; Lieut. 
James F. Rowe, of Co. L; Privates S. Flanders, J. Porter, J. Pennell, and Charles B. Stinson, of Co. C. These patients were 
conveyed, by rail, to Washington, and were treated in the E Street Infirmary, under charge of Surgeon Norman Smith, 6th 
Massachusetts Volunteers, and the late Dr. J. Sim Smith, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A. 

CASES. The twenty-two men named below are reported as having been treated in various hospitals for contused or 
lacerated scalp wounds, produced by bricks or stones, and returned to duty, after a comparatively brief period of treatment : 
Private James Armstrong, Co. K, 7th Pennsylvania Reserves, October 4th, 1863. 
Private Anthony Babano, Co. C, 46th Indiana Volunteers, April 16th, 1885. 
Private Wm. Bowles, Co. A, 1st Michigan C. T., September 17th, 1864. 
Corporal F. B. Cox, I, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, May 30th, 1865. 
Sergeant F. A. Cullin, D, 22d Veteran Reserve Corps, July 9th, 1864. 
Private J. R. Davenport, H, 84th New York Volunteers, July 1st, 1863. 
Private E. Enghausen, K, 1st New r York Light- Artillery, June 1st, 1C65. 
Private J. Ginn, C, 36th Indiana Volunteers, November 27th, 1863. 
Private F. P. Green, D, 205th, Pennsylvania Volunteers, May 26th, 1865. 
Private G. W. Hamilton, K, 86th Illinois Volunteers, July 1st, 1864. 
Private R. D. Herron, A, 23d Michigan Volunteers, December 22d, 1864. 



FROM UNSPECIFIED CAUSES OTHER THAN GUNSHOT. 51 

Private B. Hockworth, I, 1st West Virginia Infantry, April 18th, 1864. 

Private T. Kelley, A, 14th Tennessee Cavalry, December 20th, 1864. 

Private J. Kennedy, L, 1st Missouri Engineers, August ICtli, 1864. 

Private W. Locke, G, 23d Veteran Reserve Corps, March 18th, 1865. 

Private M. Lope, A, 22d Ohio Volunteers, June 29th, 1865. 

Pris-ate T. Minnan, Ordnance Corps, March 10th, 1865. 

Private A. Newhauser, G, 1st Illinois Artillery, April 29th, 1865. 

Private P. Rhodes, D, 18th Iowa Volunteers, October 1st, 1863. 

Private W. Sallee, Ordnance Corps, January, 1865. 

Corporal J. W. Smithers, B, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, May llth, 1864. 

Private C. H. Winn, I, 35th Illinois Volunteers, May, 1864. 

The three following are cases of fractures of the skull from the causes last mentioned : 

CASE. Private John Aldrich, Co. K, 176th New York Volunteers, aged 29 years, in an attack of delirium, struck his 
head with a stone, on July 25th, 1864, producing a compound fracture of the cranium. He was admitted to the University 
Hospital, at. New Orleans, Louisiana, on the following day. An abscess formed and the patient died, on August 15th, 1864, 
from inflammation of the brain. Surgeon Samuel Kneeland, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Corporal Adam Gaslein, Co. B, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, had a simple fracture of the vault of the cranium, in 
April, 1863. caused by a blow from a stone. He was admitted to Columbian Hospital, Washington, on April 4th, 1863. He 
had a very protracted convalescence, and finally recovered perfectly, and returned to duty, April 12th, 1864. Surgeon T. R. 
Crosby, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASE. Private Daniel T. Swartz, 7th West Virginia Cavalry, aged 35 years, had a laceration of the forehead, and a 
compound fracture of the left side of the frontal bone, from a blow by a brick-bat, on April 1st, 1865. He was admitted to 
Washington Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, where the haemorrhage, which had been very profuse, was arrested, and the wound 
dressed simply, there being no indications of depression of bone or of intracranial extravasation of blood. On May 15th, the 
patient was transferred to Gayoso Hospital. On May 24th, he was considered cured, and returned to duty. Surgeon Daniel 
Stahl, U. S. V., reports the case. 

UNSPECIFIED CAUSES Many men. also were received into general hospital for con 
tusions or lacerations of the scalp, or for concussion of the brain, or fracture of the skull, 
and were reported by name, but without any indication of the precise cause of their 
inj uries : 

CASES. The one hundred and twenty-one men enumerated in the following list recovered, and were returned to duty 
or discharged from service at the conclusion of the war after a brief period of treatment for such injuries as are mentioned above : 
Private H. Ackerman, K, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, January llth, 1865. 
Private W. H. Alexander, C, 39th New Jersey Volunteers, Camp Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, October 24th, 1864. 
Private J. Anderson, G, 4th Tennessee Cavalry, Vicksburg, Mississippi, February 20th, 1865. 
Bugler G. W. Ashland, B, 12th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Sandy Hook, Maryland, May 12th, 1864. 
Teamster C. Barachi, Indian Expedition, Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, May 31st, 1864. 
Private T. Barber, H, 118th New York Volunteers, Petersburg, Virginia, June 2d, 1865. 
Private D. Bon, C, 2d Missouri Artillery, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, December 20th, 1863. 
Private B. S. Boorman, G, 41st Ohio Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 13th, 1864. 
Private W. J. Brown, E, 14th Illinois Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, February 9th, 1865. 
B. Busa, Government Employe", Washington, D. C., February 17th, 1864. 
Recruit J. Cain, Merrill s Horse, St. Louis, Missouri, November 8th, 1864. 
Lieutenant H. D. Call, A, 76th New York Volunteers, Georgetown, D. C., January 9th, 1864. 
Private J. Cantrell, Schofield Hussars, St. Louis, Missouri, December 8th, 1863. 
Private W. C. Carroll, B, 4th Tennessee Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, March 30th, 1863. 
Private M. Casey, L, 1st Illinois Artillery, New Creek, West Virginia, November 10th, 1864. 
Private A. R. Chapman, C, 32d Massachusetts Volunteers, Washington, D. C., May 23d, 1865. 
Private J. Chase, G, 4th Michigan Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, March 6th, 1864. Deserted. 
Private J. Christie, A, 18th New York Cavalry, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 26th, 1865. 
Private W. M. Clare, G, 20th Missouri Regiment, Farmville, Va. 

Private H. W. Cochran, I, 17th Indiana Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, November 30th, 1864. 
Private B. Coffiety. G, 77th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 15th, 1864. 
Private J. Cox, A, 13th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C., August llth, 1864. 
Recruit J. E. Cranfield, 63d New York Volunteers, Alexandria, Virginia, May 8th, 1864. 
Private W. Daly, A, Kith United States Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, December 18th, 1865. 
Private W. Danekas, E, llth Illinois Volunteers, Memphis, Tennessee, April 6th, 1865. 
Private L. L. Davis, C, 15th New Jersey Volunteers, Washington, D. C., May llth, 1864. 
John Dugan, Government Employe, Quartermaster s Department, Nashville, Tennessee, November 28th, 1864. 
Private H.Dunham, I, 6th Missouri Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 9th, 1864. 



52 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Corporal S. Eplar, C, 2d Minnesota Cavalry, Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, April 13th, 1864. 

Private J. Ervay, A, 10th Michigan Volunteers, Knoxvillo, Tennessee, April 24th, 1864. 

Private A. C. Ewing, C, 28th Kentucky Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, June 15th, 1865. 

Private C. Farnsworth, A, -id Ohio Cavalry, New Alhany, Indiana, April 10th, 1864. 

Private J. Fitzgerald, 21st Wisconsin Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, November 2d, 1864. 

Private M. Flaherty, C, 49th Missouri Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, November 17th, 1864. 

1st Sergeant A. B. Francisco, F, 124th New York Volunteers, Chester, Pennsylvania, May 30th, 1864. 

Corporal G. Gamble, A, 27th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 13th, 1864. 

Private P. Gannon, K, 39th Massachusetts Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, May 9th, 1864. 

Sergeant J. N. Gitclirist, K, 5th Alabama Infantry, Richmond, Virginia, June 4th, 1864. 

Corporal T. Gleason, E, 63d New York Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, September 7th, 1865. 

Private J. G. Gossman, B, 176th Ohio Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee,, August 2d, 1864. 

Private A. Grant, H, 59th Indiana Volunteers. Tullahoma, Tennessee, September 1st, 1864. 

Private J. B. Griffith, I, 95th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Washington, D. C., May 14th, 1864. 

Sergeant C. B. Hadley, B, 56th Massachusetts Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, April 21st, 1864. 

Private W. Hatsell, B, 6th Kentucky Regiment, Nashville, Tennessee, September 24th, 1863. 

Private H. Henning, E, 8th Iowa Cavalry, in action, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, April 3, 1865. 

Private J. M. Hceve.y, A, 56th Georgia Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, February 16th, 1864. 

Private J. Hickey, D, 23d Maryland Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, June 25th, 1865. 

Private E. B. Hieronymus, B, 7th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, St. Louis, Missouri, March 30th, 1865. 

Private M. Higgins, L, 2d Massachusetts Artillery, Portsmouth, Virginia, July 1st, 1865. 

Private F. Howe, G, 6th Vermont Volunteers, January 6th, 1865. 

Private J. Hudson, C, 2d United States Infantry, Elmira, New York, January 7th, 1865. 

Private J. Jenks, F, 51st New York Volunteers, Alexandria, Virginia, April 23d, 1864. 

Private J. James, Unassigned Substitute, Elmira, New York, May 7th, 1865. 

Sergeant W. A. Johnson, A, 15th Indiana Battery, Washington, D. C., February 17th, 1865. 

Private J. Kanally, K, 35th Indiana Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, February 22d, 1864. Erysipelas. 

Private D. Kelly, K, 73d Pennsylvania Volunteers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 8th, 1863. Deserted. 

Private E. A. Knapp, I, 89th Illinois Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 29th, 1864. 

A. Kruse, Contract Nurse, Washington, D. C., May 15th, 1864. 

Corporal T. Langley, E, 10th United States Colored Troops, Portsmouth, Virginia, May 27th, 1865. 

Private A. J. Little, H, 5th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, Rolla, Missouri, July 4th, 1864. 

Private J. S. Lockwood, A, 17th Connecticut Volunteers, St. Augustine, Florida, June llth, 1864. 

Private J. McAldee, 2d Indiana Battery, Nashville, Tennessee, February 16th, 1865. 

Private B. McCarty, B, 21st Connecticut Volunteers, Portsmouth. Virginia, May 5th, 1865. 

Private R. McCarty, B, 40th Missouri Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, November 6th, 1864. 

Private C. McDonald, C, 19th Massachusetts Volunteers, in action, Wilderness, Virginia, May 6th, 1864. 

Private N. McEnroe, F, 2d New York Volunteers, Newark, New Jersey, June 6th, 1864. 

Private P. McGevi, B, 10th Tennessee Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, November 6th, 1864. 

Private M. McKenney, I, 1st United States Artillery, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1863. 

Private C. McMahon, I, 5th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, St. Louis, Missouri, January 1st, 1865. 

Private P. Mahon, F, 20th Connecticut Volunteers, Aquia Creek, Virginia, May 4th, 1863. 

Private F. Marrais, 7th Massachusetts Battery, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 18th, 1864. 

Private J. Marity, G, 1st Michigan Engineers, Louisville, Kentucky, March 15th, 1864. 

Private M. Miller, C, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 22d, 1863. 

Private W. Missor, G, 87th Illinois Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, December 18th, 1862. Deserted. 

Private S. W. Morgan, G, 1st Indiana Artillery, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 8th, 1864. 

Private W. J. Mowry, K, llth Illinois Cavalry, Vicksburg, Mississippi, February 24th, 1864. 

Sergeant J. Murphy, D, 2<1 Maryland Cavalry, Annapolis, Maryland, August 27th, 1863. 

Private M. Murray, C, 6th New York Heavy Artillery, Washington. D. C., August 16th, 1864. 

Private J. F. Neal, F, 55th Kentucky Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, May 26th, 1865. 

Private T. Newell, D, 6th Kentucky Cavalry, Louisville, Kentucky, March 18th, 1864. 

Private J. O. Barker, H, 9th United States Colored Troops, Portsmouth, Virginia, May 27th, 1865. 

Private J. O Hara, D, 2d Massachusetts Heavy Artilley, Boston, Massachusetts, September 12th, 1865. 

Private W. Palmer, B, 26th Virginia Infantry, June 17th, 1864. 

Sergeant A. M. Parmenter, E, 29th Michigan Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, October llth, 1864. 

W. Parker, Substitute, 16th Kentucky Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 9th, 1864. Deserted. 

Orderly Sergeant T. Pepper, United States Army, Covington, Kentucky, June 18th, 1865. 

Private W. H. Perry, K, 6th Illinois Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, July 28th, 1865. 

Private J. M. Pierce, H, 6th Indiana Volunteers, Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 25th, 1863. 

Private L. E. Porter, H, 109th New York Volunteers, Baltimore, Maryland, August 23d, 1864. 

Private J. Riley, D, 4th United States Infantry, New York, August 30th, 1865. 

Private J. Ritchey, H, 18th Kentucky Infantry, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September 26th, 1863. 

Private M. Roclgers, D, 14th United States Infantry, Elmira, New York, January 7th, 1865. Deserted. 

A. Rosa, Blacksmith, L, 1st Illinois Artillery, Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 29th, 1864. 

Private R. Secrter, G, 3llth Indiana Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 19th, 1864. 



FROM UNSPECIFIED CAUSES OTHER THAN GUNSHOT. 53 

Private J. Scribner, D, lltli Missouri Cavalry, St. Louis. Missouri, December 28th, 1864. 

Corporal L. Seiper, E, 4()tli Missouri Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, November 7th, 1864. 

Private D. Small wood, C, 15th United States Colored Troops, Nashville, Tennessee, August 19th, 1865. 

First Lieutenant A. Smith, D, 51st New York Volunteers, Alexandria, Virginia, May 18th, 1865. 

Recruit C. Smith. 14th New York Artillery, Ehnira. New York, December 29th, 186;}. 

Private D. Smith, D, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, March 9th, 1864. 

Private H. Smith, A, 63th New York Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 16th, 1864. 

Private I. Smith, D, 31st Maine Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, April 18th, 1864. 

Private J. Smith, A, 9th Now York Volunteers, New York, July 20th, 1863. Deserted. 

Private J. Smith, B, 18th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C., February 14th, 1864. Deserted. 

Private J. Smith, C, 10th Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, May 4th, 1864. 

Private W. A. Smith, F, 1st Delaware Volunteers, Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864. 

Private J. Spencer, A, 179th Ohio Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, October 6th, 1864. 

Private T. Sullivan, F, 52d Illinois Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, June 21st, 1865. 

Corporal J. Suter, E, 7th Veteran Reserve Corps, Louisville, Kentucky, July 19th, 1864. 

Private J. Sutler, K, 1st Michigan Cavalry, Washington, D. C., March 2d, 1864. 

Private W. C. Swanson, K, 12th North Carolina Infantry, Richmond, Virginia, April 28th, 1863. 

Private E. Sweat, F, 93d New York Volunteers, Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864. 

Private E. Taylor, F, 3d Ohio Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, June 8th, 1864. 

Private J). W. Vicks, C, 50th Georgia Regiment, Richmond, Virginia, June 5th, 1863 

Private W. Visser, G, 82d Illinois Volunteers, Ballesville, Illinois, December 18th, 1862. Deserted. 

Private J. \Valcott, I, 50th Ohio Volunteers, Baltimore, Maryland, February 4th, 1865. 

Corpora! P. Walton, I, lllth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Savannah, Georgia, February 1st, 1865. 

Corporal C. Williams, M, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers, Worcheater, West Virginia, January 23d, 1865. 

Private T. Wilson, M, 3d United States Cavalry, Little Rock, Arkansas, February 19th, 1866. 

Private H. Wolf, B, 9th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C., June 26th, 1865. 

Private G. B. Young, B, 64th United States Colored Troops, Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 31st, 1865. 

The following are examples of graver injuries belonging to the foregoing category: 

CASK. Private Frederick Burling, Co. D, 23d New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, received a severe injury of the 
head, at Upton s Hill, Virginia. Deafness and partial paralysis ensued, and he was discharged from service on March 1st. 1.862. 

CASK. Private O. B. Cook, Co. H, 14th Vermont Volunteers, received a severe injury of the head, at Fairfax Court 
House, Virginia, January 4th, 1863, and was discharged for disability, rated at one half, on March 24th, 1863. Surgeon A. T. 
Woodward, 14th Vermont Volunteers, records the case. 

CASK. Private Milton Crowell, Co. B, 84th Illinois Volunteers, received a contused wound of the head, in May, 1863, 
and was admitted to Gayoso Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, June 1st. Cerebral complications arose, and he died on June 5th, 
1863. Surgeon D. W. Hartshorn, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASK. Private Edward Garnett, Co. B, 5th Ohio Volunteers, at Camp Banks, in the spring of 1863, received an injury 
of the head, which resulted in impairment of the mental faculties. Complete loss of memory was a remarkable feature of the 
case. The patient was discharged for total disability by order of Surgeon R. O. Abbott, U. S. Army, the Medical Director of 
the Department of Washington, March 3d, 18f>3. The case is recorded by Assistant Surgeon J. H. Withers, U. S. V. 

CASK. W. F. Kirkland, a recruit of the 16th New York Cavalry, nged 43 years, received a lacerated wound of the 
scalp in the frontal region, May 4th, 1864, and was admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore. Erysipelas of the scalp 
supervened, and was followed by meningeal inflammation. The patient died on May 13th, 1864. Surgeon Z. E. Bliss, U. S. 
V., records the case. 

CASK. Private Thomas Morrissey, Co. A, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 26 years, was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington, April, 1863, under the charge of Surgeon H. Bryant, U. S. Volunteers, on account of a contusion of the head. 
Symptoms of arachnitis were manifested; but the patient recovered partially, was transferred to a convalescent camp near 
Alexandria, on March 10th. He was discharged from service on March 20th, 1863. His mental faculties were much impaired. 
His disability was rated at two-thirds. Surgeon S. B. Hunt, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASK. Sergeant Richard M. Porter, 37th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a contusion of the scalp, in 
July, 1864. He was admitted into Augur Hospital, and, on August 2d, he was transferred to the 3d Division Hospital, at 
Alexandria, with symptoms of incipient cerebritis. He died, August 28th, 1864. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V., records 
the case. 

CASK. Private Thomas Solomon, Co. F, 2d Louisiana Mounted Infantry, aged 50 years, received, in camp, near Green 
ville, Louisiana, June 18th. 1864, a contused wound of the scalp. On June 20th, he was transferred to University Hospital, 
New Orleans, and on December 21st, 1864, he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps. 

The following are abstracts of cases of simple or compound fractures of the skull, 
produced by causes not specified, save that it is stated that they were not inflicted by 
gunshot: 




54 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private Robert Bibb, Co. E, 4th Virginia Regiment, was admitted, March 31st, 18G4, into the hospital at the 
Old Capitol Prison, Washington, with a simple fracture of the skull. He died, April 6th, 1866. 

CASE. Private James Burns, Co. B, 39th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 57 years, was admitted to Stanton Hospital, 
Washington, on July 14th, 1863, with a fracture of the cranium. He was transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, on 
May 10th, 1864, and returned to duty October 18th, 1864. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Peter Cahill, Co. C, 79th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years, received an accidental compound fracture 

of the external table of the frontal bone, June 14th, 1865, while serving on the Provost Marshal s Guard. He was admitted to 
Sickel Hospital. Alexandria, on June 14th, and discharged from service well, on July 4th, 1865. Surgeon E. Bentley, II. S. 
V., records the case. 

CASE. Private W. H. Christ, Co. I. 126th Ohio Volunteers, aged 24 years, was admitted to the base hospital, at City 
Point, Virginia, with a" lacerated wound of the scalp, and fracture of the skull, April 24th, 1865. He was transferred to 
Patterson Park, Baltimore, May 18th, to Hick s Hospital, convalescent, June 8th, and discharged from service, well, June 17th, 
1865. Surgeon Thomas Sim, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Peter Clofat, Co E, 2d Louisiana Regiment, was sent to the St. James Hospital, New Orleans, on May 
10th, 1863, by the Provost Marshal, with fracture of the skull. He died on the following day. Assistant Surgeon J. Homans, 
U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. The body of private John C , Co. K, 2d U. S. Infantry, aged 30 

years, was brought into hospital, at Fort Columbus, New York Harbor, on January 

21st, 1865. It was found that life was entirely extinct. There was a contused and 

lacerated wound, three inches in length, behind the left ear, and a depressed fracture 

on the left side of the occipital. No clue whatever could be obtained as to the nature 

of the weapon by which the injury was inflicted; nor, indeed, could it be accurately 

determined whether it was due to a blow, or to a fall. At the autopsy, it was found that 

the medulla oblongata was torn away almost completely from the pons Varolii. There 

was great intracranial extravasation of blood, and a fracture extending across the 

occipital and temporal bones to the left side of the foramen magnum. A fissure 

proceeded also through the right condyloid foramen into the mastoid process of the right 

temporal. Assistant Surgeon P. S. Conner, U. S. Army, forwarded to the Army Fie. 18. Section of base of cranium show - 

Medical Museum the notes of the case, and a section of the skull, which is represented ^M. 6 ^ 68 ^ 11 fracture s ? ec - 4351 Seot - * 

in the accompanying wood-cut, (FiG. 18.) 

CASE. Captain J. B. Forcum, Co. H, 4th North Carolina Infantry, received, at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863, a simple 
fracture of the cranium. He was admitted to Hospital No. 4, at Richmond, Virginia, and recovered, and was furloughed, 
August 3d, 1863. Surgeon J. B. Read, C. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Bugler Morris Houlahan, Co. G, 5th U. S. Cavalry, was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown, 
December llth, 1862, with a fracture of the skull, and died the same day. Acting Assistant Surgeon Landon Wells, records 
the case. 

CASE. Private John Hines, Co. D, 3d Michigan Volunteers, aged 39 years, received a fracture of the right side of the 
frontal bone, on October 28th, 1864. He was treated at Huntsville, Alabama; Nashville, Tennessee ; Louisville, Kentucky ; and 
recovered, and was discharged from service, June 9th, 1865. Surgeon B. B. Breed, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Sergeant 11. W. Jones, 1st Virginia Artillery, was admitted to Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, on 
November 17th, 1863, with a fracture of the skull. He recovered, and returned to duty, December 13th, 1863. Surgeon E. S. 
Smith, C. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Michael McNulty, Co. E, 77th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 years, received a simple fracture of the 
frontal bone, December 10th, 1864, at Nashville, Tennessee. He was transferred to Louisville, thence to Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
and recovered, and was returned to duty, January 7th, 1865. Surgeon J. E. Herbst, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Andrew Mader, Co. L, 3d Pennsylvania Artillery, received a simple fracture of the right parietal, 
December 13th, 1864. The line of fracture passed across the middle meningeal artery, which was ruptured, and gave rise to a 
large extravasation of blood. He was admitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, with every symptom of compression 
of the brain. He died, December 16th, 1864. An autopsy revealed a large coagulum over the right hemisphere. Assistant 
Surgeon J. H. Frantz, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASK. Private George W. Morey, Co. E, 10th Michigan Volunteers, aged 23 years, received a contused wound on the 
left side of the head, at Tunnel Hill, Georgia, in April. 1864. The existence of fracture was suspected, but not clearly diagnos 
ticated. The patient was treated at Hospital No. 19, Nashville, Tennessee, at Louisville, Kentucky, and at St. Mary s -Hospital, 
Detroit, Michigan. He had frequent epileptic convulsions, and died in one of the paroxysms, May 25, 1864. 

CASE. Sergeant John Miller, Co. I, 2d Illinois Artillery, was admitted to Indianapolis Hospital, in September, 1862, 
with fracture of the skull. He died, September 17th, 1862. Surgeon J. S. Bobbs, Brigade Surgeon, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Daniel W. Nash, Co. F, 31st Ohio Volunteers, received a simple fracture of the skull, in February, 1863. 
He was admitted to Hospital JS T o. 10, at Louisville, Kentucky, and was discharged from service, February 28th, 1863. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon E. O. Brown, records the case. 



FRACTURES FROM UNSPECIFIED CAUSES. 



55 




CASE. Teamster Washington Odell, Co. I, 98th Illinois Volunteers, received an injury of tlie skull in 1863. He was 
admitted to Camp Dennison Hospital, Ohio, and was discharged from service, on August 12th, 1863. Surgeon H. C. McAllister, 
98th Illinois Volunteers, records the case, 

CASE. Private Stephen E. Potts, New York Marine Artillery, was admitted to Foster Hospital, Ncwberne, North 
Carolina, August 23d, 1862, with a simple fracture of the skull. He recovered, and was discharged from service, December 
13th, 18(53. 

CASE. Private Dennis Quinn, Co. F, llth Veteran Reserve Corps, received, in September, 1864, a simple fracture of the 
frontal bone, with a slight depression. He was admitted to Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, on September" 24th, and 
recovered, and returned to duty on October 8th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon P. C. Davis, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private William Russell, 26th New York Battery, was admitted to the St. James Hospital, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, on March llth, 1863, with a simple fracture of the skull. He recovered, and was discharged from service, on May 
llth, 1863. Assistant Surgeon John Homans, U. S. A., records the case. 

GASP:. Private J. C. R , Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 22 years, was admitted, on September 30th, 1864, to Jarvis 

Hospital. Baltimore, Maryland, in an inebriated condition, with a contusion of the 
left side of the face, and a small contused wound over the left malar bone. No history 
of the cause or circumstances attending his accident could be ascertained. Cold 
applications were made to the head, and he was kept quiet in bed. No symptoms of 
grave cerebral mischief appeared until the evening of October 5th, when he became 
noisily delirious. He became comatose, and died the following morning. Sectiocada- 
veris twenty-four hours after death. There was ecchymosis on the left side of the 
face; the left ramus of the lower jaw bore traces of an old gunshot fracture. There 
was also a gunshot fracture involving the light shoulder. On removing the scalp, 
dark blood oozed from the ruptured veins, and on removing the skull-cap and cere 
brum, a clot of blood of from one and a half to two ounces was found between the 
frontal bone and dura mater on the left side, adhering to the membrane. It must, 
necessarily, have compressed greatly the anterior lobe of the left hemisphere. There 
was also a clot at the posterior surface of the posterior lobe of the right hemisphere. 
The cerebral substance was softened at this point. There was effusion of serum over 
the pons Varolii and in the third and fourth ventricles. The arachnoid membrane 
was considerably separated from the sulci by effusion into the subarachnoid cavity. 
The veins of the pia mater were everywhere turgid. The fracture commenced on 
the outer part of the left superciliary ridge, and passed across the left orbital plate 
of the frontal, fissuring the ethmoid, and the body of the sphenoid. The sphenoidal 
fissure on the left side was enlarged as though by absorption from without. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon B. B. Miles contributed the specimen, (FiG. 19,) with the notes in the case. 

CASE. Private Frederick Seltzer, 5th U. S. Artillery, was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown, D.C., January 
8th, 1862, with a fracture of the skull. He died on January 12th, 1862. Surgeon Joseph R. Smith, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private J. M. Sharp, Co. F, 45th North Carolina Regiment, received a simple fracture of the zygoma of the right 
temporal, without injury to the cranial cavity. He was admitted to the Farmville Hospital, Virginia, on June 2d, 1864. He 
recovered, and was furloughed on August 9th, 1864. Surgeon H. D. Taliaferro, C. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Adolphus Seymour, Co. F, 1st New York Cavalry, aged 21 years, received a simple fracture of the right 
side of the frontal bone, at New Market, Virginia, May 15th, 1864. He was transferred in June to Frederick, Maryland, and 
in October to Annapolis Junction, and thence to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, and finally to Turner s Lane Hospital, whence 
he was discharged on March 16th, 1865, on account of confirmed epilepsy. 

CASE. Private Frederick Stapley, Co. E, 92d Illinois Volunteers, was admitted to Hospital No. 19. Nashville, Ten 
nessee, on June 4th, 1863, on account of a simple fracture of the skull, according to the hospital register. If the diagnosis was 
correct, the case was unusually successful, since the patient returned to duty on June 18th, 1863. Surgeon John W. Foye, U. 
S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Frank Treber, Co. D, 10th Tennessee Volunteers, aged 38 years, was admitted to Hospital No. 19, Nash 
ville, Tennessee, on March 21st, 1865, \\ith a simple depressed fracture of the os front-is. He was transferred to Cumberland 
Hospital on April 2Uth, and returned to duty, well, on April 29th, 1865. Surgeon B. Cloak, U. S. V., records the case. 

REMOVAL OF FRAGMENTS. In the following cases of fracture of the skull, from falls 
or blows, depressed fragments of bone were removed by the forceps, saw, or elevator: 

CASE. Seaman Henry Black, of the United States Transport S. R. Spalding, fell from the spar deck into the hold, on 
June 20th, 1863, a distance of twenty-four feet, striking on the vertex of the skull. A large scalp wound, four inches in length 
with fracture of both tables of the skull, with depression, having a diameter of two inches, was produced. On his admission to 
the military hospital at Beaufort, North Carolina, the man was pale, his pulse imperceptible, and he lay groaning occasionally, 
his lower limbs moving spasmodically. The trephine was applied, but the depressed portion of bone could not be raised by the 
elevator. A portion of the fractured skull was then removed by Hey s saw; after which, the remaining portion was raised to 
jts normal position by the elevator, and the periosteum, which had been carefully preserved, was brought back over the solution 



FlG. IP. Fracture of the orbital plate of the 
frontal, the ethmoid, and sphenoid. Sj/ec. :{-14t), 
beet. I, A. M. M. 



J56 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

of continuity of the bone. The wound was then dressed with cold water. The after treatment was of stimulant and tonic 
description, with careful attention to the bowels, and occasional opiates. At the date of the report, fifteen days after the 
operation, the patient was walking about the ward. The wound of the scalp was united and the small portion over the trephined 
part was healing by granulation. The case appears on the monthly report of Beaufort Hospital, North Carolina, signed by 
Surgeon F. S. Ainsworth, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Edward Connors, Co. A, 9th Illinois Cavalry, aged 22 years, received in a street fight, March 22d, 1864, 
a blow from a stone, which struck the left side of the forehead. He was admitted into the Lawson Hospital at St. Louis, 
Missouri, on the same day. There was an external wound three inches in length, a depressed fracture involving both tables of 
the skull. Several small spiculse of bone were removed, and the depression of the inner table was raised by an elevator. A 
piece of the broken outer table was missing, having, apparently, been torn off at the time of the injury. A saline purgative 
was administered and low diet was prescribed, with cold water applications to his head. His general condition at this time was 
good; the pulse was natural, the pupils were sensible to light and normal in movement, and his intellect was perfectly clear. 
He continued thus until the night of the 23d, when symptoms of concussion and compression of the brain were manifested : the 
symptoms of compression, perhaps, predominating. On the following day, there was evidently compression, as indicated by 
the stertorous breathing and insensibility, dilated pupils and slow pulse. Death took place at midnight on March 24th, 1864. 
An autopsy was made on the following day. The external table of the frontal bone showed the loss of a fragment of the size 
of a quarter of a dollar. A fissure extended backwards an inch and a half into the left parietal. There was a stellate fracture 
of the inner table, but no depression. At the seat of injury there was no extravasation of blood. The brain substance around 
this point was softened, but to an inconsiderable degree. The specimen was preserved, but was not forwarded to the Army 
Medical Museum. The case was reported by Surgeon C. T. Alexander, U. S. A., in charge of Lawson Hospital. 

CASE. Private Miles P. Hatch, Co. H, 161st New York Volunteers, aged 22 years, was admitted, on January 12th, 1865, 
to St. Louis Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, with twenty other wounded men, injured on the occasion of the collision between 
the United States transport J. H. Dickey, and John Ruin, on the Mississippi River, fifteen miles below Vicksburg, on January 
9th, 1865. Private Hatch was found to be still laboring under the effects of concussion of the brain. He had received a 
violent blow, causing a wound of the scalp and fracture of the skull. Symptoms of injury to the brain persisting, the wound 
in the scalp was enlarged, and the fracture was exposed, and a fragment of depi-essed bone was removed. The case terminated 
fatally on January 14th, 1865. This imperfect account is derived from the monthly report of the 161st New York Volunteers, 
for January, 1865, and from the hospital register, signed by Surgeon A. McMahon, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Jonathan Leet, Co. M, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years, received, on April 4th, 1865, a com 
minuted fracture of the cranium, by a blow from a glass bottle. He was admitted to hospital, at Cumberland, Maryland, 
on May 14th, from his regiment. Fragments of bone were removed on the following day. He was discharged from service on 
August 15th, 1865. Surgeon J. B. Lewis, U. S. V., recoi-ds the case. 

CASK. Private Conrad Murphy, Co. E, 17th Kentucky Volunteers, was confined for misconduct in the guard-house, on 
February 15th, 1863. He was insubordinate, and the sentinel struck him on the head with the butt of a musket, with such 
violence as to fracture the frontal bone. Murphy was taken to the Post Hospital, at Clarksville, Tennessee, under the charge 
of Surgeon A. B. Patterson, 102d Ohio Volunteers. Stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, oppressed pulse, and stupor, indicated 
compression of the brain. An incision was made at the seat of injury, and the depressed bone was elevated, and detached 
spiculae were removed, but the grave symptoms were not modified, and death took place on February 18th, 1863. At the 
autopsy, made by Assistant Surgeon S. Hubbard, 17th Kentucky Volunteers, it was found that there had been an extensive 
extravasation of blood upon the brain. 

CASE. Private , 149th New York Volunteers, received at Stevenson, Alabama, January 29th, 1864, a heavy blow 

from a glass bottle, in a private quarrel, in the camp of the Second Division, Twentieth Army Corps. He was taken to the 
regimental hospital, and Surgeon J. V. Kendall, 149th New York Volunteers, ascertained that there was a fracture of the 
frontal bone over the right frontal sinus, with depression of the vitreous table. The patient had repeated convulsions and in 

the intervals was partially comatose. Surgeon Kendall extended the wound in the 
integument so as to freely expose the bone, and removed four fragments of bone, and 
also raised a depressed portion of the inner plate, which was not detached. The scalp 
was then brought together by sutures, and cold water dressings were applied. The 
patient was reported as doing well in February, the symptoms of compression being 
FIG. 20. Four fragments removed from the entirely relieved, but it has been impracticable to learn the ultimate result of the case, 
riprht side of the frontal bone, fractured by a The fragments of bone removed are represented in the adjoining wood-cut, (FiG. 20,) 
blow from a bottle ; natural size. Spec. L L 10, 
Sect. I, A. JI. M. and comprise about half a square inch of the inner table, and a somewhat larger portion 

of the external table. 

CASE. Private Charles V. Orton, Co. L, 1st Tennessee Cavalry, in an engagement at Shoal Creek, Alabama, October 
19th, 1864, received a wound in the neck from a musket ball, which lodged under the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, and also a 
blow, apparently from the butt of a musket, or stone, which produced a compound fracture of the frontal bone. The regimental 
surgeon, Dr. W. F. Green, reports that several fragments of bone were removed from the forehead, and the signs of compression 
of the brain being thereby relieved, the patient was sent, by way of Pulaski, to Nashville, Tennessee, and was admitted to 
Hospital No. 14, on November 23d. He was subsequently sent to the West End Hospital, at Cincinnati, Ohio, and was 
discharged from service, on May 2d, 1805, for disability -rated at three-fourths. He was allowed a pension of six dollars per 
month from this date, and Commissioner H. Van Aernam states that he drew his pension on March 4th, 1869; but that the 
particulars of his condition at that time were not reported. 




REMOVAL OF FRAGMENTS AND TREPHINING. 



57 




Fin. 21. Segment of riprht 
parietal, showing a fracture 
from a blow from a spade. 
Spec. 712, Sect. 1, A. M. M. 



CASE. At Antietam, Maryland, September 17th, 1862, a soldier, employed in entrenching, 
struck another, on the left side of his head, with the edge of a spade. The wounded man fell, 
badly stunned, and, on examination, it was found that the blow had produced a depressed frac 
ture of the left parietal bone. The patient was conveyed to the Smoketown Hospital, and was 
placed under the care of Surgeon B. A. Vanderkieft, U. S. V. He breathed with stertor, and had a slow 
pulse, diluted pupils, and the other signs of compression of the brain. The scalp was shaved, and an 
incision was made, through which a number of fragments of detached bone were removed. The 
patient lingered, in a state of stupor, until November 8th, 18(52. The particulars of the case are 
not recorded in the register or in the reports from Smoketown Hospital ; but the only death in 
the hospital from fracture of the cranium, at the date referred to, is that of Sergeant Arthur F. 
Hascall, Co. C, 61st New York Volunteers. The fracture extends downwards from the sagittal 
suture three inches, and it is an inch wide at its lowest part. A few fragments are adherent 
to the inner table, and the edges of the orifice are carious. The specimen is represented in the 
adjoining wood-cut, (FiG. 21.) The contour of the aperture in the bone represents, with exactness, 
the outline of the edge of the spade. The specimen was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum 
by Surgeon Vanderkieft, by Hospital Steward A. Schafhirt, U. S. A. The latter states that a 
detailed history accompanied the specimen. A careful search has failed to discover this paper, and 
the registers of the Museum contain no indication of its reception. 

TREPHINING. The following eighteen abstracts of cases of fracture of the skull 
from various causes, other than gunshot injury, refer to instances in which the trephine 
was formally applied : 

CASE. Private Joseph Bums, Co. C, 4th Kentucky Cavalry, aged 23 years, was struck on the head at 8 o clock P. M., 
February 2 2d, 1864, by a slung shot, which produced a fracture of the skull, extending from the vertex to the left orbit, through 
the parietal, frontal, and the great wing of the sphenoid. The patient was taken to Clay Hospital, at Louisville, Kentucky, on 
the evening of the accident, with symptoms of grave compression of the brain. During the night he had frequent convulsions. 
Early the following morning, Acting Assistant Surgeon John E. Crowe applied the trephine, and elevated the depressed bone. 
The patient had previously been comatose or convulsed every five or ten minutes; but in ten minutes after the operation he 
became conscious, and spoke rationally, stating the circumstances attending his injury and his military history. In a few hours, 
however, the convulsive paroxysms returned, and continued during the night. The patient died on the succeeding day, 
February 24th, 1864. Surgeon Alexander T. Watson, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Patrick II. Green, Co. II, 125th New York Volunteers, while on furlough, received a blow on the left 
side of the head from a slung shot, on the night of May 23d, 1863. He w r as treated by a private physician until June 3d, when 
he was admitted into the Ladies Home Hospital, New York City. Twenty-four hours after his admission he had a spasm of 
the right side of the body, and, upon examination, there was found to be a depressed fracture of the skull. The scalp was laid 
open by an incision, and trephining was performed, and the depressed portions of bone were removed. The scalp wound was 
united by sutures, and a compress of cloths wet with tepid water were applied. Rest and quiet were enjoined. The convulsions 
ceased after the operation, and the wound discharged freely. The patient progressed favorably, and was discharged from service 
on September 21st, 1863, for hemiplegia. Acting Assistant Surgeon John W. Robie reports the case. 

CASE. Private Charles H , Co. G. 61st Ohio Volunteers, aged 37 years, was found lying in the street, at Alex 
andria, Virginia, on September 27th, 1863, in a comatose condition, with a wound on the right side of his head. He was 
conveyed to the New Hallowell branch of the 3d Division General Hospital, by 
the provost guard. On admission his breathing was stertorous, laborious, 
slow ; his pulse was at 48, full and regular. There was a punctured wound 
over the lower portion of the right parietal, and an examination by the probe 
showed that the bone was fractured and depressed. A crucial incision was 
made through the scalp, and the cranium being freely exposed, it was found 
that the fracture was much more extensive than had been supposed. A disk 
of bone was removed by the trephine, and several detached pieces were 
removed by the elevator, so that, altogether, a portion four inches in length 
by two inches in width of the skull-cap was taken away. The flaps of the 
integument were then brought together and were united by sutures. Cold 
water dressings were applied. The immediate effects of the operation were 

vcrv remarkable. In less than three minutes after the removal of the de- Fir,. 22. Section of cranium with great loss of sub- 

... , , stance from the removal of depressed fragments. 3pc 

pressed fragments, the patient opened Ins eyes, and appeared to awake to 0^73 St , ct j ^ M M _ 

consciousness, and in less than a minute more he spoke, articulating dis 
tinctly. For the first week after the operation his diet was restricted to barley water. On October 4th, seven days after the 
operation, he was reported to have had no bad symptom and he complained of nothing but hunger. The sutures had been 
removed, and the greater portion of the incision had united by first intention. He was now allowed the "extra diet" of the 
hospital, consisting of oyster broth, rice pudding, and the like. On October 20th, the patient was up and about the ward. No 
untoward symptoms had intervened meanwhile, and the treatment had been unchanged. At this date the patient was put on 
" half diet," and the nearly cicatrized wound was dressed with simple cerate. He continued to do well until November 26th 
when he was visited bv his brother, who brought him some bad news from home which disturbed him very much, and he 
immediately went to bed and became stupid and sullen, taking no notice of anything. Is it not possible that his brother brought 

8 




58 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



him some stimulant as well ? On October 27th the patient had become comatose, with every sign of compression of the 
brain and on October 28th, 1863, lie died. At the autopsy, twenty hours after death, there was found to be an abscess in 
the right hemisphere and the neighboring brain substance was softened. The thoracic and abdominal viscera were healthy. 
The edges of the aperture were found to be rounded off and in process of repair. The notes from which the abstract is 
compiled were made by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. B. Ward, and the specimen was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum 
by Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V. It is represented in the wood-cut (FiG. 22) on the preceding page. 

CASE. Private John T. Jenkins, 5th Alabama Regiment, was received into a regimental hospital at Union Mills, 
Fluvanna county, Virginia, in October, 1861, suffering from compression of the brain, produced by a blow. The skull was 
extensively fractured. Trephining was unsuccessfully performed. The patient died on October 26th, 1861. The case is noted 
on a monthly report of sick and wounded signed by Surgeon A. Venable, C. S. A., and no farther particulars can be obtained. 

CASE. Private William II. Lowery, Co. C, 6th Tennessee Cavalry, aged 22 years, was wounded in an affray at Mem 
phis, Tennessee, October 3d, 1864, receiving a punctured fracture of the right parietal bone, -near its superior posterior angle, 
produced by a blow of a musket, the hammer passing through both tables of the cranium. He remained in the regimental hos 
pital until October 13th, when he entered Gayoso Hospital. He was somewhat drowsy and stupid, but no other symptoms of 
compression existed. On the following day he was put under the influence of chloroform, and Acting Assistaiit Surgeon Julius 
Brey trephined the skull and removed a circular portion of the outer table and three depressed fragments of the inner table. 
The tip of the little finger could be introduced through the opening made in the skull, and it appeared that there w r as no injury 
to the dura mater. Cold water dressings were applied to the wound. The patient was restless for several days, and slightly 
delirious at night. Symptoms of cerebral disturbance were thought to be favorably modified by the use of the extract of Can- 
nabis Indica. On October 18th, an intercurrent attack of pneumonia supervened. On November 3d, there were signs of cerebral 
hernia. Protrusion of the cerebral substance progressed so rapidly, that on November 6th it was deemed expedient to compress 
the fungous mass by a bladder of ice. On November 7th, paralysis of the left arm was observed. On the 16th, the cerebral 
hernia was still further compressed by a metallic disk. Coma supervened, and the patient died, November 17th, 1864. Surgeon 
F. N. Burke, U. S. V., furnished the notes of the case. 

CASE. Private E. Miller, Co. G, 6th Virginia Cavalry, aged 17 years, was wounded, in a railroad collision on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Railroad, near Carlisle, Illinois, June 21st, 1865. He was taken to Illinoistown, under the care of his 
regimental surgeon. Dr. A. II. Thayer, and was thence sent to the Marine Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, where a depressed 
fracture of the cranium was diagnosticated. Assistant Surgeon E. M. Hoi ton, U. S. Army, decided that the symptoms of 
compression of the brain demanded an operation, and applied the trephine, and removed several fragments of bone; but the 
symptoms were not relieved, and the case terminated fatally in the night of June 23d, 1865. Surgeon T. F. Azpell, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

CASE. Private Sumner H. Needham, Co. I, 6th Massachusetts Militia, on April 19th, 1861, during the attack upon his 
regiment, by riotous insurgents in Baltimore, Maryland, was struck on the forehead by a brick, which fractured the frontal 
bone. He was conveyed to the Baltimore University, where his -wound was examined by Dr. William A. Hammond, who 
found symptoms of compression of the brain demanding the application of the trephine. The operation was immediately 
performed by Dr. Hammond, but the symptoms were not relieved, and the patient died in a few hours, April 19th, 1861. Mr. 
Needham, a resident of Lawrence, Massachusetts, was one of the earliest victims of the rebellion.* 

CASK. A negro, whose name was unknown, w r as brought into the E Street Infirmary, Washington, D. C., with well 
marked symptoms of compression of the brain, in the latter part of February, 1864. He was examined by Assistant Surgeon 
J. W. S. Gouley, U. S. A., who found a wound over the right parietal pro 
tuberance, caused apparently by a blow from the head of an axe. The scalp 
was shaved, and it was found that there was a depressed fracture of both tables 
of the skull, with detachment of a large fragment. It was not practicable to 
insert the elevator to raise the depressed fragment; to allow this to be done, a 
disk of bone was removed by the trephine. A triangular fragment, measuring 
an inch by one and a quarter inches, was then removed and the flaps of the 
scalp were approximated. The symptoms of compression were relieved, and 
the patient was doing well three days subsequently, when the specimen, rep 
resented in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 23), was forwarded to the Army 
Medical Museum. The facts above noted are taken from a minute, made upon 

the reception of the specimen, by Surgeon John H. Brinton, U. S. V. It has Fir , 2:i ._ Disk and t - ragment of bone removed for 
been impracticable to learn the ultimate result of the case; but a letter from depressed fracture from a blow. Spec. 2081, Sect. I, 
the late Assistant Surgeon T. G. Mackenzie, U. S. A., dated March 25th, 1864, A M M 

states that the man was doing well at that date, though his left arm was paralyzed. Dr. Mackenzie refers to an escape of brain 
substance at the time of the injury; and Dr. Gouley, in forwarding this letter, states that at least half an ounce of brain matter 
was lost, and comments on the singular good fortune of the patient in recovering without the supervention of cerebral hernia, 
and without loss or apparent impairment of the mental faculties. 

CASE. A. B. Parish, Quartermaster s Department, received a lacerated wound of the frontal region, with fracture and 
depression of the frontal bone, by a kick from a horse, near Natchez, Mississippi, September 13th, 1864. He was admitted to 
the hospital, at Natchez, on the same day, in a semi -comatose condition. Soon after his admission, Acting Assistant Surgeon 
James S. King, administered chloroform, and trephined the skull, and raised the depressed portion of bone with the elevator. 
The patient soon reacted. Tonics, stimulants, and low diet, were ordered. The patient gradually improved, and was discharged 
from the hospital, entirely cured, on October 13, 1865. 





* Record of the Massachusetts Volunteers, 18C1-1865. Published by the Adjutant General, under a Resolve of the General Court, Quarto. 
Boston, 1868, pp. 793. Vol. I, p. 34. 



TREPHINING. 59 

CASK. Private P , 14th Tennessee Confederate Infantry, aged 25 years, small in stature, but muscular, received, 

in a quarrel, a wound on the anterior portion of the parietal bone, from a stone held in the clenched fist of his adversary. He 
was stunned by the blow. Fearing punishment, he did not report at sick call for several days, when he was compelled to do so 
because of the supervention of erysipelas. He was soon relieved of this complication ; but in a few weeks, became subject to 
epileptic paroxysms, which recurred every four or five days. He was discharged for disability, and went to his home, at 
Springfield, Tennessee. Convulsions recurred with such frequency and violence that he went to Nashville in May, 1862, to be 
treated by Dr. \V. T. Briggs, of the medical school in that city. His general health was poor, the countenance pale, the bowels 
torpid, the pulse quick and irritable. A depression of the skull corresponded with the cicatrix of the original wound. There 
was no pain about the cicatrix ; but a sense of pressure on the whole side of the head. After ten days of preparatory treat 
ment, Dr. Briggs, assisted by Drs. Bowling and Buchanan, removed a disk of bone witli the crown of a very large trephine. 
The inner surface of the disk presented a sharp angle at the union of the edges of the depressed inner table. Special 
instructions were given that the patient should rest quietly in bed, but he disregarded these instructions, yet the wound healed 
in ten days, and there was no recurrence of the convulsions. He reentered the Confederate service, as a so-called " Partisan 
Ranger," and was captured and sentenced to be hung, but escaped before the sentence "was executed; and, under these exciting 
circumstances had no return of epilepsy. The abstract of the case is compiled from a report by the operator.* 

CASK. Private James Rogers, Battery L, 4th Ohio Artillery, was struck on the head by a stone on May 3d. 1805, 
receiving a depressed fracture of the skull. He was admitted to the hospital at New Creek, Virginia, on May 7th, in a comatose 
state. He remained in this condition until May 9th, when he was placed under the influence of ether, and Assistant Surgeon 
S. M. Finley, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, applied the trephine and elevated the depressed bone. The patient reacted well, and 
simple dressings were applied. Erysipelas supervened, but was successfully combatted by chloride of iron. The patient 
improved rapidly, the wound was cicatrized, and he returned to duty, well, on June 29th, 1865. 

CASK. Private John R , Co. H, 2d Michigan Volunteers, aged 41 years, was wounded on July 17th, 1865, in a 

street affray, receiving four wounds of the head from stones thrown at him. He was admitted to Armory Square Hospital, Wash 
ington, D. C., on the following day. He was perfectly conscious, yet had marked contraction of the pupils, with accelerated 
pulse, and a tremulous voice. There was considerable ecchymosis about the orbits. The first wound examined was over the 
frontal eminence, aixl penetrated no further than the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis muscle. The second was in the centre 
of the coronal suture, and slightly denuded the pericranium. The third was in the right temporal region, and likewise was a 
scalp wound. The fourth was on the right parietal eminence ; and, upon a close examination, it was discovered that a minute 
depression of the bone, half an inch in diameter, existed, evidently produced by a blow from the sharp edge of the stone. The 
patient was a stout, muscular man, in good health ; he suffered no nausea, and little pain. He was immediately placed under 
the influence of ether, and Surgeon D. \V. Bliss, U. S. V., after shaving the scalp, made a crucial incision three inches in 
length, having the wound at the intersection of the incisions, and then, reflecting the flaps, applied the crown of a trephine and 
removed a disk of bone, which was found to include, with remarkable exactness, a depressed fragment of the vitreous plate. 
Between the diploe and depressed lamina there was a coagulum. The dura mater was uninjured The wound was partly 
closed by four sutures, an opening being left over the perforation, into which a 
pledget of charpie was inserted. The patient recovered favorably from the anaes 
thetic, and was put to bed and ordered to observe perfect quiet and strict diet. 
The case proceeded without an unfavorable symptom. On July 23d, the sutures 
were removed. On July 24th, the compress of charpie was taken away, and a 
healthy granulating surface appeared beneath. These facts in regard to the case 

were reported by Assistant Surgeon Charles A. Leale, U. S. V. The pathologi- 

J _ FIG. 24. External and internal views of a button of 

cal specimen was presented to the Army Medical Museum by the operator, and bone removed for a depressed fracture by a blow from 

* i TVI i i AT o- i- xi o i oi p xi ir i- i a stone. S/>KC. 140~. Sect. I, A. M. 31. 

is represented in Photograph .No. 87 of the Surgical Section of the Army Medical 

Museum, and in the accompanying wood-cut, (FlG. 24.) The disk is seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, and is slightly 
reduced in the illustration. On August 24th, 1865, the patient was transferred to Harper Hospital at Detroit, Michigan. The 
case continued to progress favorably, and the man recovered without a bad symptom. He was discharged from service on 
September 8th, 1865. 

CASK. Private James C. Shedd, Co. D, llth New York Cavalry, aged 19 years, was thrown from his horse to the 
pavement, while riding through the streets of New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10th, 1864. There was a compound comminuted 
fracture of the cranium, confined principally to the external table, which was depressed about an inch and a half in length and 
half an inch in depth. He was conveyed to the University Hospital, being in a stupid condition, in consequence of the concussion 
and the influence of liquor ; but, at times, he was restless, and could be aroused for brief periods only by determined efforts; 
Shortly after admission he was placed under the influence of chloroform. Surgeon Samuel Kneeland, U. S. V., then enlarged 
the wound of the scalp, which was found much torn and bruised, and trephined the skull at the anterior portion. of the right 
parietal region, removing several pieces of bone and elevating others. Cold water was applied to the wound, rest and quiet 
enjoined, and light diet ordered. The case progressed favorably, with very little cerebral disturbance, and on the 10th of June, 
1864, the patient was discharged from the service, as a long time would be necessary for the exfoliation of the bone, extensively 
denuded of periosteum. His general health and strength were excellent. 

CASK. Jesse Smith, Freedman, aged 18 years, employed as a cattle driver, rolled off, in his sleep, from the hay in a 
stable loft, and fell, some twelve feet to the floor, striking his head. He was found in the morning, cold and insensible, Iving 
on the stable floor, near the horses. Under the use of frictions, hot drinks, and other restoratives he revived, and was carried 
to the Freedmen s Hospital, at Alexandria, Virginia. Acting Assistant Surgeon Robert N. Atwood, found a wound of the scalp 
of a crucial form over the right parietal eminence, and a depressed fracture of the bone; but, as the general condition of the 





* The Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, New Series, ISM, Vol. I. ji. 3."). 



60 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 




;. 25. IHsk and depressed 
fragment of bone from right 
parietal. Spec. 4817, Sect. I, A. 



patient was comfortable, sensibility being restored, and the mental faculties being apparently normal, Dr. Atwood decided to 
await further developments. No decidedly bad cerebral symptoms appeared for twelve days after the injury, when the patient 
complained of increased headache, and a few hours subsequently had a severe convulsion. On the following day, the patient 
was much the same as usual, except that his headache was increased. Dr. Atwood, in consultation with Acting Assistant 
Surgeon A. W. K. Andrews, decided to operate, and ether having been administered, enlarged the original wound and applied 
the trephine, and removed a button of bone to which the greater portion of the depressed fragments were united by the inner 
table. On removing the bone, pus gushed out copiously. At the upper posterior part of the perforation the inner table was 
detached three-fourths of an inch more than the outer. This fragment was, with some difficulty ; 
removed by strong forceps. An hour afterwards, the patient having recovered from the ether, 
was highly excited, restless, and complained of intolerable pain. He was ordered a grain of 
sulphate of morphia, and in two hours slept comfortably. For ten days subsequently, the morphia 
was continued, being given to the extent of two or three grains daily. His diet, at this time, was 
bread and milk, in small quantities, acidulated with vinegar, which he craved earnestly. He also 
had vinegar and water to drink. In three days after the operation the brain commenced to 
to protrude through the opening in the skull, and by the tenth day had attained the size and shape 
of half of a hen s egg. Dr. Atwood decided to try, by gentle compression, to reduce the protru 
sion, and applied a compress and retentive bandage with this view; but immediately violent M M 

convulsions occurred; and, although the compress was instantly removed, violent convulsive paroxysms recurred during the 
night, not less than fifteen or twenty times. The next day the patient was hovering between life and death, but he gradually 
rallied, and strange to say, after the subsidence of the convulsions he had no more pain in his head. His bowels had been 
regular throughout his illness, and he had taken no medicine except the morphia, which was discontinued as soon as the pain 
in the head ceased. Convalescence proceeded rapidly; the protrusion subsided; a firm and dense cicatrix covered the 
aperture in the skull; and the patient recovered without any impairment of his mental faculties or motor powers. Several 
months after his recovery he was brought to the Army Medical Museum to be photographed. The picture is numbered 185 in 
the Surgical Series. The boy was then in perfectly good health, and his faculties were unimpaired. The specimen of the disk 
and depressed fragment of the parietal was presented to the Museum by Dr. Atwood, and is figured in the accompanying wood 
cut, (FiG. 25.) 

CASE. Private W. H. South, Co. H, 168th Pennsylvania Volunteers, while quartered in a house, at Washington, North 
Carolina, fell down stairs, May 13th, 1863, and struck upon the left side of his head. The medical officer of the garrison, 
Assistant Surgeon P. E. Hubon, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, was summoned, and found that there was a stellated fracture 
of the cranium, one fissure running over the occipital bone, another fissure through the petrous portion of the left temporal, and 
a third extending to the left orbit. At the point of impact the left parietal was much depressed. The patient was unconscious, 
and stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, and other evidences of compression of the brain existed. Dr. Hubon applied the 
trephine and elevated the depressed bone. The patient did not regain consciousness, and died thirty-nine hours after the 
accident, May 15th, 1863. The case appears on the monthly report of the Post Hospital, Washington, North Carolina, for 
May, 1863. 

CASE. Private Charles E. Towns, Co. I, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, was thrown from his horse, and falling upon 
his head, received a fracture of the cranium. He was treated in the regimental hospital until February 1st, 1865, when he was 
admitted to the hospital of the Second Division of the Ninth Army Corps. The accident is not recorded on the regimental 
reports, and it is impracticable to ascertain its date. Such facts as are known are derived from the report of the Corps Hospital. 
On the patient s admission it was decided that compression of the brain with depressed bone existed; and the operation of 
trephining was performed by Surgeon L. W. Bliss, 1st New York Volunteers. The date and other particulars are wanting. 
The patient died, February 20th, 1865. The case was reported by Surgeon F. N. Gibson, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers. 

CASE. Private Charles Williams, Co. B, 161st New York Volunteers, was admitted into St. Louis Hospital, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, January 12th, 1865, with an extensive fracture of the cranium and compression of the brain, caused by a 
blow received in a steamboat collision, January 9th, 1865, between the U. S. Transport J. H. Dickey and the Transport John 
Rain, on the Mississippi River, fifteen miles below Vicksburg. The trephine was applied and a portion of depressed bone was 
elevated, and another portion was removed. The patient died on January 18th, 1865. Surgeon A. McMahon, U. S. V., 
records the case on his monthly report without particulars of the operation or after treatment. 

CASE. Private Charles V , Signal Corps, received, on February 24th, 1862, at Georgetown, D. C., a kick from a 
horse; the sharp cork of the shoe penetrating the cranium at the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone, driving fragments 
of the internal table inward, penetrating the dura muter and rupturing the middle 
meningeal artery. He was seen by Acting Assistant Surgeon John S. Billings, 
six hours after the reception of the injury. He was comatose, and presented the 
usual signs of compression of the brain from depressed fracture. Dr. Billings 
applied the trephine and removed the depressed fragments, and also about two 
ounces of coagulated blood. The patient immediately came to his senses, and 
did well for four days, when symptoms of cerebro-meningitis set in. The patient 
was then transferred to the Union Hotel Hospital. Active treatment was unavail 
ing, and death followed in two days, or on March 2d, 1862. The autopsy showed 
effusion of lymph over the whole of the right hemisphere of the cerebrum. A 
portion of the cranium, showing the extent of bone removed, was contributed, 
with a memorandum of the case, to the Army Medical Museum by Dr. Billings. Fio. 2G.-Secfion of the cranium trephined for 
It is represented in the adjacent wood cut (FiG 26 } depressed fracture from the kick of ahorse. Spec. 

3453, Sect. I, A. M. M. 




ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 61 

Five hundred and eight cases of injuries of the head, resulting from railroad accidents, 
falls, blows, or analogous causes, have been enumerated in the foregoing pages of this 
Section. They comprise nearly all of the cases of this nature reported by name during 
the war; all, in fact, in which the nature and seat of the injury could be satisfactorily 
verified. A large proportion pertain to the two latter years of the war, when the system 
of reporting had been perfected. A few cases, about eighteen altogether, have been 
gleaned from the Confederate records. Of the whole number of five hundred and eight 
cases, three hundred and thirty-one were contusions or lacerations of the integuments, 
without serious primary or secondary injury to the skull or its contents; seventy-two were 
examples of injury of the head affecting the brain, but without fracture of the skull; and 
one hundred and five were instances of fracture of the skull. In the first class, all of the 
patients recovered, though there were many instances of troublesome complications from 
hsemorrhage, abscesses under the scalp, erysipelas, and sloughing. In the second class, 
the percentage of complete recovery was small, as fourteen of the cases terminated fatally, 
and fifty-three patients were discharged for disability. In the third class, the mortality 
was large, fifty-seven of the one hundred and five patients having died. 

Of the five hundred and eight cases, seventy resulted from railroad accidents, seventy- 
eight from falls, two hundred and six from blows, and one hundred and fifty-four from 
unspecified causes other than gunshot, the sabre, or the bayonet. 

Analyzing the seventy cases of injuries by railway accidents, it is found that forty- 
nine were contusions and lacerations of the integuments, attended, in some instances, with 
the temporary effects of concussion, or by erysipelas, sloughing, or burrowing of pus. 
Thirty-five of these forty-nine men were returned to duty, and fourteen were discharged 
for disability. Eleven were cases of severe concussion, or contusion, or Inceration of the 
brain, and of these patients, two were returned to duty, one was furloughed and not heard 
from afterwards, one was discharged as permanently blind, one died from pulmonary com 
plications, and six died from the effects of the accident. Ten were cases of fracture of 
the skull, and, of these patients, one was returned to duty, one was transferred to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps, one was discharged, and seven, including one who had been 
unsuccessfully trephined, died. In short, of the seventy patients reported with injuries of 
the head from railroad accidents, thirty-nine went to duty, seventeen were discharged,* 
and fourteen died. 

Of the seventy-eight cases of injuries of the head from falls, forty-three were exam 
ples of contusions or of contused or lacerated wounds, followed ultimately by recovery. 
Seventeen were attended by grave concussion of the brain, or other serious complications, 
and of these seventeen patients, three were returned to duty, nine were discharged, one was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, one deserted, and three died. Eighteen were 
cases of fracture of the skull, and thirteen of them were fatal Five of the eighteen 
patients were subjected to trephining, or the removal of fragments, or the elevation of 
depressed bone, and three of the five recovered. In brief, forty-nine of the seventy-eight 
patients were returned to duty, twelve were discharged, sixteen died, and one was doing 
well at the last report, fifteen days after undergoing an operation for the elevation of 
depressed bone. 

* In the summaries, the men transferred to modified duty in the Veteran Reserve Corps, are included with those returned 
to duty, and the furloughed men, not heard from, and the deserters, with those discharged. 



($2 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Of the two hundred and six cases of injuries of the head from blows, the scalp alone 
was seriously involved in one hundred and eighteen; six of these patients deserted, and 
the remainder were returned to duty. Thirty-six cases were attended by cerebral com 
plications; of these men, three went to duty, three to modified duty in the Veteran Reserve 
Corps, twenty-seven were discharged, and one died, while in two cases, the ultimate result 
has not been ascertained. Fifty-two were instances of fractures of the skull, and of this 
series of patients, seven recovered and were returned to duty, one was transferred to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps, fourteen were discharged for disability, twenty-eight died,* and in 
two cases the result is undetermined. Operative interference was employed in twenty of 
the fifty-two fractures. One of the patients went to duty, six were discharged, and eleven 
died, and in two cases^the ultimate issue has not been ascertained. The results of the two 
hundred and six cases may be thus recapitulated : one hundred and twenty-six went to 
duty, forty-seven were discharged, twenty-nine died, while in four cases the results are 
undetermined. 

Of the one hundred and fifty-four cases of injuries of the head from unspecified 
causes, one hundred and twenty-one refer to uncomplicated contusions or lacerations of 
the scalp. One hundred and thirteen of these patients returned to duty, and eight deserted. 
In eight cases, the brain or its membranes were involved, and four of these patients were 
discharged on account of deafness, paralysis, or impairment of the mental faculties, one 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, and three died. Twenty-five cases are 
reported as instances of fracture of the skull; but in several of the cases the diagnosis is 
not beyond suspicion. Six of these patients are reported as returned to duty, two were 
furloughed, eight were discharged for disability, and nine died. 

In brief, of the five hundred and eight patients with wounds and injuries of the head, 
three hundred and thirty-four were returned to duty, ninety-eight were discharged, 
seventy-one died, and, in five cases, the results are undetermined. 

The Contusions of the Scalp, from miscellaneous causes, may be conveniently sub 
divided into those in which there was laceration of small vessels in the areolar tissue and 
limited effusion of blood ; those attended by extensive ecchymosis ; and those in which the 
tissues were pulpified and disorganized. J 

The uncomplicated contusions of the scalp, without external breach of surface, that 
were treated in hospital, generally required but little surgical interference. They were 
commonly dressed with a spirit or lead lotion, at first, or by an ice bladder, or the frigorific 
mixture of hydrochlorate of ammonia, saltpetre, and salt, recommended by Hennen 1 and 
Schmucker, 2 conjoined with elevation of the head, and an antiphlogistic regimen. No 
instance of the application of leeches is mentioned. When a large amount of effused 
blood remained long unabsorbed, bandaging, with moderate compression, stimulating 
frictions, and general treatment were sometimes employed. In a few cases, the bad 
practice of incising the tumor and squeezing out the coagulum, is reported to have been 
adopted, with the result of inducing inflammatory action and unhealthy suppuration. 

* The case of Wiggins, on page 50, should have been recorded as fatal. He died on April 14th, 1865. 

t Already referred to among the tifiy-two fractures. 

t Dupuytren, it is well known, classified contusions in four degrees, (Lcyons Orales, T. IV, p. 267;) hut even the French 
surgeons admit that either the third or fourth division is " un pen arbitrairc." See FOLLIN, Traitc de Pathologic Externc, T. I, 
p. 386, Paris, 1869. 

1 HENNEN. Principles of Military Sur;/er>/, 3d ed., London, 1829, p. 283. 

3 SCHMUCKER, J. L. Claruryiwhc fl alirnek-Htinyen. Berlin und Stettin, 1774, Erster Theil, S. 89. 



ANALYTICAL RFA IflW. bo 

In quite a large number of the contusions of the scalp, there was great extravasation 
of blood under the occipito-frontalis tendon; and, in several of these cases, suppuration 
ensued. They were judiciously treated by free incisions at the most depending parts, 
the courses of the larger arterial branches being avoided, and by the subsequent appli 
cation of warm water dressings. Though complicated, in a few instances, by erysipelas and 
sloughing, recovery eventually resulted in all of these cases. There were also examples of 
bruises of the scalp, with effusion of blood in the meshes of the condensed cellular tissue 
connecting the common integument with the occipito-frontalis aponeurosis, producing that 
remarkable condition in which, the effused blood coagulating imperfectly, the portion in 
the centre remaining fluid, and the scalp being apparently depressed at this point, a 
depressed fracture is closely simulated. These circumscribed bosses, hard at the circum 
ference and soft and depressible in the centre, were more frequently observed over the 
lateral regions of the skull. Fortunately, there were no symptoms of affection of the 
brain in these cases, and the attendants wisely refrained from cutting down upon the bone. 
Resolvent lotions and the popular plan of compressing the bump by one or two coins or a 
bit of folded sheet lead, appeared to expedite absorption. In two cases, the plan proposed 
by Champion, 1 of suddenly compressing the tumor by a blow severe enough to rupture the 
sanguineous cyst and to cause the blood to be infiltrated into the neighboring cellular 
tissue, was employed with good results. In these cases, a peculiar crepitation, due 
doubtless to broken fragments of fibrinous coagula, was observed. 

There were a few instances in which the surface of the scalp was unbroken while the 
tissues composing it were crushed so as to be irretrievably disorganized. These cases 
were treated by warm emollient applications, until the gangrene that ensued had ceased ; 
and the sloughs had separated, and granulation began; when the usual means of promoting 
cicatrization were employed. 

The Contused and Lacerated Wounds of the Scalp will be so fully considered in the 
section on gunshot wounds of the head, that few comments will be required in this place. 
In examining; the detailed histories of the several hundred cases barelv enumerated 

O *J 

in the foregoing part of this Section, examples are found of almost every variety of injuries 
of this nature, from slight solutions of continuity, resembling incised wounds, to nearly 
complete denudations of the calvarium. As a general rule, the treatment of these lesions 
appears to have been simple and judicious. That axiom of practical surgery which forbids, 
in the treatment of scalp wounds, the sacrifice of the smallest portion of damaged integu 
ment, was almost universally observed; and the means adopted of replacing and connecting 
detached flaps of integument were usually well selected. In several cases, very large 
portions of the scalp were described as nearly torn away, hanging by slender pieces of 
skin. Such injuries were caused, in two instances, by blows from muskets; but more 
frequently by falls, or by the passage of the wheels of heavy wagons, caissons, or gun- 
carriages, over the side of the head. In these cases, after suppressing haemorrhage, on 
the rare occasions in which it was troublesome, after cleansing the pendulous flaps irom 
the dirt, gravel, or other foreign bodies adhering to them, and after divesting them and 
the adjacent scalp of hair, it was customary to replace the flaps, and maintain them in 
position, either by agglutinative plasters, or by sutures. In most cases, the dressing was 
completed by the application of compresses dipped in cold water, and maintained by a 



1 Archives Gencralts de Medccine, Premiere S6rie, 1827, T. XV, p. 139. 



64 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

bandage. In some instances, layers of raw cotton, charpie, or picked oakum, were 
arranged as graduated compresses upon the flaps. A few surgeons preferred to apply 
poultices or warm water dressings, if the scalp was much mangled. In all of the cases 
of detachment of large flaps, it would appear that the pericranium was fortunately left 
entire; and, though many of these cases were complicated by erysipelas, sloughing, or by 
the bagging of pus, the wounds granulated after awhile, and all eventually cicatrized. No 
instance was reported of any special inconvenience arising from the employment of stitches. 
In one case, a very long wound was sewed up by the continued or Glover s suture, without 
bad consequences. Usually, when adhesive plasters were considered insufficient to 
approximate the edges of the wounds, the interrupted suture with metallic threads was 
employed. Assistant Surgeon J. S. Billings, U. S. A., reports a lacerated wound of the 
scalp neatly approximated by tying together the hairs bordering the retracted edges of 
the wound. This expedient answered a good purpose, cicatrization following as promptly 
as usual under more methodical dressings. 

In scalp wounds with little separation of the edges, adhesive plasters were the ordi 
nary dressing. The importance of adjusting the parts with the nicest accuracy, and of 
leaving sufficient intervals between the strips, with the lower angles of the wound open, 
was generally appreciated. The propriety of removing the dressings as infrequently as 
practicable was commonly recognized. In the hospitals about Philadelphia, the gauze and 
collodion dressing recommended by Dr. P. B. Goddard, found favor; but the isinglass and 
resin plasters, supplied by the field medicine-chests and knapsacks, were the agglutinatives 
commonly employed. In a few cases, it is stated that the old fashioned Friar s Balsam* 
was advantageously employed. 

The complications arising in this class of wounds of the scalp were haemorrhage, 
erysipelas, abscess, and sloughing. Several instances of troublesome bleeding from the 
posterior auricular, occipital, or temporal arteries, or their branches, are reported; but, in 
every case, the haemorrhage was controlled by compression, either by the clamp tourni 
quet, or the common tourniquet, or by a circular bandage and compress, or by a com 
press consisting of a metallic disk. In one case, a profuse secondary bleeding from the 
temporal was arrested by dividing the vessel transversely, and suffering it to retract. 
Persulphate of iron, in powder or solution, was employed as a styptic in several cases; 
but not with advantage. In a case in which it appeared that ligation must be resorted to, 
acupressure was suggested as peculiarly appropriate; and preparations to use this resource 
were made, when, the bleeding being controlled by pressure, ceased, and did not recur. 
Erysipelas was not a very frequent complication, being reported in but thirteen of the 
four hundred and three cases unattended by fracture. Nearly all of the cases in which it 
supervened were attended by symptoms of affection of the membranes of the brain, or of 
the brain itself; yet, with one exception, (KiRKLAND, p. 53), they terminated favorably, 
under the supporting and stimulating treatment uniformly adopted. There were numerous 
instances of abscesses under the scalp, due apparently, in most cases, to negligence in 
keeping the detached scalp in apposition with the subjacent parts by gentle bandaging, 
or to the retention of clots of blood under the flaps. Incisions, followed by fomentations 
and poultices, and the washing out of the cavity oi the abscess by warm detergent solu 
tions, appears to have been the ordinary treatment In many of the contused and lacerated 

* Compound Tincture of Benzoin, or Baume du Commandeur, or Tcinture lahanique of the French Codex. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 65 

wounds, there was slight loss of tissue from gangrene, and in two cases, very large portions 
of the scalp sloughed away, yet the exposed surface was soon covered with florid granu 
lations, and rapidly cicatrized. Detergent or stimulating lotions were employed in. these 
cases, and solutions of the salts of zinc or the permanganate of potassa were the applications 
commonly selected. 

Concussion of the Brain. It will be remembered that the five hundred and eight 
cases of injuries of the head from miscellaneous causes were classified, on page 61, in three 
divisions: the first comprising three hundred and thirty-one cases of injuries of the integ 
uments chiefly; the second, seventy-two cases of severer injuries, with cerebral complica 
tions; and the third, one hundred and five cases of fractures of the skull. In the 
second class were placed, only those cases which terminated fatally, or in discharge 
for disability, or in return to modified duty after protracted disability. But concus 
sion of the brain, temporary in its effects, was observed in a large proportion of the 
three hundred and thirty-one slighter cases enumerated in the first class; and, in 
fifteen of them, this complication was attended by profound insensibility and collapse 
and appeared, at first, to be very serious, though speedily followed by reaction and 
recovery. Severe commotion or concussion of the brain was observed in fifty-nine of the 
seventy-two cases of the second class, or, altogether, in seventy-four of the four hundred 
and three cases of miscellaneous injuries of the head without fracture. The treatment of 
this condition usually consisted in wrapping the patient in hot blankets, and applying 
bottles of hot water to the extremities, in employing frictions, and sinapisms, and stimu 
lating enemata; and, after reaction was established, in prescribing purgatives, low diet, 
and rest in bed. The precautions suggested by authors respecting the use of volatile 
salts, cordials, and venesection during the stage of collapse, appear to have been observed 
uniformly. The management of the stage of reaction appears, also, as a general rule, to 
have been prudent and judicious ; but many exceptions, due sometimes to the exigencies 
of the situation, and sometimes to the negligence or officiousness of the attendants, are 
noticed, in which quiet and abstinence were not enjoined, or stimulants and full diet were 
ordered in obedience to false therapeutic dogmas in preference to the lessons of experience. 
To these causes, probably, must be attributed the considerable number of instances in 
which concussion was followed by cerebral irritation or encephalitis, complications which 
will be considered further on. In one case of concussion, (SHERMAN, p. 41,) when reaction 
was becoming over-action, venesection was practiced, with apparent advantage. In one 
case, concussion produced almost instant death, (TURNER, p. 44;) but neither this nor the 
thirteen other cases which resulted fatally from the direct effects of concussion, throw any 
light upon the functional or textural alterations of the brain resulting from this shock, but 
leave the subject, which has perplexed pathologists for so many centuries, as inscrutable 
as e.ver 

As has been intimated at the beginning of this Section, the value of the numerical 
statistics relative to concussion and compression of the brain derivable from "monthly 
reports of sick and wounded," would have been greater, if the cases due to miscellaneous 
causes had always been separated from those resulting from injuries by gunshot projectiles. 
In the first year, and in a portion of the second year, of the war, the reporters failed some 
times to make this important discrimination; but, subsequently, explicit instructions having 



66 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



been promulgated, the gunshot injuries were separately reported. The number of cases 
of concussion and compression of the brain recorded on the monthly reports is given in 
the following table : * 

TABLE I. 

Cases of Concussion or Compression of the Brain, generally from Causes other than 
Gunshot, recorded on the Monthly Reports during the War. 



YEAH. 


May and June, 
1861. 


Year ending Year ending 
JimcSO, 1862. June 30, 1863. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1864. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1865. 


AGGREGATE. 


WHITE Tuoors. 
Mean strength in Field and Garrison.. 


41,556 


279, 590 
9,548 


0:50 

45 


,761 
,630 


622, 058 
55,710 


574,022 
71,484 


515, 517 
45, 593 

Cases. Deaths. 






Cases. Deaths. 


Cnsas. Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 

193 


Deaths. 


Concussion of Brain . . . 7 ... 


144 19 
00 17 


295 


62 


234 


52 


60 


873 193 

61 17 

; 


( Compression of Brain 1 
















COLORED TROOPS. 
Mean strength in Field and Garrison.. 






46, 020 
1, 222 


86, 6(50 
5, 572 


66, 340 
3, 397 


" " General Hospitals.. L 














Cases. 


Deaths 


Cases. 


Deaths 


Cases. Deaths. 


Concussion of Brain 








18 


9 


31 


49 22 











This table indicates that in the year ending June 30th, 1862, there was one case of 
concussion of the brain in a mean strength of 2,008, and that of 144 cases, one in 7.5 was 
fatal. In the following year, when the concussions from gunshot injury may be supposed 
to have been generally excluded, there was one case of concussion in a mean strength of 
2,292, and a mortality of one in 4.7 cases. In the third complete year there was, among 
the white troops, one case of concussion in 2,896, and a mortality of one in 4.5; and, in 
the colored troops, one case of concussion in 2,625 cases, with a mortality of one in 2 cases. 
In the fourth year, the cases of concussion were, among the white troops, one in 3,344 
mean strength, with a mortality of one in 3.2, and, among the colored troops, one in 2,975 
mean strength, with a mortality of one in 2.4. 

The report of Surgeon Thomas H. Williams, 0. S. A., Medical Director of the -Con 
federate Army of Northern Virginia, shows that the consolidation of the monthly reports 
of sick and wounded for nine months, from July, 1861, to March, 1862, inclusive, furnish 
eighteen instances of concussion of the brain in a mean strength of 49,394. During the 

* The consolidations for white troops are taken from page 640 of the medical volume of the First Part of the Medical and 
Surgical History of the Rebellion. The consolidations for the colored troops are furnished me in manuscript by Brevet Lieut. 
Col. J. J. Woodward, Assistant Surgeon II. S. A. After 1862, "compression of the brain" was excluded from the nomencla 
ture of the monthly report of sick and wounded. The deaths are understood to be included among the cases: e. <j. of 144 
patients with concussion of the brain, during the year ending June 30, 1862, 19 died. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 67 

months of September, October, November, and December, 1862, of an aggregate of 48,543 
patients in the General Hospitals under the supervision of Surgeon T. H Williams, C. S. A., 
there were sixteen examples of concussion of the brain. All of these thirty-four cases 
terminated favorably. From the absence, in these reports, of any fatal results from con 
cussion, it may be inferred such were probably entered under other headings. Of the 
Confederate systematic writers on military surgery, the compilers of the official manual 1 
advise, in the early treatment of concussion, the use of external warmth, frictions, and diffu 
sible stimuli; Surgeon J. J. Chisolm 3 , C. S. A., thinks "the safest practice consists in doing 
as little as possible, the indiscriminate use of stimuli on the one hand, or bloodletting on 
the other, being especially avoided;" while the Surgeon General of North Carolina, E. 
Warren, 3 with strange confusion, "in order that the pathological difference between con 
cussion and compression of the brain may be thoroughly comprehended," ascribes to 
concussion the signs almost universally believed to attend compression. The " Confederate 
States Medical and Surgical Journal," published under the auspices of Surgeon General 
S. P. Moore, C. S. A., contains no reference to the treatment of concussion of the brain, 
and the reports and treatises above alluded to furnish the scanty information to be derived 
from the Confederate records. 

Fractures of the Skull. Of the one hundred and five cases of fracture of the skull 
recorded in this Section, forty-six were instances of simple and forty-three of compound 
fracture; while, in sixteen cases, the reports are silent regarding this distinction. Fifty- 
seven of the one hundred and five cases terminated fatally; in three cases, the ultimate 
results cannot be learned; and forty-five patients are reported as recoveries. The causes 
of death in the fifty-seven fatal cases were: compression of the brain from fragments of 
bone, in sixteen cases; laceration of the brain, in five cases 4 ; shock and concussion, in two 
cases; extravasation of blood, in sixteen cases; encephalitis, in ten cases; abscess of the 
brain, in six cases; epilepsy, in one case; cerebral hernia, in one case. Each of the three 
undetermined cases was doing well several weeks after the reception of the injury. Of the 
forty-five patients reported as returned to duty, thirty had simple and fifteen compound 
fractures, and four of the simple and seven of the compound fractures were depressed. Of 
these forty-five patients, seventeen recovered wholly, and were returned to duty; one 
recovered and was mustered out on the expiration of his term of service; another recovered 
from the injury of the head, and was discharged on account of the loss of an arm; and 
twenty-six were discharged on account of physical disabilities of various degrees Epilepsy, 
in three cases; hemiplegia or paraplegia, in three cases; impaired intellectual functions, 
in two cases; deafness, in two cases; imperfect vision, in one case; vertigo and cephalalgia 
on exposure to the sun, in five cases, are the disabilities particularly specified. It is safe 
to say, that nineteen of the one hundred and five patients with fractured skull recovered 
completely, that twenty-nine recovered partially, and that fifty-seven died. 



1 A Manual of Military Sunjcry, prepared for the Use of the Confederate States Army, ly Order of the Sunjcon General. 
Richmond, 1863, p. 7. 

-CHISOLM. A Manual of Military Sunjery for the Use of Sunjcons of the Confederate States Army. Columbia, S. C., 
1864, p. <!7f). 

:l WAUUEN*. An, Epitome, of Tragical Stiryeri/ for Field and, Ifoxpltal. Richmond, 1863. p. 351. 

In one of tin- cases of laceration of the brain (MiciiAKL 13 , p. 44) there was cerebral hernia, :is well as in the case 

of Lrnvi.KY (p. f>8). cited two lines further on. In the latter, this complication was apparently, the proximate cause of death. 



68 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



All of the cases, twenty-eight in number, of fracture of the skull without injury to 
the brain or its membranes terminated favorably, with the exception of the case of Pri 
vate M. Young (p. 39), complicated by a terrible laceration of the testes. Fifty-eight cases 
in which symptoms of compression of the brain supervened immediately or soon after the 
reception of the injury, present forty-six deaths, three instances of favorable progress a 
few weeks after the injury with the ultimate results undetermined, and three examples of 
complete, and six of partial recovery. In the nineteen remaining cases cerebral compli 
cations appeared at a later date : l ten of the nineteen were fatal ; eight ended in permanent 
disabilities, through impairment of the mental, sensory, or motor "functions; while only 
one patient completely recovered. 

It was observed that fissures or long linear fractures with little depression, as a 
general rule characterized the fractures of the skull from falls or railroad accidents, while 
extensive splintering of the internal table was a very frequent consequence of blows from 
blunt weapons. 

The portion of the cranium injured is referred to in seventy-eight of the reports, and 
is indicated in the following tabular statement : 

TABLE II. 
Seat of Injury in One Hundred and Five Fractures of the Skull from Falls, Blows, &c. 



REGIONS. 


Cases. 


Died. 


Disch d. 


Duty. 


Unkn n. 


Per cent, 
of deaths. 




22 


10 


G 


5 


1 


47 6 




33 


15 


12 


4 


2 


48 4 


Temporal 


7 


6 


1 






85 7 




2 


2 








100 




11 


11 








100 


Frontal and Parietal 


1 






1 






Frontal Parietal, and Sphenoid 


1 


1 








100 


Temporal and Parietal 


1 


1 








100 


Not st;ited . . 


27 


11 


9 


7 




40 7 
















TOTAL 


105 


57 


28 


17 


3 


55 8 

















The far greater fatality of fractures of the side and base of the cranium than of those 
implicating the anterior and upper portions of the vault, is well illustrated by these figures. 

There were no instances of fracture of the internal table alone ; but the case of Cahill 
(p. 54), and that of Sharp (p. 55), afford, perhaps, illustrations of fracture implicating the 
external table only, over the frontal sinus and at the base of the zygoma. The case of 
Schneider (p. 41) also, reported among the severe contusions, the patient having been 
discharged on account of obstinate ozsena from ulceration of the frontal sinus, possibly 
belongs to the category of fractures of the external table The frequency of such frac- 



1 At incipere febrem in capitls vulnere, quarto, die aat scptiina aut undecima, vatdc lethale cat. Hiri OCUATES, De Prcedict. 
Lib. II, Sect. II. Cap. 10. 



ANALYTICAL RFA IEW. 69 

tures has been overestimated by Sir Astley Cooper 1 and other eminent surgical writers. 
In rare instances, blows upon the mastoid or zygomatic processes, or frontal sinuses, pro 
duce such an injury; but, over the vault of the cranium, a depression of the outer table 
upon the diploe, without lesion of the vitreous lamina, is oftener described in books than 
demonstrated by pathological preparations. 2 

Of the eleven cases of fracture of the base of the cranium, two were accompanied 
by that peculiar colorless discharge from the auditory canal which excited so much dis 
cussion among surgeons thirty years ago, and which is held to be a positive indication of 
fissure of the petrous bone. 3 Three cases of fracture of the base were believed to be 
instances of fracture by contre-coup. This subject will be fully considered hereafter, and 
it will be shown that the existence of such fractures, in the sense understood by Grima 4 
and Saucerotte, may be fairly called in question. 

In seventy-nine cases of fracture of the skull treated without operative interference, 
the death-rate was 54.4. Of twenty-six cases operated upon, the ultimate results are 
ascertained in twenty-three, in which the mortality-rate was 60.8. 

Removal of Fragments and Trephining. Of the twenty-six depressed fractures 
treated by the removal of fragments and trephining, five were caused by falls, three by 
railroad or steamboat accidents, and eighteen by blows. Fourteen of the patients died. 
Three undetermined cases were progressing favorably fifteen days, three weeks, and four 
weeks, respectively, from the date of injury. Nine patients recovered, of whom two went 
to duty, two were discharged though entirely well, and five were discharged for disabilities 
due to cerebral disorders. In brief, it may be said of the twenty-six cases in which 
operative interference was employed, that complete recovery took place in four cases, 
partial recovery in eight cases, and death in fourteen cases. 

The cases recorded in this Section afford instances of commotion, contusion, lacera 
tion, and compression of the brain, of rupture of the meningeal arteries, of cerebral irri 
tation, of perversion or loss of the sensory or intellectual functions, of various paralyses, 
of puffy tumor and persistent pain in the scalp; but general observations on these subjects, 
all of which will appear again in the succeeding Section, may be reserved for the con 
clusion of this Chapter. 



1 ASTLEY COOPKU. Lectures on Surgery, London, 1842, p. 130. 

2 Specimen 4853, Section I, A. M. M., represents a segment of the frontal bone of a young man who received a blow from 
a fireman s iron "spanner" upon the left superciliary ridge. Such competent observers as Drs. Thomas Miller and Robert 
King Stone, of Washington, diagnosticated a depression of the outer table of the frontal sinus. Several months subsequently, 
the patient died from inflammation of the brain, and an extensive depression of the inner table was revealed. The large collec 
tion of specimens of fractures of the skull in the Army Medical Museum fails to afford a single example of fracture of the outer 
table singly, if the groovings by shell fragments and incisions by cutting weapons are excluded. 

3 Berengarius, in his work on Fractures of the Cranium, published at Bologna, in 1518. first called attention to this 
phenomenon, and Stalpart Van der Weil, (Obs. rarior. cent, prima, Obs. XV, Leyden, 1728, p. 68.) cited an example, and 
quoted another from Langelot ; but Laugier, in his note to the French Institute, in 1839, pointed out the significance of this 
discharge in diagnosis. 

" GHIMA, Nwr Les Contre-coups dans Ics Lesions dc la Tele. Me" moires sur les Sujets proposes pour les Prix do 1 Acadcmie 
Roy ale de Chirurgie. Paris, 1819, T. IV, p. 207; SAUCEUOTTK, in the same work, Vol. IV, p. 290. SABOUKAUT, loc cit.> 
p. 337, and many others. 



70 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



SECTION III. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS. 



In modern times, the proportion of wounds and injuries of the head received in action 
has always been large. In the late war, the ratio of such injuries to the total number of 
casualties was especially great, because the men frequently fought under cover, and many 
of the engagements were of the nature of siege operations. More than twelve thousand 
gunshot wounds of the head must be discussed. They will be classified, with many sub 
divisions, into those affecting the scalp only, those attended with injury to the skull, 
and those implicating the encephalon. 

GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. The number of such cases is so great that it is 
only practicable to present a numerical statement, supplemented by details of the fatal 
and complicated cases. 

TABLE III. 

Results of Seven Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty-nine Cases of Gunshot Wounds 
of the Scalp reported during the War of the Rebellion. 











3 






5-3 


















. 


cS ; i-o 


i 


- 














nd 


o 








*" o 




be 






PATIENTS. 






O 




03 


J3 




O) 


S PH 




B 


^ 73 g 


,j 










be 


J 


^51 ^ 





^-< 


DD 




^ 


C3 o s 


^ 




H 






aj 


CO 


cs ^ % 


5 


tc 

OJ 


5 "c 




a 




H 




p 


R 


> 




ft 


h-1 R 




R 


HO 


fin 


W M P 


H 


U S Officers 


11 


167 




10 


10 


07 


35 












7 l 


337 


U S Enlisted Men (white) 


126 


3108 


127 
lx " 






542 


76 


261 1427 






958 


6625 


U S Enlisted Men (colored) 


7 


75 


1 






13 


2 


4 


26 






i 
... 11 


138 




1 


4 




















5 


10 1 


Confederate Officers 




1 








5 


3 




2 


6 8 


25 


Confederate Enlisted Men . 


17 


65 




3 118 


7 156 


6 


108 10 114 


604 








i 
















TOTAL 


162 


3420 


127 10 10 97 


593 


201 


275 


I 
1609 


8 


114 


10 1103 


7739 


! 

























* The inference from the records is that these Ten officers were not dismissed dishonorably, but were stricken from the 
rolls for failing to comply with orders to n-f.ort their condition while on leave of absence. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 71 

The following fifty-four fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp are reported as 
uncomplicated. In every instance, the most careful scrutiny has been exercised to 
determine if any injury of the cranium, or its contents, was suspected by the surgical 
attendants: 

CASIO. Private Thomas Armstrong, Co. D, 2d Maryland Volunteers, aged 48 years, received a flesh wound of the 
head, in an engagement before Petersburg, Virginia, July 2, 1864, from a conoidal ball. He was at once admitted to the 
Hospital of the Second Division, Ninth Corps, thence sent to City Point, and conveyed to the DeCamp Hospital at David s 
Island, New York, where he arrived on July 6th. He died on the 14th of July, 1864. 

CASE. Private James Barry, Co. D, 2d New York Mounted Rifles, aged 30 years, received, in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, 1864, gunshot flesh wounds of the head and arm. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Second Division. Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 19th, was sent to the First Division Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, where 
he died, June 22(1, 1864. The late Surgeon 11 A. Vanderkieft. U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASK. Sergeant Harvey F. Beals, Co. C, 59th New York Volunteers, was struck, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 3d. 1864. by a fragment of shell, which caused a flesh wound of the head. He was admitted, on June 8th, to the 
Columbian Hospital, Washington, D. C., where simple dressings were applied. Death occurred on June 12th, 1864. 

CASK. Private Horace Bellows, Co. G, 98th New York Volunteers, aged 34 years, was wounded, in an engagement at 
Chapin s Farm, Virginia, September 19th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which severely injured the scalp over the right side of head. 
He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Eighteenth Corps. On October 2d, he was transferred to the hospital at 
Fort Monroe, Virginia, and on October 15th, to the White Hall Hospital, near Bristol, Pennsylvania. He died on October 
2Uth, 1864. Assistant Surgeon \V. H. Forwood, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASK. Private Rupert Carney, Co C, 28th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, in an engagement near 
Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, a slight gunshot scalp wound of the back of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Second Division, Twentieth Corps, and, on June 2d. was transferred to the hospital at Chattanooga; thence, on June llth, to 
Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died, on June 15th, 1864, from the effects of the wound. 

CASK. Corporal Win. G. Carr, Co. G, 13th New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, in a skirmish, on 
May 13th, 1864, a wound of the scalp, from a fragment of shell striking over the left eye, and making a ragged wound an inch 
and a half in length. He was sent to the hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, and died 011 June 22d, 1884. 

CASK. Private Frank Carter. Co. F, 17th New Y T ork Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 17th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which cut the scalp near the vertex. He was, on the same day, 
admitted to the hospital of the Second Division. Ninth Corps, and, on June 19th, sent to the Hospital at Annapolis. The 
wound was dressed with dry lint, sprinkled with opium. The patient died July 7th, 1864. 

CASE. Lieutenant John R. Clemm, Co. K, 3d Maryland Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia, 
May 3d, 1863, a slight gunshot llesh wound of the head. He was admitted to the field hospital of the First Division, Twelfth 
Corps. He died on May 22d, 1863. Surgeon A. Chapel, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Jackson Clifton, Co. D, 107th Illinois Volunteers, aged 22 years, received, at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee, November 29th, 1864, a shell wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted, on December 1st, to Hospital 
No. 3, Nashville, Tennessee, where simple dressings were applied. On December 2d, he was transferred to the Jefferson 
Hospital, Jeifersonville, Indiana, where he died, on December 17th, 1864, from the effects of wound. 

CASK. Private William Coakley, Co. K, 28th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a lacerated wound of the scalp from a fragment of shell. He was admitted to the 
hospital of the First Division, Second Corps, and thence sent to the First Division Hospital at Annapolis. Maryland, which he 
entered on June 2Uth. Simple dressings were applied to the wound. The patient died on June 28th, 1864. 

CASK. Private Stephen Colledge, Co. E, 2d Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 33 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 18th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was, on the next day, admitted to 
the hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and on June 21st, was sent to the Chesapeake Hospital, near Fort Monroe, where he 
died on July 17th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan. U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Martin Cornell, Co. N, 7th Rhode Island Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead, over the right eye. He 
was, at once, admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Ninth Corps On May 16th, he was sent to the Harewood 
Hospital, AVashington, D. C.. and, on May 18th, was trunsf erred to the First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, where he 
died, on June 1st, 1864 The late Surgeon B. A. Vanderkieft, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private Albert L. Curtis, Co. D, 17th Maine Volunteers, aged 20 years, was struck, near Petersburg, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a flesh wound of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Third Division. Second Corps, and thence, on the 21st, conveyed to Washington, D. C., to the Lincoln Hospital. On the 27th. 
lie was sent to Cony Hospital, at Augusta, Maine. Death occurred on August 12th, 1864. Surgeon G.Derby, IT. S. V., 
reported the case. 

CASK. Private Van Buren Danner, Co. II, 87th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 26 years, was struck, at the battle of 
Winchester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which produced a lacerated wound of the scalp over the left 



72 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

frontal eminence. He was admitted to the depot field hospital on the same day. On the 25th, he was sent to the hospital at 
Sandy Hook, Maryland, and on the 26th, he was transferred to the Sixteenth and Filbert Streets Hospital, Philadelphia. He 
died on November 10th, 18(54. Surgeon T. B. Reed, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Private John Duett, Co. E, 8th Maine Volunteers, aged 26 years, received in an engagement at Drury s Bluff, 
Virginia, May 16th, 1864, a wound of the scalp in the occipital region fronTa grape shot. He was, on May 18th, admitted to 
the hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, where he died on July 4th, 1864. Surgeon A. Heger, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

CASE. Eben L. Farrar, Musician, Co. I, 96th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years, was wounded in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 23d, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which tore the scalp over the parietal bone. He was at once 
admitted to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 25th, transferred to the Hampton Hospital, Fortress Monroe. 
Simple dressings were applied to the wound. He died on July 4th, 1854, from the " effects of the scalp wound." 

CASE. Private William Finke, Co. I, 13th Indiana Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded in an engagement near 
Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, on May 20th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which tore the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of 
the First Division, Tenth Corps ; on May 21st, he was sent to the hospital at Fort Monroe, and on June 1st, 1864, transferred to the 
Ward Hospital, Newark, New Jersey, where he died on June 15th, 1864. The late Surgeon G. Taylor, U. S, A., recorded the 
case. 

CASE. Private Leroy W. Freeman, Co. H, 142d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded in an engage 
ment at the South Side Railroad, October 27th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which struck over the right parietal bone. He was, on 
October 29th, admitted to the hospital steamer Connecticut, and conveyed to Washington, D. C., where he entered the Emory 
Hospital on October 30th. Simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on November 12th, 1864, "from 
hectic fever." Surgeon N. R. Mosely, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Private L. Garrett, Co. C, 56th Alabama Regiment, was admitted to the prison hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, 
with a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on November 5th, 1863. Acting Assistant Surgeon T. G. Hickman reported the 
case. 

CASE. Private W. A. Giles, Co. C, 98th Ohio Volunteers, received near Atlanta, Georgia, August 6th, 1864, a gunshot 
wound of the scalp, and was sent to the hospital of the Second Division of the Fourteenth Corps. He was transferred, on 
August 24th, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and died, at Hospital No. 1, on August 29th, 1864. 

CASE. Private George Graff, Co. E, 32d Indiana Volunteers, was struck by a conoidal musket ball, near Dallas, Georgia, 
May 26th, 1861, and was received at Chattanooga, Tennessee, on June 3d, with a severe lacerated wound of the scalp. He 
died June 5th, 1864. Surgeon E. B. Collins, 51st Indiana Volunteers, records the case. 

CASE. Private George Hall, Co. D, 30th United States Colored Troops, aged 20 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was, on August 1st, admitted to the hospital for colored 
troops at City Point, and, on August 14th, was transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died on 
September 5th, 1864. Surgeon J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Private 0. J. Hardin, Co. K, 68th Georgia Regiment, aged 23 years, received at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn 
sylvania, July 1st, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was probably treated in a field hospital until July 20th, when he 
was admitted to the Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, where he died on August 7th, 1863. 

CASE. Private Daniel C. Harrison, Co. C, 76th Illinois Volunteers, received during the siege of Fort Blakely, Alabama, 
April 8th, 1865, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Second Division, Thirteenth 
Corps, and, on April llth, was ordered to be transferred to the St. Louis Hospital, New Orleans, but died on April 14th, 1865, 
on the journey. Surgeon O. Peabody, 23d Iowa Volunteers, records the case. 

CASE. Private John Holmes, Co. C, 98th Ohio Volunteers, was struck over the occipital region by a conoidal ball, at 
Atlanta, Georgia, August 6th, 1864. At the hospital of the Second Division, Fourteenth Corps, and at the Chattanooga Hospital, 
the injury was regarded as a simple laceration of the scalp. He died at Chattanooga, August 18th, 1864. 

CASE. Private David J. Huganer, Co. K, 6th New York Heavy Artillery, aged 42 years, was wounded, at Cold Harbor, 

Virginia, May 3()th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which caused a wound of the scalp on the back of the head. He was admitted to 

the hospital of the Third Division, Fifth Corps; on June 3d, sent to the Stanton Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on June 

21st, transferred to the McDougall Hospital, New York, where he died, on October 5th, 1864, from exhaustion following 

gunshot wound." Assistant Surgeon S. H. Orton, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASE. Private James Ireland, Co. K, 21st Connecticut Volunteers, aged 18 years, received a gunshot wound of the 
scalp at the battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864. He was, on June 6th, admitted to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, 
Washington, D. C., and, on June 12th, transferred to the McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia, where the injury is diagnosed as 
gunshot flesh wound of right cheek. He died on June 16th, 1864. The late Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASE. Private Andrew Jackson, Co. G, 5th Texas Regiment, was wounded, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 3d, 186:i, on the right side of the scalp, by a gunshot projectile. He was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, where he 
died, on July 23d, 1868. Surgeon Henry Janes, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Jabez Johnson, Co. A, 29th Virginia Regiment, was wounded and made a prisoner in the retreat of the 
Confederate army from the lines of Petersburg, in April, 1865. He was admitted, on April 17th, to the hospital at Point of 
Rocks, with what appeared to be a lacerated gunshot wound limited to the scalp. He died on April 24th, 1865. 



FATAL GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 73 

CASK. Private Wm. A. Johnson, Co. C, 24tli Kentucky Volunteers, was wounded in the scalp, by gunshot, at Resaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864. lie was sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and died on the day of his admission to Hospital No. 1, 
Mav 2(>th, 1864. Surgeon Francis Salter, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Sergeant Francis M. Jones, Co. F, 36tli Indiana Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, in an engagement at 
Marietta, Georgia, June 23d. 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, 
Fourth Corps, and, on June 27th, was sent northward. On July 1st, 1864, he entered Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, 
and died, on July 12th, 1864, "from wound." Surgeon B. B. Breed, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASK. Private Gideon M. Jones, Co. B, 25th Ohio Volunteers, aged 43 years, was wounded, in an engagement at 
Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30th, 1864, by a musket ball, which caused a ecalp wound of the occipital region. He 
was, on the following day, admitted to the hospital at Hilton Head. Simple dressings were applied; but death took place 
on January 14th, 1855, from wound." Assistant Surgeon C. T. Relier, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASK. Private Lewis Knmpf, Co. D, 12th Missouri Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of Kesaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the left side of the head. He was, on the same day, admitted to the hospital 
of the First Division. Fifteenth Corps; on May 23d, was sent to the Field Hospital, Chattanooga, Tennessee, and, on May 
25th, transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died on June 5th, 1864. 

CASK. Private Chauncey C. Moore, Co. D, 42d Illinois Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
November 24th and 25th, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp of the right side of the head. He was treated, for a few days, in a 
Held hospital, and, on December 1st, was admitted to the General Hospital at Chattanooga. He died on December 18th, 1863. 

CASK. Corporal S. B. Mortes, Co. K, 1st South Carolina Regiment, was admitted to the Jackson Hospital. Richmond, 
Virginia, May 15th, 1864, with a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on May 24th, 1864. Dr. Wellford, C. S. A., recorded 
the case. 

CASK. Private John Nicholson, Co. D, 56th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, May 6th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over the frontal bone. He was, on May 14th, admitted to the Columbian 
Hospital, Washington, D. C.. where simple dressings were applied. He died on May 30th, 1864. Reported by Surgeon T. R. 
Crosby, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Lewis Noble, Co. C, 73d Ohio Volunteers, received, at the engagement at Tunnel Hill, Georgia, July 
20th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was sent from the hospital of the Third Division. Twentieth Corps, for 
transfer to the rear, and died on his way to Chattanooga, July 25th, 1864. 

CASK. Corporal Lawrence C. Pepoon, (10th Sharpshooters, ) 60th Ohio Regiment, aged 21 years, received in an engage 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia, July 6th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the head, obliquely across the occipital protuberance. 
The bone was apparently uninjured. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Ninth Corps, where simple dress 
ings were applied to the wound. On July 15th, he was sent to the Filbert Street Hospital, Philadelphia, when death occurred 
on July 24th, 1864, from "the effects of the wound." Assistant Surgeon S. A. Storrow, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASK. Private Michael Raher, Co. D, 44th Ohio Volunteers, was struck by a gunshot projectile at Lewisburg, Virginia, 
May 23d, 1862, receiving a wound of the integuments over the os frontis without any injury to the bone. He was admitted to 
the Washington Park Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 16th, and died on June 21st, 1862. Reported by Dr. J. B. Smith. 

CASK. Private Chauncey Reeves, Co. F, 19th Michigan Volunteers, at Resaca, Georgia, May 14th, 1864, was struck by 
a musket ball, which produced a lacerated wound of the left side of the scalp. He was treated at the hospital of the Third 
Division, Twentieth Corps. He died on May 16th, 1864. Recorded by Surgeon W. C. Bennett, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Albert A. Roaks, Co. II, 21st Kentucky Volunteers, aged 3 f 5 years, was wounded in an engagement near 
Marietta, Georgia, June 2(ith, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a flesh wound of the head. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the First Division, Fourth Corps, and, on the 1st of July, was sent to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, but 
was transferred, on July 6th, to the Jefferson Hospital, Jefferson ville, Indiana. Death ensued July 20th, 1864. 

CASE. Private James Rowley, Co. C, 4th New York Cavalry, aged 17 years, received in an engagement near Charles- 
town, Virginia, August 2Dth, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on the following day, admitted to the hospital at 
Sandy Hook, Marvland, where simple dressings were applied. Death occurred on September 1st, 1864, from " effects of wound." 

CASE. Private Wm. Sebring, Co. I, 14th Ohio Volunteers, at Chickamauga, September 19th, 1863, received a lacerated 
gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. He was taken to the hospital of the Third Division, Fourteenth Corps, and thence 
to the Chattanooga Hospital, where he died on October 9th, 1863. Surgeon Israel Moses. IT. S. V., repoited the case. 

CASE. Sergeant Nelson P. Steinhour, Co. II, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 23 years, received in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 30th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, on July 3d, to the hospital at 
Fort Monroe. Irritative fever followed, and the patient died from exhaustion, on July 10th, 1864. 

CASK. Corporal William A. Stewart, Co. B, 15th Ohio Volunteers, aged 21 years, received at the battle of Nashville, 
Tennessee, December 15th, 1864, a simple flesh wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, 
Fourth Corps, was thence transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, and, on December 20th, sent to the hospital at 
Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he died on January 21th, 1865, from the "effects of the wound." 

10 



74 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private John Stringer, Co. G, 6th U. S. Colored Troops, received, at Wilmington, North Carolina, February 19th, 

1865, a slight lacerated wound of the scalp by a musket ball. At the hospital for Colored Troops, the injury was regarded as 
trivial, vet death followed from the effects of the wound on February 26th, 1865. Recorded by Surgeon D. W. Hand, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private William Tait. Co. F, 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of Spott- 

svlvania. Virginia, May 12th, 1364, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Ninth 
Corps. On Mav 15th. he was sent to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on May 19th, to the McClellan 
Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died on May 28th, 1864. Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. &., reported the case. 

CASK. Private David Titus, Co. M, 1st New Jersey Cavalry, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of the Wilderness. 
Virginia, May 5th, 1861, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over the left temporal region. On May 12th, he was admitted to Mount 
Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C., and on June 10th, transferred to DeCanip Hospital, New York Harbor, where he died 
on June 21st, 18,!4. Assistant Surgeon Warren Webster, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASK. Lieutenant John Van De Sande, Co. B, 115th New York Volunteers, aged 31 years, received, in an engagement 
near Malvern Hill, Virginia, August 16th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on August 17th, admitted to the 
hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia, where he died on September 3d, 1864. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., reported 
the case. 

CASK. Private Jackson W. Vorhees, Co. I, 27th Michigan Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the left temple. He was, on June 8th, admitted to the hospital of 
the Third Division. Ninth Corps, and on June 14th, to the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria. Simple dressings were 
applied. Death occurred on June 28th, 1864. Surgeon T. Rush Spencer, U. S. V., reported the case. 

CASK. Private Jamts Walker, Co. B, 1st North Carolina Regiment, received a very slight gunshot wound of the scalp, 
at the battle of Gaines s Mills, Virginia, June 27th, 1862. He was admitted to Howard Grove Hospital, near Richmond, 
Virginia, and died July 15th, 1862. Surgeon C. D. Rice, P. A. C. S., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private Ezekiel Wimmer, Co. C, 36th Illinois Volunteers, aged 22 years, received, at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee, November 30th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on the following day, admitted to Hospital No. 15, 
Nashville, and, on December 3d, sent to the Jefferson Hospital, Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he died, on December 17th, 1864, 
from " effects ot wound." Surgeon M. Goldsmith, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Win. G. Young, Co. G, 44th Illinois Volunteers, aged 24 years, received, at Marietta, Georgia, June 26th, 
1364, a gunshot wound of the. scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Fourth Corps, on the following 
day, and transferred to Chattanooga, on July 2d, and died on July 3d, 1884. Assistant Surgeon C. C. Byrne, U. S. A., reported 
the case. 

CASK. Sergeant W. H. Zimmerman, Co. E, llth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 25 years, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 6th, 1864, received a scalp wound over the right parietal region, from a musket ball, which lodged 
beneath the integument. The missile was extracted on the field, and the patient was sent to the rear, and conveyed finally to 
Washington, D. C., entering Armory Square Hospital on May 26th. He died on June 29th, 1854. 

Nine patients, with gunshot wounds of the scalp, died while on furlough, and it has 
been impossible to obtain particulars of the complications which led to the fatal results : 

CASE. Corporal Selah B. Alden, Co. D, 13th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 32 years, received at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the regimental hospital, and thence 
sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C., on May 12th. On May 17th he was furloughed, and, according to the regis 
ters of the Pension Bureau, and the records of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, he died at Natick, May 25th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Thomas Bowles, Co. I, 28th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, in an action at Spring Hill, 
Tennessee, November 29th, 1834, a wound of the scalp by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the field hospital of the 
Second Division, Fourth Army Corps, and, on the following d"ay, was sent to Nashville and admitted into the No. 8 Hospital. 
Simple dressings were used. On December 3d, he was tranferred to Jeffersonville, Indiana, and admitted into the general 
hospital at that place. The report of the Adjutant General of Kentucky states that he died, while on furlough, February 6th, 
1865, " from wounds received in action." 

CASK. Private Thomas Bryant, Co. C, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness. Virginia May 7th, 1864, a slight wound of the scalp from a fragment of shell. He was admitted to the hospital of 
the First Division. Fifth Corps, and, on May 12th, he was sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C. On May 27th 
he was furloughed, and died while on furlough. July 16th, 1864. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Private J. H. Chase, Co. I, 103th New York Volunteers, aged 42 years, was admitted to the Lincoln Hospital, 
Washing-ton, D. C., on August 19th, 1864, with a contused gunshot wound of the scalp. He was furloughed on November 4th, 
and died while on furlough, December 12th, 18G4. 

CASE. Private II. F. Higby. Co. H, 121st New York Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May llth, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which cut the scalp at the superior frontal region. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the First Division, Sixth Corps, and, on May 16th, was sent to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C. 
The wound did well, and the patient was furloughed on May 21st. He died, while on leave, May 27th, 1864. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 75 

CASK. Private M. F. Hosmer, Co. A, 9th New York Heavy Artillery, aged 18 vears, received, at the battle of Cedar 
( reek, Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on the same day. admitted to the hospital 
of the Third Division, Sixth Corps, and thence was sent to the Cuyler Hospital at Germantown, Pennsylvania, when 1 he entered 
on October 24th. He was furloughed on November 6th ; and died, while on furlough, December 9th, 1864. 

CASK. Lieutenant John Jungerich, Adjutant 121st Pennsylvania Volunteers, received, at the battle of North Anna 
River, Virginia, May 23d, 1864, a slight gunshot flesh wound over the right side of the frontal bone. He was taken to the 
hospital of the Fourth Division, Fifth Corps, and thence was sent to Washington. On May 31st, he was granted leave, and 
died on June 23d, 1884, while on leave of absence. 

CASK. Private Robert F. Parkhill, Co. P>, 9th New York Artillery, aged 27 years, received, at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a severe shell wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Sixth 
Corps. On October 24th, he was sent to the Sheridan Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, and thence to the hospital at York, 
Pennsylvania, which he entered on October 26th. Under simple dressings the wound was doing well, and on November 7th, 
the patient was furloughed. He died, while on furlough, November 12th, 1864. 

CASK. Private William F. Small, Co. 15, 7th New Hampshire Volunteers, received, in an engagement in front of Peters 
burg, Virginia, on May 10th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, inflicted by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into 
the hospital at Hampton, Virginia, on May llth, and, on June 8th, was transferred to De Camp Hospital, David s Island, New 
York. On November 1st, 1864, he was considered convalescent, and received a furlough, and died, while at home, on June 
29th, 1865. 

The records are silent regarding the causes of death in the sixty-three examples of gun 
shot wounds of the scalp here enumerated. The average interval between the reception of 
the injury and the fatal termination was twenty-seven days. It may be suspected that in 
most, if not all, of these cases, there was some undiscovered primary or secondary lesion 
of the skull or its contents, but precise evidence on the subject is wanting. The seat of 
injury is specified in twenty-seven cases; as in the frontal region in seven, the temporal in 
two, the parietal in twelve, the occipital in six. 

Gunshot Scalp Wounds followed by Eiicephalitis. In the following cases of gunshot 
wounds of the scalp, which terminated fatally from inflammation of the brain or its mem 
branes, the reports indicate that the injuries were carefully examined, and that the 
observers were convinced that there were no primary lesions of the skull : 

CASK. Private William H. Allington, Co. C. 141st New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, at the engagement 
before Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the forehead, from a musket ball. He was admitted into the 
field hospital of the Twentieth Corps. Simple dressings were used The patient was transferred to the Cumberland Hospital, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on June 2d. Meningitis set in soon afterwards, and resulted fatally, on June llth, 1864. The case is 
reported by Surgeon C. McDermott, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Albert E. Ammon, Co. H, 27th Indiana Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded, in the engagement 
near Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a slight wound of the scalp. He was admitted 
to the hospital of the First Division, Twentieth Corps, and, on June 1st, was sent to the field hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee. 
Meningitis supervened, and deatli took place on June 10th, 1864. Assistant Surgon C. C. Byrne, U. S. A., reports the case. 

CASK. Private Simon Birdsell, Co. I, 32d Illinois Volunteers, received a severe gunshot wound of the integuments of 
the forehead, at the battle of Shiloh, April 6th, 1862. He was treated by Brigade Surgeon William Dickinson, U. S. V.. and 
was conveyed on an hospital steamer to the hospital at Beutou Barracks, St. Louis. The wound progressed very favorably, 
and, on May 5th, the patient was considered convalescent, and was furloughed to go to his home at latan, Morgan County, 
Illinois. Inflammation of the brain supervened, and the case terminated fatally on June 2d, 1862. The attending physician, 
George M. Smith, M. D., of latan, reports the case. 

CASK. Private Charles Brown, Co. D, 23d United States Colored Troops, received, in an engagement before Peters 
burg, Virginia, July 13th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Fourth Division, 
Ninth Corps. On July 31st, he was sent to the hospital for colored troops at City Point, and, on August 17th, he was placed 
on the steamer Baltic for transportation to the Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., reports that 
convulsive fits supervened, and that death took place aboard the steamer on August 18th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Thomas Casey, Co. F, llth Illinois Volunteers, was wounded, at Fort Donelson, Tennessee, February 
16th, 1862, by a musket ball, which grazed the left side of the head, producing a slight scalp wound, which was considered of 
trivial importance. The man was sent to the Academy Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, and remained in a comfortable 
condition until February 26th, when he complained of violent headache, and soon afterwards became wildly delirious. He was 
freely purged, and a blister was applied to the nape of the neck, and there was great apparent improvement, until March 10th, 
when a relapse took place, and symptoms of compression of the brain supervened, terminating eventually in coma. He died 
on March 21st, 1862. Acting Assistant Surgeon W. P. Jones recorded the cast . 



76 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Sergeant Thomas Elliott, Co. E, 19th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a lacerated gunshot wound 

of the scalp, near Petersburg, Virginia, June 30th, 1864, ami was taken to the corps field hospital. He was transferred, on the 
following day. to the base hospital at Point of Rocks, and thence, on July 4th, to Chesapeake Hospital, and thence, on July 
14th, to the McDougal Hospital, New York harbor. He died on August llth, 1864, of subacute encephalitis. 

CASK. Private John H. Fridlcy, Co. K, 28th Virginia Regiment, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
Julv 2d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the head. He was. on the same day, admitted to the Seminary Hospital at Gettysburg, 
and, on June 17th, he was sent to the hospital at Chester, Pennsylvania. Meningitis set in, and death resulted on August 13th, 
1863. Surgeon E. Swift, U. S. A , records the case. 

CASE. Private David Garrett, Co. A, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years, received, at the battle of Cedar 
Creek, Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound. He was taken to the hospital of the Second Division, Sixth 
Corps, and, on October 23d, he was admitted to the Satterlee Hospital, at Philadelphia. The injury was considered slight, as 
the patient was furloughed in a short time after his admission. While at home, inflammation of the brain supervened, and he 
died on November 9th, 1864. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Augustus Hether, Co. K, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 46 years, was wounded at the battle of 
Spottsylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which severely lacerated the scalp. He was 
immediately conveyed to the hospital of the Second Division, Sixth Corps; thence transferred to the First Division Hospital 
at Alexandria. Death resulted on June 17th, 1864. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Sergeant William P. Holden, Co. G, 2(1 Maine Volunteers, aged 26 years, was admitted to the hospital at Annap 
olis, Maryland, on November 15th, 1862, with a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead. The wound granulated 
kindly, and cicatrization was almost complete, and the patient improved steadily until May 5th, 1863, when he was attacked 
by a severe pain In the head, which rapidly increased and became intense, in spite of counter irritation and anodyne applica 
tions. Death took place on May 5th, only six hours from the time that the pain first set in. At the autopsy, the anterior lobe 
of the cerebrum was found softened and disorganized. There were four ounces of pus in the lateral ventricle. Surgeon T. A. 
McParlin, U. S. A., reported the case. 

CASE. Private Celestus Jenkins, Co. H, 9th New York Artillery, aged 22 years, was wounded at the battle of Win 
chester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a severe wound of the right temporal region 
without injury of bone. He was, on the same day, admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Sixth Corps, and was thence 
conveyed to Philadelphia, and admitted, on the 27th, into the Filbert Street Hospital. Death resulted on the 9th of October, 
1864. Surgeon Thomas B. Reed, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private H. B.Johnson, Co. G, 15th Alabama Infantry, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp in the left parietal region. He was admitted into No. 12 hos 
pital, at Richmond, on December 16th. Symptoms of inflammation of the brain made their appearance, and several convulsions 
followed. The scalp Avas shaved, and cold lotions were applied, and mercurials were administered. He died January 4th 
1863. Surgeon W. H. Thorn, C. S. A., reports the case. 

CASE. Corporal John Kealey, Co. A, 99th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, while on the picket line 
before Petersburg, Virginia, September 12th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the vertex, from a conoidal musket hall. He was 
admitted, on September 15th, into the field hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps. On September 19th, the patient was 
sent to field hospital of the Second Corps, and, on the same day, he was transferred to Washington, where, on September 21st, he 
was admitted into Emory Hospital. Inflammation of the brain set in, and death followed, October 3d, 1864. Surgeon N. R. 
Moseley, II. S. V., reported the case. 

CASE. Sergeant Thomas H. Law, Co. K, 5th New Hampshire Volunteers, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland 
September 17th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second 
Corps, and, on October 5th, was sent to the Ladies Home Hospital at New York. An abscess of the scalp formed, and menin 
gitis ensued, terminating in compression of the brain, comn, and death on October llth, 1862. Surgeon A. B. Mott, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

CASK. Private S. Laics on, Co. E, 22 d Georgia Regiment, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 
1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp, and was taken to the Seminary Hospital. On July 25th, he was transferred to the West s 
Building Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, where he died on September 6th, 1863. 

CASE. Private J. A. Murphy, Co. B, 49th Virginia Regiment, aged 30 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was, on July 6th, admitted to Hospital No. 1, 
Frederick, Maryland, on July 7th, transferred to Annapolis, probably for exchange, and on August 1st, 1863. he was admitted 
to a Confederate hospital, at Petersburg, Virginia, where he died, on August 18th, 1863, of meningitis. 

CASK. Private Hugh O Donnell, Co. C, 29th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 years, received, at the battle of Atlanta, 
Georgia, July 20th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted into the hospital of the Second Division, 
Twentieth Corps, and thence sent to Hospital No. 2, at Chattanooga, Tennessee, on July 25th. He was transferred, about the 
1st of August, to Nashville, and thence, within a few weeks, sent to the Satterlee Hospital in Philadelphia. Death supervened 
on August 31st, 1864. 

CASE. Private Duncan Stone, Co. C, 1st North Carolina Battery, received a wound of the right side of the scalp by a 
conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the Pettigrew Hospital, Raleigh, North Carolina, on March 23d, 1865. Simple 
dressings were used. Meningitis supervened, and the case terminated fatally on March 29th, 1865. Surgeon E. Burke Hay- 
wood, C. S. A., records the case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 77 

CASK. Private Nicholas 8t raver, Co. C, 205th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865, a gunshot wound of the scalp above the left ear. He was admitted to the hospital 
of the Third Division, Ninth Corps, and, on April 4th, was sent to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C., where he died on 
May 12th, 1865, from inflammation of brain. Assistant Surgeon J. C. McKee, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASK. Private Henry Warner, Co. B, 1st Michigan Volunteers, a^ed 29 years, was wounded near Petersburg, Virginia 
July 24th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a severe wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
First Division, Fifth Corps, and thence sent to City Point, where he remained under treatment until the Gth of August. He 
was then transferred, by steamer, to the De Camp Hospital at David s Island, New York Harbor, where death resulted on 
August 20th, 1864. 

CASE. Private John Warner, Co. D, 4th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of the Wilder 
ness, May 6th, 1861, a gunshot wound of the scalp, by a conoidal musket ball. He was taken to the hospital of the First 
Division of the Sixth Corps, and transferred to the Finley Hospital, at Washington, on May llth; from thence he was sent to 
Philadelphia, and admitted to the Satterlee Hospital on May 18th. On May 28th, he was attacked by a chill, attended by a 
violent pain in the head, and symptoms of cerebral inflammation. The case terminated fatally on May 29th, 1864. 

CASK. Corporal James E. White, Co. A, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, in an engagement 
near James s Plantation, Virginia, May 20th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp from a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted 
into the field hospital of the Tenth Corps on the same day, and a day later was transferred to the Hampton Hospital at Fort 
Monroe. On June 1st, the patient was sent to the \Vard Hospital, at Newark, New Jersey. Congestion of the brain supervened, 
and death resulted on July 14th, 1864. The late Assistant Surgeon J. T. Calhoun, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

Iii eight fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, it may be inferred, from the 
nature of the prescriptions, that some form of encephalitis supervened and induced fatal 
results; but the precise features of the secondary complications were not reported: 

CASK. Private John Aufterheide, Co. B, 6th Ohio Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, 
September 19th, 1863, a severe gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was, at once, admitted to the hospital of the Second 
Division, Twenty-first Corps, and, on the next day, sent to the General Hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he died, on 
September 22d, 1863. Surgeon A. J. Phelps. U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private A. L. Cook, Co. E, 16th Connecticut Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Plymouth, North 
Carolina, April 20th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on May 9th, 1864. Surgeon D. G. Rush, 101st 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, recorded the case. 

CASK. Private Isaac Hamlin, Co. F, 101st Illinois Volunteers, received, near Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, a slight 
gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted into the field hospital of the Third Division, Twentieth Army Corps, on the 
same day, and, on May 30th, he was sent to Chattanooga. He died on June 16th, 1864. 

CASK. Private ./. H. Hatlcy, Co. D, 27th North Carolina Infantry, received, in action, a gunshot wound of the scalp. 
He was admitted into the Moore Hospital at Richmond, Virginia, December 20th, 1863, and died on December 22d. Surgeon 
Otis F. Maiison, C. S. A., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private J. Hinton, Co. C, 28th Alabama Regiment, was wounded and made a prisoner at the battle of Chatta 
nooga, and was admitted, on November 23d, 1863, to Hospital No. 4, Chattanooga, Tennessee, with a gunshot scalp wound over 
the forehead. He died on December 15th, 1863. Surgeon Francis Salter, U. S. V., reports the case. 

CASK. Private Clarence R. Smith, Co. A, 94th New York Volunteers, was admitted to the Patent Office Hospital, 
Washington, D. C., on September 21st, 1862, with a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on October 1st, 1862. Assistant 
Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private Hiram Voiles, Co. F, 70th Indiana Volunteers, received, at the battle of Resaca, Georgia, May 15th, 
1864, a slight gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Twentieth 
Corps, and, on May 20th, was sent to the general field hospital at Resaca, where he died, on May 24th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon 
M. C. Woodworth, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Madison Wilman, Co. D, 15th Iowa Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of Shiloh, Ten 
nessee, April 6th, 1862, a slight gunshot wound of the scalp. lie died on June 1st, 1862. Surgeon Samuel B. Dawes, lath Iowa 
Volunteers, reported the case. 

Erysipelas. The proportion of cases in which . erysipelas supervened after gunshot 
wounds limited to the integuments of the cranium, was by no means large. But twenty- 
two cases were reported, of which eight terminated fatally. It is highly probable that 
this complication was present, in a mild form, in many of the cases reported without 
commentary as "returned to duty;" but was seldom of such gravity as to be made the 
subject of special report. The few exceptions are here noted: 



78 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. J. B. Bristoe, Co. C, 26th Virginia Regiment, aged 30 years, received, on July 17th, 1864, a gunshot wound of 

the scalp just above the right eye. During the progress of the case erysipelas supervened, hut it was checked, and, on July 
30th, tlie patient was reported as convalescing. Surgeon P. F. Brown, C. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Charles Ferry, Co. B, 72d New York Volunteers, aged 37 years, received, in the Peninsular oam- 
pai<ni, at Malvern Hill, July 1st, 1862, a shell wound of the occipital region of the scalp. He was admitted to Division 
No. 1 Hospital, at Annapolis, Maryland, from the Steamer Kennebec, July 5th, 1862. A severe attack of erysipelas supervened, 
from which the patient recovered, and was returned to duty on October llth, 1862. Acting Assistant Surgeon Arthur Rich 
recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Henry T. Frazell, Co. B, 6th Missouri Volunteers, received in front of Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 22d, 
1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp in the right temporal region. He was received on board the hospital steamer R. C. Wood, 
from Chickasaw Bayou, on the 8th of June, and transferred to Memphis, Tennessee, where, on the same day, he was admitted 
to Union Hospital. On the morning of the 29th, the wound was attacked by erysipelas, which soon extended over the entire 
scalp and face. The disease yielded readily to treatment, and, on July 7th, the patient was reported as very nearly free of the 
disease. On the 22d of July, he had so completely recovered as to be able to return to duty. The case is reported by Surgeon 
J. D. Brumley, IT. S. V. 

CASE. Private T. A. Gallayher, Co. C, 10th Louisiana, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 
1863, bv a musket ball, which entered the scalp to the left of the median line, near the superior ridge of the occiput. The mis 
sile passed forward, and downward behind the ear, and lodged about the middle of the lower jaw. He also received a gunshot 
wound of the ankle. The wounds were dressed in a field hospital, and thence he was sent to Camp Letterman Hospital at 
Gettysburg, where he was admitted on July 27th. Erysipelas supervened, which, by appropriate treatment, was subdued, and, 
at the date of his transfer to Baltimore, the patient was doing well. He was admitted, on October 6th, to West s Building Hos 
pital, at Baltimore, Maryland, where he remained until November 12th, 1863, on which date he was paroled. 

CASE. First Sergeant Samuel B. Gray, Co. I, 123d Illinois Volunteers, in an engagement near Milton, Tennessee, 
March 20th, 1863, received a gunshot scalp wound. He was admitted into Hospital No. 1, at Murfreesboro, March 21st, and 
transferred thence to Nashville, and admitted, on May 22d, in Hospital No. 23. He remained here until August 1st, when he 
was sent to Louisville, and admitted into Hospital No. 7. On September 3d. he was sent to Hospital No. 19, where erysipelas 
supervened. Simple dressings were used. He was discharged from service October 13th, 1863, on account of a scrofulous 
abscess. The case is reported by Assistant Surgeon E. O. Brown, 26th Kentucky Volunteers. 

CASE. Sergeant R. M. Harris, Co. F, 3d Tennessee Infantry, aged 24 years, received at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, June 3()th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, a wound of the scalp over the right temple. He was admitted, on July llth, to 
Holston Hospital, at Knoxville, Tennessee. The wound became affected with erysipelas, which was subdued, and the patient 
was furloughed on the 28th of October. On November 18th, he was admitted to Asylum Hospital at Knoxville, where he 
remained until February 4th, 1865, when he was returned to duty. The case was reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. L. 
Herrick. 

CASE. Sergeant John McPeake, Co. B, 82d New York Volunteers, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland, Sep 
tember 17th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead. He was admitted to the regimental hospital, and, on 
November 21st, was sent to hospital at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Maryland. Erysipelas of a severe character supervened, but 
the patient recovered, and was discharged from the service on February 23d, 1863. Surgeon James Norval, 79th New York 
State Militia, recorded the case. 

CASE. Private J. L. Means, Texas Regiment, received, in the assault on Fort Donelson, Tennessee, February 15th, 
1882, a slight wound of the scalp, over left parietal region, by a musket ball. He was conveyed to a Confederate hospital in 
Nashville. Erysipelas set in, on the tenth day after the reception of the injury, and extended over the entire head and face. 
Tincture of iodine was applied locally, and general supporting treatment was employed. He rapidly recovered, and was 
discharged from the hospital about March 26th, 1862, for duty. 

CASE. Private J. L. Smiley, Co. E, 12th Alabama Infantry, aged 19 years, received, in the assault on Fort Steadman, 
Virginia, March 25th, 1865, a gunshot wound of the occipital region, by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the 
Washington Street Hospital, at Petersburg, Virginia, on the same day. Erysipelas supervened. The patient was made a 
prisoner and transferred to the Hampton Hospital, at Fort Monroe, May 17th, and on May 25th, 1865, he was sent to the 
Military Prison. Assistant Surgeon B. F. Pope, 10th New York Artillery, reports the case. 

CASE. Private William H. Smith, Co. I, 99th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, in an action on the 
Southside Railroad, Virginia, about April 7th, 1865, a gunshot wound of the right parietal region. He was admitted into the 
field hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps. Simple dressings were applied. On April 12th, he was admitted into the 
Second Corps field hospital, at City Point, whence he was transferred, on April 18th, to Finley Hospital, Washington. On 
April 21st, erysipelas attacked the scalp and face. Tincture of iodine, and lead and opium washes, and poultices were used. 
He was admitted into Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, May 19th, and on July 19th, 1865, he was discharged from service. 

CASE. Private F. M. Streeter, Co. G, 42d Mississippi Infantry, received a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, 
on July 23d, 1863, into the Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond, Virginia. Erysipelas supervened. On September 16th, 1863, 
he was furloughed. The case is reported by Surgeon C. D. Rice, 1*. A. C. S. 

CASE. Private L. H. Taylor, Co. A, 46tli Virginia Regiment, was admitted, on July 2d, 1864, to the Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp. Erysipelas supervened; but otherwise the case progressed 
favorably, and the patient was furloughed, on July 31st, 1864, for thirty days. Surgeon C. D. Rice, P. A. C. S., recorded the case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 79 

Another case of erysipelas of the scalp, complicated by haemorrhage, will be recorded 
further on among the abstracts of scalp wounds with haemorrhage. Still another affords 
an instance of the application of sutures in gunshot lacerations of the scalp: 

CASE. Private James Buchanan, Co. C, 6th Iowa Volunteers, aged 35 years, received at the battle of Resaca, Georgia, 
May 14th, 1864, a lacerated wound of the vertex of the scalp, from a fragment of shell. Tlie cranium was laid hare for a 
distance of two and a half inches. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Fifteenth Army Corps, in charge of M. C. 
Woodworth, Assistant Surgeon II. S. V., on the same day, and the wound was cleaned, the scalp shaved, and its edges approxi 
mated by sutures. The wound was then covered with water dressings. The next report is dated May 20th, when it is stated 
that the wound was tumefied, highly inflamed, suppurating, and gaping, the sutures having broken out. The wound was 
cleaned of purulent matter, and was dressed with strips of isinglass plaster, and covered by a compress. On the 21st, there 
was erysipelatous inflammation extending from the vertex over the forehead nearly down to the eyelid. The wound was 
dressed with plasters, as before, and strong tincture of iodine was painted over the entire inflamed surface and a border of the 
sound skin adjacent. On the 22d, the erysipelas extended slightly downwards to the face. On the 25th, the inflammation had, 
in a great measure, subsided. The patient was transferred to the Cumberland Hospital, at Nashville, Tennessee, under the 
care of Surgeon C. McDermont, U. S. V., and \vas treated by simple dressings to the scalp and with purgatives. On June 4th, 
he was transferred to the Holt Hospital, at Jeffersonville, Indiana, in charge of Surgeon H. P. Stearns, U. S. V. It is stated 
on the register of this hospital, that the wound was inflicted by a conical musket ball. The patient recovered without further 
complication, and was returned to duty August 19th, 1864. 

Eight cases were reported which terminated fatally in consequence of the meningeal 
inflammation following the invasion of erysipelas : 

CASK. Private Lewis Alfrey, Co. K, 22d Indiana Volunteers, received, in an engagement at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
June 27th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Fourteenth Corps, 
and, on July 1st, was transferred to the Cumberland Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. He died, on July 26th, 18G4, "of 
erysipelas, following gunshot wound of scalp." Assistant Surgeon W. B. Trull, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Corporal William Cammire, Co. H, 73d Illinois Volunteers, aged 22 years, was admitted to hospital No. 19, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on December 1st, 1864, with a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. Erysipelas of the head and 
face supervened, and the case had a fatal termination on December 4th, 1864, 

CASE. Private James B. Fant, Co. B, 17th Mississippi Regiment, was, on May 9th, 1864, admitted to the Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, with a lacerated wound of thescalp in the left temporal region, caused by a grape shot. On 
July 8th, erysipelas attacked the wound, and death resulted on July 29th, 18t>4. Surgeon T. M. Palmer, C. S. A., records 
the case. 

CASE. Private William Jackson, Co. F, 16th Ohio Volunteers, received, at the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Decem 
ber 28th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. He was conveyed, on the steam transport City of Memphis, to 
Paducah, Kentucky, and was admitted, on January 8th, 1863, into Hospital No. 2. Erysipelas of the scalp supervened, and 
death resulted from exhaustion, on February 23d, 1863. At the post mortem examination the liver, spleen, and mesenteric 
glands were found enlarged. The; case is reported by Surgeon H. P. Stearns, U. S. V. 

CASE. Corporal Francis N. Lewis. Co. E, 18th North Carolina Regiment, received, in an engagement before Petersburg, 
April 1st, 1865. a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on April 4th, admitted to the hospital at Fort Monroe, where he 
died, on April 13th, 1865, of erysipelas. Assistant Surgeon W. D. Wolverton, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Reinhold Maywold, Co. G, 6th \Visconsin Volunteers, aged 27 years, was wounded, in an engagement 
at the Southsidc Railroad, April 1st, 1865, by a conoidal ball, which struck over the squamous portion of the left temporal bone. 
He was. on the following day, admitted to the field hospital of the Fifth Corps, and, on April 4th, was sent to the Lincoln Hos 
pital, Washington, D. C., where he died, on April 24th, 1865, from erysipelas following gunshot wound of scalp. 

CASE. Private Fountain McClarry, Co. E, 100th U. S. Colored Troops, aged 24 years, received, at the battle of 
Nashville, December 16th. 18t>4, a gunshot wound of the scalp, on the back of the head. He was admitted, on the following 
day, to Hospital No. 16. Simple dressings were applied. Erysipelas supervened, and death followed, on January 14th, 1865. 

CASE. Private John Williams, Co. B, 12th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, in the attack on Peters 
burg, Virginia. .June 17th, 1864, a shell wound of the left side of the scalp. He was admitted, on June 19th, to the hospital of 
the Second Corps at City Point, and, on June 25th, was sent to the Lovell Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island. 
Erysipelas supervened, and death occurred on July 7th, 1864. 

Gangrene The contused wounds of the scalp made by balls, always followed by 
the death of a thin layer of tissue, sometimes lead to spreading gangrene, a complication 
more common in head wounds with fracture of the skull than in those limited to the scalp. 
In the latter class, but nine cases of traumatic gangrene were reported, of which four 
ten nin ated fatally . 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 
> _ Private Joseph H. Clouse, Co. H, 20th Indiana Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsyl 



vania, July 3d, 186 5, by a conoidal ball, which entered just above the frontal eminence of the left side, and made a large flesh 
wound. He was sent to Philadelphia, and, on July 5th, admitted to the Satterlee Hospital. Cold water dressings were 
applied until the llth, when flax-seed poultices were used. The wound did comparatively well until the 2Uth, when gangrene 
appeared. Tincture of the sesquichloride of iron was given, and applications of nitric acid, followed by emollient dressings, 
were made for a few davs, when the sloughs came away, and the wound commenced to heal. On the 24th, the edges were 
approximating. About a square inch of the bone was visible, one-half of which was denuded of its periosteum. The patient 
was furloughed on August 2d, 1863; returned to his regiment, and Avas, on December 22d, 1863, transferred to Co. F, 20th 
Indiana Regiment, reorganized. 

CASK. Private William Padyet, Co. B, 1st Florida Battery, was admitted, on June 4th, 1864, to Howard Grove Hospital, 
Richmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp over the left temporal bone. Gangrene attacked the wound, but was 
readily checked, and on July 23d the patient was furloughed for sixty days. 

CASE. Private Horace Garrquis, Co. E, 8th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 20 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia. May 7th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on May 9th, admitted to the Hampton Hospital 
near Fort Monroe, and, on May 18th, transferred to the Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. On May 30th, the wound commenced 
to slough. Bromine was applied, and afterwards flax-seed poultices, and on June 15th, healthy granulation set in. On .July 
llth, the patient was sent to the Knight Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, and on October llth, 1864, he was returned to duty. 

CASK. Private John R. Kittredge, Co. I, 93d New York Volunteers, aged 20 years, was wounded at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which passed across the vertex of the cranium from left to right, 
causing a scalp wound two inches in length. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps; on May 
10th, sent to the Carver Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on May 15th, transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. On 
June 14th, the wound began to slough; poultices were applied, and on June 18th the sloughing had ceased. Kittredge was 
returned to duty on October 4th, 1864. 

CASK. Private W. I. Watson, Co. D, 20th Georgia Cavalry, received, on October 27th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the 
scalp. He was admitted into the second division of the Jackson Hospital, Richmond, on the same day. Gangrene supervened. 
He recovered, and was furloughed March 24th, 1865. 

The following cases of sloughing after gunshot wounds of the scalp, terminated 
fatally : 

CASE. Private Daniel L. Dougherty, Co. H, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 27 years, was wounded before Peters 
burg, Virginia, June 16th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which injured the scalp and the left shoulder. He was, on the following 
day, admitted to the hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, at Point of Rocks, Virginia, and, on June 19th, was sent to the Hampton 
Hospital, Fort Monroe, where simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on July 15th, 1864, from gangrene 
and exhaustion. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

CASK. Private Patrick Doyle, Co. D, 117th New York Volunteers, aged 36 years, was wounded before Petersburg, 
Virginia, June 15th, 1364, by a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of the scalp. He was treated, for some days, in a 
field hospital, and thence, on June 24th, transferred to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on June 27th, 
sent to the Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia. Gangrene attacked the wound, and the patient died on July 30th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Irvine Hawkins, Co. I, 2d, New York Artillery, aged 19 years, received, in an engagement at Petersburg, 
Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the occipital region, by a round ball. He was admitted, on the same day, into 
the field hospital of the First Division, Second Army Corps, and, on the 21st, was sent to the base hospital at City Point. Simple 
dressings were used. The patient was subsequently transferred to Washington, and was received into the Mount Pleasant 
Hospital on June 27th. He was, a few days later, sent to the Chester Hospital in Pennsylvania. The wounds fell into a 
sloughing condition, and death resulted from the consequent exhaustion, July 28th, 1864. Surgeon Thomas H. Bache, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

CASE. Corporal William Roth, Co. E, 119th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, a scalp wound in the left parietal region, and also a wound through the left latissimus dorsi 
muscle. He was conveyed to Philadelphia, and, on July 5th, was admitted to the Satterlee Hospital. Both wounds were 
gangrenous. Charcoal poultices were applied, atler cauterization by nitric acid. On July 26th, the wounds looked healthy; 
but, on July 29th, excessive diarrhoea supervened, followed by chills and headache, and death occurred on August 2d, 1863. 
The case is reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon N. Hickman. 

Hcemorrkage. In gunshot wounds of the scalp, primary hemorrhage was very 
infrequent, but secondary haemorrhage was not uncommon, and proved, when it occurred, 
a very troublesome complication. Abstracts will be given of all the cases, twenty-one in 
number, reported in detail : 

CASE. Private Thomas Bell, Co. A, 9th Pennsylvania Volunteer Reserves, a paroled prisoner, was admitted to hospital 
at Annapolis, Maryland, on January llth, 1863. He had been wounded by a musket ball, which entered the scalp to the right 
ot the occipital protuberance, and, passing forward and slightly upward, emerged at a distance of two inches above the ear. 
1 he missile, in its course, cut the occipital artery, from which there was profuse haemorrhage. Sight and hearing were some- 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 81 

what affected; but, on the date of his leaving the hospital, the patient was doing well. He was transferred, on January 21st ? 
1803, to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, after which there is no account of him. Surgeon T. A. McParlin, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private Burton Fuller, Co. II, 7th Iowa Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, October 
3d, 1862, in the right temple. The missile entered on a line with the external canthtis of the right eye, severing the temporal 
artery, and lodged. He was, on October 13th, 1862, admitted to the Hospital at Mound City, Illinois, where the temporal 
artery was ligated. Fuller was discharged from the service on January 13th, 18G3. 

CASE. Private John Hearne, Co. E, 104th New York Volunteers, was wounded, in an engagement near Suffolk, 
Virginia, April 24th, 1863, in the right temporal region, the missile dividing the temporal artery, which bled freely. The 
haemorrhage was checked by compression, and the patient was sent, on the following day, to the hospital at Hampton, Virginia. 
On June 22d, 1863, he was returned to duty. 

CASE. Lieutenant A. St. Clair Smith, Co. E, 12th New Hampshire Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1861, by a conoidal musket ball, which cut the scalp over the left ear and severed the temporal 
artery, which was secured with some difficulty. He was admitted, on June 5th, to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, 
and thence sent to Washington, D. C., and was treated, at his quarters, at the Avenue House. He was furloughed, on June 
llth, 1864, and was finally mustered out with his regiment, on June 21st, 18G5. Acting Assistant Surgeon G. K. Smith recorded 
th case. 

CASE. Corporal John C. Taylor, Co. D, 5th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 44 years, received, at the battle of Fair Oaks, 
June 1st, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was sent to the Seminary Hospital at Georgetown, D. C., and admitted on 
June 4th. Profuse haemorrhage occurred, on the same day, from one of the branches of the temporal ai-tery. The main trunk 
was ligated, just above the zygomatic process. The patient was returned to duty on August 19th, 1862. The case is reported 
by Acting Assistant Surgeon Josiali F. Kennedy. 

In six cases of secondary haemorrhage from gunshot wounds of the scalp, the bleeding 
was controlled by pressure and by styptics : 

CASE. Private G. A. Arnold, Co. G, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded, at the battle of the Wilder 
ness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a wound of the scalp in the right parietal region. He 
was admitted to the Harewood Hospital. Washington, D. C., and, on May 15th, sent to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. On th 
following day haemorrhage occurred from the parietal branch of the temporal artery, which was controlled by compression. On 
May 31st, the wound had nearly healed, but the patient suffered from headache. He was returned to duty on July 26th, 1864. 

CASK. Private John Gallager, Co. G, 5th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded at the battle of the Seven 
Pines, Virginia, June 1st, 1862, by a round ball, which struck in the right parietal region, two inches from vertex, laying the 
bone bare. He was conveyed to Washington, and admitted, on June 4th, into the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown. A haemorrhage 
took place from the temporal artery on the same day. The patient suffers from occasional attacks of vertigo. On July 18th, he 
was transferred to the Union Hotel Hospital, in the same place, and, on July 25th, 1862, was returned to duty. Assistant 
Surgeon Joseph R. Smith, U. S. A., reports the case. 

CASE. Private Zachariah Hancock, Co. I, 19th. Indiana Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn 
sylvania, July 2d, 1863, by a buckshot, which entered behind the left ear and lodged. He was, on the same day, admitted to 
the Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, and, on July llth, sent to the McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia. Haemorrhage, amounting 
to twelve ounces, occurred on the following day, but was arrested by pressure and a solution of the persulphate of iron. The 
patient was discharged on December 3d, 18b 3. Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private John Lowrey, Co. I, <id United States Infantry, aged 29 years, was wounded, at the battle of Antietam, 
Maryland, September 17th, 1862, in the right temporal region. He was, on September 22d, admitted to Hospital No. 5, 
Frederick, Maryland, and, on October 10th, sent to McDougall Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York Harbor. On October 16th, 
haemorrhage occurred from the temporal artery, but was easily controlled by compresses and styptic preparations. The patient 
was returned to duty on November 4th, 1862. 

CASE. Private John O Connor, Co. I, 20th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, at the battle of Gettys 
burg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1863, a wound of the scalp near the vertex, by a fragment of shell. lie was admitted into a field 
hospital, and, a few days later, was sent to Philadelphia, and admitted, on July 7th, into the Mower Hospital. On July llth, 
a considerable haemorrhage took place, which was controlled by a compress and styptics. He deserted October 5th, 1863. The 
case is reported by J. Hopkinson, Surgeon U. S. V 

CASE. Private Henry Schurringhausen, Co. I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery, aged 25 years, was wounded in the forehead, 
by a buckshot, in the engagement at Chantiily, Virginia, September 1st, 1862. He was admitted to the Master Street Hospital, 
Philadelphia, on September 3d, 1862. The injury was regarded as slight, but subsequent sloughing caused haemorrhage from 
the frontal artery on September 10th. The bleeding was readily arrested by continuous pressure and Monsell s dry salt. The 
wound healed, and the patient was discharged from the service on January 4th, 1865. 

Iii eight cases, the bleeding was successfully treated by li gating the wounded vessel: 

CASK. Lieutenant, Henry Gilmoie, Co. A, 17th Vermont Volunteers, aged 32 years, received, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was treated in a field hospital until May 19th, 
11 



82 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

when he was sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C. On admission, the wound was in a bad condition ; the 
temporal bone was exposed to view, and the tissues were sloughing and inclined to gangrene. On May 21st, haemorrhage 
occurred from the temporal artery. Acting Assistant Surgeon F. W. Kelly, ligated the artery in its continuity. No untoward 
symptoms occurred. On August 15th, Lieutenant Gilmore was transferred to the Officers Hospital, at Annapolis, Maryland, 
and. on September 6th, 1884, he was returned to duty. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private F, C. Earth/, Co, G, 49th Virginia Regiment, aged 21 years, was admitted on June 1st, 1864, to 
Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp, received on May 31st, 1864. On June 5th 
haemorrhage occurred from the anterior branch of the temporal artery, which was ligated near the expansion of the temporal 
muscle. On June 30th, the patient was doing well, and, on July 1st, he was furloughed for sixty days. 

CASE. Private Josiah Mullen, Co. A. 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, was wounded during the siege of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, November 30th, 1863, by a conoidal ball, which struck the left side of the head and severed the temporal artery. 
He was at once admitted to Hospital No. 5, Knoxville, where Surgeon George B. Coggswell, 29th Massachusetts Volunteers, 
ligated the temporal artery near its origin. The ball was not discovered until December 5th, when it was extracted from 
beneath the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, near the sternal extremity. The patient recovered, was furloughed on February 17th, 
1864, and finally returned to duty. The case is reported by Surgeon A. M. Wilder, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Henry Reese, Co. I, 53d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded at the battle of Gettys 
burg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1863, by a shell, which caused a flesh wound over the right temple. He was, on July 5th, 
admitted to the Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia. On July 13th, haemorrhage, amounting to four ounces, occurred from the 
temporal artery, which was ligated in the wound. Haemorrhage did not recur, and the patient was returned to duty on Decem 
ber 7th, 1863. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V. 

CASE. Corporal A. Talmadge, Co. E, llth New Jersey Volunteers, aged 32 years, was wounded at the battle of Gettys 
burg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, by a conoidal musket ball, which tore the scalp over the left temple for a distance of one by 
two and a half inches. He was admitted, on July 5th, to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia. The wound became gangrenous, and 
was treated with flaxseed meal and porter poultices. The pain Avas intense, and the patient was unable to rest ; the wound 
began to slough, and there w T as such free bleeding, that on July 14th the anterior temporal artery was ligated. The slough was 
gradually thrown oft , and, on July 23d, healthy granulation commenced. A slight haemorrhage occurred on July 27th, but 
was speedily arrested by compression. The patient was furloughed on August 1st, 1863, and returned to duty on March 24th, 
1864. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V. 

The following patients recovered, also, from secondary haemorrhage treated by ligation, 
and they were discharged on account of the expiration of their terms of service : 

CASK. Corporal Henry Kullman, Co. I, 27th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which entered anteriorly to the right ear, passed 
through the pavilion, and emerged just behind the concha. He was at once admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Ninth 
Corps, and, on August 1st, was sent to the Harewood Hospital, Washington, D. C. On August 14th, haemorrhage, amounting 
to four ounces, occurred from the temporal artery, which was ligated in its continuity by Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V., a 
ligature being placed above and below the wound. Haemorrhage did not recur. On September 3d, 1864, the patient was sent 
to the Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, and, on May 30th, 1865, was mustered out of service. The case is reported by the opera 
tor, Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V. 

CASE. Private Richard Norris, Co. C, 1st United States Cavalry, aged 32 years, was wounded at the battle of the Wil 
derness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which entered in front of the right ear and emerged two inches 
back of the right mastoid process. He was admitted into Finley Hospital, Washington, D. C., on May llth, 1864. On May 
25th, haemorrhage occurred from the occipital artery, which was ligated by Acting Assisumt Surgeon F. G. IT. Bradford. The 
man recovered, and was discharged on July 20th, 1864, on account of the expiration of term of service. Surgeon G. L. Pan- 
coast, U. S. V., reported the case. 

In the following case, recovery ensued after ligation for secondary haemorrhage, and 
the patient deserted from hospital : 

CASE. Private David Jones, Co. B, 1st Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 26 years, was wounded at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May 9th, 1864. by a conoidal musket ball, which entered above and to the left of the left eye, passed in a 
direct line through the integuments over the temporal region, and emerged four inches from the point of entrance. He was 
conveyed to the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria, and, on May 21st, was transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. 
The wound was swollen and painful, and bled freely. On May 24th, the temporal artery was ligated in its continuity, in front 
of the ear, and half an inch below the wound, by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. D. Marshall. An attack of erysipelas was 
checked by local applications of iodine and of lead water. The patient recovered, and was, on July 7th, 1864, sent to the hospital 
at Beverly, New Jersey, whence he deserted on July 23d, 1864. 

Two cases of gunshot wound of the scalp, complicated by haemorrhage, had a fatal 
termination : 

CASE. Private Alexander Brown, Co. B, 14th New York State Militia, aged 33 years, was wounded at the battle of 
the Wilderness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which entered in front of the left ear, passed downward 
and backwards, and emerged about one inch below the occiput. He was admitted into the field hospital of the Fourth Division, 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OK THE SCALP. 83 

Fifth Army Corps, on the same day, and u few days later sent to Alexandria, and was admitted, on May 12th, to the Second 
Division Hospital. Simple dressings were used. On May 19th, haemorrhage took place from the occipital artery, and, though 
temporarily checked, the arterial bleeding recurred on the 20th, and, on the 21st, about thirty-eight ounces of blood were 
believed to have been lost altogether. Compression and astringents were the measures unavailingly employed. The patient 
died on May 21st. 1864. The case is reported by Surgeon T. Rush Spencer, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private Lewis Jones, Co. C. 115th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, in an engagement at Olustee, 
Florida, February 2lith, 1864, a gunshot wound of the seal)). He was conveyed to Jacksonville, and thence to Hilton Head, 
South Carolina, where he entered the hospital on February 25th. On February 27th, haemorrhage amounting to six ounces, 
occurred from the anterior temporal artery. The vessel was ligated, and haemorrhage did not recur. On April 20th, he was 
sent to the hospital at Fort Monroe; on April 26th, to the DeCamp Hospital, New York Harbor; and, on September 27th, 1864, 
to Albany, New York, where he died on October loth, 1864, from the effects of the wound. Assistant Surgeon M. F. Cogswell, 
U. S. V., records the case. 

Tetanus. In five of the fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, tetanus was the 
cause of death. In every instance, the invasion of this complication was ascribed to 
exposure to dampness, with sudden depression of the temperature of the atmosphere: 

CASE. Corporal Charles G. Carpenter, Co. F, 19th Iowa Volunteers, aged about 32 years, received a wound of the 
scalp, in the engagement at Morganzia, Louisiana, September 2*Jth, 1863, by a conoidal ball. He was admitted, from the field, to 
St. Louis General Hospital, at >>ew Orleans, on October 4th, 18S3, where he was treated by application of simple dressings, and 
the administration of saline cathartics, and the free use of morphia?. On the night of October 7th, the weather. became cold and 
damp, and, on the following morning, the patient manifested symptoms of trismns. The phenomena of acute tetanus rapidly 
ensued, and the case terminated fatally, on October llth, 1863. At the autopsy, an extravasation of blood was found beneath 
the skull, at a point corresponding with the wound of the scalp. " The case is reported by Surgeon F. Bacon, U. S. V. 

CASK. Private A. J. Cook, Co. U, 92d Ohio Volunteers, by the accidental discharge of a pistol in his own hands, 
received, on November 2d, 1862, a slight bullet wound of the integuments of the forehead, over the right superciliary ridge. 
He was admitted to hospital at Charlestown, Virginia. The wcund at first granulated kindly; but, on November 10th, the 
patient having, in spite of the protestations of his nurse, removed the dressings, and gone out of doors on a cold, damp day, 
tetanic spasms of great severity set in, and the case terminated fatally within twenty-four hours. Acting Assistant Surgeon 
McEwen reports the case. 

CASK. Private Wilson Miller. Co. C, 116th United States Colored Troops, aged 26 years, was wounded, in an engage 
ment before Petersburg, April 2d, 1865, by a conoidal ball, which lodged two inches above the left ear. He was taken to the 
hospital of the Second Division, Twenty-fifth Corps, where the ball was removed. On April 5th, 1865, he \\p& admitted to the 
hospital at Fort Monroe. He was placed in a hospital tent, and unavoidably exposed to dampness owing to inclement weather. 
On April 14th, trismus commenced, and spasms gradually extended to the muscles of the chest, abdomen, and extremities. 
Active purgatives were given until the bowels were thoroughly evacuated, after which opium was prescribed without effect. 
Subsequently, ether and chloroform were administered, with but temporary benefit ; assafostida also, was ineffectually administered 
per aiiitm in large and repeated doses. Death occurred on April 20th, 1865. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., reports 
the case. 

CASK. Lieutenant Patrick Morris, Co. M, 62d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, at the battle of 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1863, a gunshot scalp wound of the occipital region. On July 3d, he was admitted to the 
hospital of the Fifth Corps. On July ?th, tetanus, in the form of trismus, made its appearance. Chloroform was administered 
by inhalation, and free incisions were made fhrough the scalp near the seat of injury. These measures appeared, for a time, 
greatly to alleviate the symptoms, but after a temporary remission, these recurred with increased severity, and death took place, 
on July llth, 1&63. 

CASK. Private Thomas J. Severance, Co. F, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded, at the battle 
of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 186:?, by a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of the right side of the scalp, 
posterior aspect. He was, at first, admitted to the Seminary Hospital, and, on July 8th, was transferred to Turner s Lane 
Hospital, Philadelphia. The general health of the patient was good. The edges of the wound were inflamed, and cold water 
dressings were therefore applied, and continued until July 16th, when the patient complained of stiffness of the jaws The 
throat was rubbed with strong animoniacal liniment. On the following day, there was confirmed trismus, and, in addition to 
this, emprosthotonos occurred during the night. Warm cataplasms were applied to the wound, and anodynes were administered 
internally. On July 18th, the anodynes were continued, and, as the wound was found to be suppurating freely, a supporting 
course, consisting of ipilk punch, and injections of beef tea, was resorted to. On July 19th, the patient appeared to be much 
the same, manifesting a great indisposition to he disturbed. The treatment of the preceding day was continued, together with 
the application of powerful rubefacients along the spine. Death resulted on the morning of the 20th of July. The apparent 
cause of the invasion was damp weather, as it occurred during a very damp, rainy period. The case is recorded by Assistant 
Surgeon C. H. Alden, U. S. A. 

The following case was regarded as an instance of recovery from traumatic tetanus, but 
the evidence is anything but satisfactory: 



4 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



K. _ Private Conrad Wentzell, Co. E, 75th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 34 years, received, at the battle of Gettys- 
bur" Julv 1st, 1863, gunshot wounds of the left side of the head and of the upper third of the left arm. He was at once 
admitted into Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, and thence, on July 13th, sent to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia. There were 
indications of trismus or tetanus ; but upon chloroform being inhaled, no spasms or pain recurred. On the 16th, the patient 
complained of burning pain in the wound, but on the 25th, he was doing well. The wound looked healthy, and no further 
complication ensued. He was furloughed on September 23th. 1883, and transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps on February 
29th, 1864. 

Pycemia. The reports specify five cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp in which 
pyaemia supervened: 

CASK. Private T. D Bigr/s, Co. I, Anthorn s Regiment, was, on July 5th, 1863, admitted to the hospital steamer R. C. 
Wood, with a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. On July 7th, he was transferred to the Overtoil Hospital, Memphis, 
Tennessee, and. on July 31st, he was sent to the Church Hospital of the same city, where he died, on September 3d, 1863. of 
septicaemia, accompanied by embolic obstructions in some of the smaller arteries. 

CASK. Private George Gold, Co. I, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 23 years, was admitted to Harewood Hospital 
on October 7th, 1864. He had been wounded at Poplar Grove Church, on September 30th, by a musket ball, which struck the 
scalp, passing from before backwards, tearing up a portion about three inches in length by one inch in breadth, laying bare the 
skull and denuding it of its pericranium for the space of three inches in length and one inch in breadth, through the middle of 
which space the sagittal suture passed, meeting the coronal at the anterior border. The patient was carefully watched for symp 
toms indicative of cerebral or meningeal inflammation ; but none were manifested up to the moment of his death, unless a slight 
drowsiness, which, at the time, was attributed to the administration of eight grains of Dover s powder, might be so regarded. 
He was up and about the ward, complaining of nothing except the wound in the scalp, and receiving no treatment, except 
simple dressings, until the morning of October 18th, when he spoke of a slight pain in the left side of the chest, over the lower 
lobe of the lung. There was some dullness on percussion over the part complained of, but no marked physical signs of inflam 
matory mischief. On October 19th, the patient was worse. The pain in the left chest was more severe, resembling that of 
pleurisy; the pulse was full and frequent; the tongue brown and rather dry; there was very little cough, and no expectoration. 
On percussion, the right side was very dull over the lower lobe, less so over the upper lobe. The respiratory murmurs were 
nearly if not quite normal, over the whole of the right lung. Examination by auscultation unsatisfactory, on account of the 
turbulent action of the heart and the catching character of the respiration. There was no cephalic or nervous symptoms. On 
October 20th, the patient appeared more comfortable in the early part of the day, the respiration less labored, and pulse more 
quiet, and tongue more moist ; towaids the latter part of the day, however, the symptoms increased in severity. Great dullness 
over whole of left side of chest was noticed, and greatly diminished resonance on the right side. The vesicular murmur was 
heard over a small portion of the superior lobe of the left lung only. Moist friction sounds over nearly the whole of the left lung 
could be heard, together with bronchial respiration, and, at some circumscribed parts, a very coarse crepitation. On the right 
side the vesicular "murmur was rather faint, and greatly obscured by bronchial respiration. On October 21st, there was less 
pain and dyspnoea, very little cough, with a soft infrequent pulse, pale countenance, and increasing dullness on percussion over 
the right side. Towards the latter part of the day there was less drowsiness. The patient died at half-past eight o clock, on 
October 22d, 1864. He was perfectly sensible and rational within ten minutes of his death. A post mortem examination was 
made three hours afterwards. Cadaveric rigidity was strongly marked ; the skin of the chest and face was of a deeply jaundiced 
hue On making an opening into the chest, about twenty ounces of yellow serum was found in the left pleura, none in the 
right. The pleural cavities of both sides, but particularly the left, were covered to a considerable extent with coagulable lymph 
of considerable firmness. The left costal and pulmonary pleural were bound strongly together by broad, thick bands, the result 
of some former disease. There were also a few much less firm attachments on the right side. The lower lobe of the left lung 
was in a state of gray hepatization, the upper lobe in that of red hepatization, and in both, at various points, were found circum 
scribed deposits of pus, containing from one-half a drachm to a drachm each. The lower lobe of the right lung was in a state 
of red hepatization, and the middle and upper lobes were greatly congested. In the lower lobe were found two or three purulent 
deposits, which appeared to form centres of inflammation, or metastatic foci. The wound along the scalp appeared as during 
life. Pus was found along the coronal and sagittal sutures, throughout the whole extent, dissecting the scalp from the bone, to 
the breadth .of one inch. The skull was roughened, and deprived of pericranium to that extent. The portion of the wound 
which had been originally denuded had begun to exfoliate, a line of separation being visible around it. On removing the 
calvaria, a thin layer of pus was found between the bone and dura mater, extending along the sagittal and coronal sutures to 
the same extent as on the external surface, the amount of pus within the skull being less than one drachm. There was a 
narrow strip of the dura mater each side of these sutures which was inflamed; at other parts this membrane was healthy. The 
arachnoid and pia mater were perfectly normal. The brain and its ventricles, the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and roots of 
all the cerebral nerves, were carefully examined, and no lesions were discovered. The heart and its valves, the vena cava and 
azygos, the pulmonary veins and arteries, the jugulars, and the blood-vessels of the brain, were in a normal condition. The 
liver was apparently healthy. Acting Assistant Surgeon Cobb recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Rufus Hedges, Co. G, 10th Michigan Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Peach Tree Creek, 
Georgia, July 21st, 1864, a slight gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted into the field hospital of the Second Division, 
Fourteenth Army Corps, on the same day. On the following day, he was conveyed to Hospital No. 2, at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. On August 7th, he was transferred to the Sherman Hospital, at Nashville. A supporting diet was given, and 
simple dressings used. The patient died, on August 30th, 1864, of pyaemia. Surgeon William Threlkeld, -U. S. V., reports 
the case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 85 

CASE. Private Gilmer P. Rook, Co. B, 9th Maine Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, nt the seige of Petersburg, 
Virginia, July 8th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Tenth Corpp, 
and was thence sent to the McDougall Hospital, at Fort Schuyler, where he entered on July 27th. He died, on July 31st, 
of double pneumonia and icterus, and other signs of pyaemia. 

CASK. Private A. llusscll, Co. K, 53d North Carolina Regiment, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 3d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, and, on July 17th, was transferred 
to the De Camp Hospital, at David s Island, New York. Pyaemia supervened, and death occurred on September 20th, 1863. 
Surgeon Charles Gray, llth New York Cavalry, reports the case. 

Complications from Intercurrcnt Diseases. In twelve cases of gunshot wounds of 
the scalp, the fatal results are ascribed to typhoid fever. This term w r as often employed 
in a very loose sense by some of the medical officers, being applied not infrequently to 
a state of exhaustion resulting from irritative or traumatic fever: 

o 

CASE. Private George W. Beisel, Co. K, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 29 years, was wounded, while on picket, 
May 20th, 1864, by a musket ball, which tore the scalp on the left side. He was admitted, on May 2:!d, to the hospital at Pcint 
Lookout, Maryland, furloughed June 24th, and readmitted on August 17th, 1864. Typhoid fever then set in, and death 
occurred on October 27th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Charles W. Hapenstall, Co. G, 36th Illinois Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded, at the battle of 
Franklin. Tennessee, November 3Uth, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which injured the scalp. He was treated in a regimental 
hospital at first, and transferred, on December 2d, to Hospital No. 19, at Nashville; but, 011 the same day, he was returned to 
modified duty, at the Convalescent Camp. On December 4th, he was admitted to the Clay Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, on 
account of the same injury. On December 25th, he was transferred to Hospital No. 5, at Quincy, Illinois, where he died, on 
December 26th, 1864, of "typhoid fever." 

CASE. Private Lewis Hicks, Co. K, 6th New York Heavy Artillery, Avas wounded, in an engagement before Petersburg 
Virginia, June 18th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which struck the left temporal region, inflicting a laceration of the integument. 
He also received a shell wound of the second finger of the left hand. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, 
Fifth Corps, where the terminal phalanx was removed. On July 2d, he was sent to the Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, 
where cold water dressings were applied to the scalp wound. Death occurred, from enteric fever, on July Kith, 1864. The 
autopsy revealed the pathognomonic ulceration of Fever s glands, and extensive inflammation of the intestinal canal. 

CASK. Private T/tomas Jorman, Co. A, 35th North Carolina Regiment, was admitted to the hospital transport De Molay, 
with a gunshot wound of the scalp. Typhoid fever supervened, and the patient died, on August 28th, 1864. 

CASE. Private John Leach, Co. I, llth Iowa Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, 
April 6th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He subsequently contracted typhoid fever, from which he died, on May 22<l, 
1862, at Monterey, Tennessee. Assistant Surgeon A. R. Derby, 2Uth Missouri Volunteers, reports the case. 

CASE. Private Otis Packard, Co. I, 3d Maine Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, at the battle of Spottsylvania, 
Virginia, May 12th, 18(54, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over the left eye. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third 
Division, Second Corps, and, on May 14th, sent to the Harewood Hospital, Washington, D. C., where he died, on July 9th, 
1864, of "typhoid fever." 

CASE. Private John O Ragan, Co. C, 1st Maine Infantry, aged 41 years, received, at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, on the same day, to the hospital of the Second 
Division, Sixth Corps, and, on October 23d, was sent to the Haddington Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died, "of typhoid 
fever, December llth, 18;>4. 

CASK. Private George A. Raush, Co. B, 108th Illinois Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Arkansas Post, 
January llth, 1863, a slight gunshot wound over the eye. He was treated in a field hospital, and, on March 8th, was discharged 
from the service, on account of chronic diarrhoea and hernia. He died "of typhoid fever/ on board of the steamer Nashville, 
on March 12th, 1803, while in transit for his home. 

CASK. Private Barney Riley, Co. F, 1st New York Dragoons, aged 26 years, was wounded in the engagement at Tre- 
vilian Station, Virginia, on June llth, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a wound of the left side of the scalp. He 
was immediately admitted to the field hospital of the Cavalry Corps, and, on June 21st, he was transferred to Mount Pleasant 
Hospital, Washington, 1). C. Typhoid fever supervened, and the patient died on August llth, 18154. The case is reported 
by Assistant Surgeon C. A. McC all, II. S. A. 

CASE. Private Alfred B. Smith, Co. F, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, aged 26 years, was wounded, in an engage 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia, June 15th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which lacerated the scalp severely. He was admitted to 
the hospital of this Third Division, Second Corps, and thence, on July 17th, was sent to the Fiidey Hospital, Washington, D. C. 
lie died, on July 27th, 1864, "of typhoid fever." 

CASE.- Private George F. Stetson, Co. E, 23d Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 23 years, was wounded, at the battle of 
Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 18(54. by a fragment of shell, which caused a scalp wound of the left side of the head. He 
was admitted to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 9th, sent to the First Division Hospital, at Alexandria. 
Typhoid fever supervened, and death occurred on July 8th, 1864. 



gg WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private Charles Tennis, Co. K, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 25 years, received, in a skirmish, near Dallas, 
Georgia, May 27th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the left side of the head. He was sent to Kingston, Georgia, and in May 
sent north. On June 3d, he was admitted to Hospital No. 8, Nashville, Tennessee, and, on June 27th, transferred to the Third 
Division Hospital, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where he died, on September 16th, 1864, of typhoid fever. 

In four cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, the fatal terminations were attributed 
to incidental malarial attacks. But, as the symptoms were not minutely described, and 
the necroscopic appearances were not observed, suspicion arises that, in some of the cases 
at least, the chills may have been symptomatic of internal suppuration, or a part of the 
characteristic phenomena of pya3inia. 

CASE. Private John A. Boyle, Co. A, 105th Ohio Volunteers, received, in an engagement, near Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
September 23d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted to Hospital No. 15, Nashville, where he died, on October 
19th, 1863, of typho-malarial fever. 

CASE. Private Daniel Meyers, Co. C, 110th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, caused by a fragment of shell. He was, on May 26th, admitted 
to the Carver Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on June 2d, transferred to the Hospital at Brattleboro , Vermont. -Fever of a 
malarial character supervened, and death occurred on June 13th, 1864. 

CASE. Private Lewis Price, Co. A, 73d Illinois Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chickamanga, Georgia, 
September 19th, 1863, a slight gunshot wound of the scalp, over the left eyebrow. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Third Division, Twentieth Corps, on September 24th ; was sent to an hospital at Nashville, and on February 7th, 1864, was 
returned to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he died, on March 14th, 1864, of congestive fever. 

CASE. Private Jeremiah R. Putnam, Co. B, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, aged 42 years, received, in an engage 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. A conoidal ball struck over the parietal 
bones in the line of the sagittal suture. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps, and thence sent, 
by City Point, to the Broad and Cherry Streets Hospital, Philadelphia, which he entered on June 30th. He was, on July 2d, 
transferred to the Haddington Hospital. When admitted the patient suffered from intermittent fever and chronic diarrhoea, 
and was extremely anaemic and emaciated. He died, on July 7th, 1864, "undoubtedly in consequence of serous effusion in brain, 
causing general paralysis." 

In thirteen cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, pneumonia is reported as the cause 
of death; but, in several of them, it is questionable if the pulmonary complications were 
not embolic phenomena, indicating the formation of metastatic foci, and whether these cases 
would not have been more properly classified under the head of pyaemia : 

CASK. Private Benjamin D. Cargill, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of Spottsylvania 
Court House, Virginia. May 8th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the anterior portion of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital 
of the Second Division, Sixth Corps, and, on May 26th, sent to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C. Furloughed on May 
24th. he was readmitted on June 23d, and died on August 8th, 1864, of acute bronchitis. 

CASE. Private James R. Coulter, Co. E, 95th Ohio Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, during the siege of Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, June 20th, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp, right side, and also a flesh wound of the right forearm. He was 
admitted to the hospital 4 of the Third Division, Fifteenth Corps, where he is reported as recovered for duty. On November 5th, 
1864, he was admitted to the Adams Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, with pneumonia, and died on November 9th, 1864. 

CASE. Sergeant Richard Decker, Co. K, 1st New Jersey Cavalry, aged 22 years, received, at the affair at Salem Church, 
Virginia, May 28th, 1864, a wound from a conoidal musket ball, which tore up the seal]) over the vertex for the length of an 
inch. No injury to the bone could be detected. The patient was sent to Washington, and admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital 
on June 4th, 1884. Pneumonic complications supervened, arid the patient sank into a typhoid condition, which terminated 
fatally on June llth, 1864. Assistant Surgeon II. Allen, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

CASE. Private Samuel Healey, Co. C, 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, .aged 28 years, was wounded at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of the scalp. He was at once admitted to the 
hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, on June 7th transferred to the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria, and, on June 12th, 
sent to the hospital at Chester, Pennsylvania. Warm applications were made to the wound to promote discharge, but on the 
19th pleuro-pneumonia set in, and death occurred on June 23d, 1864. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private John A. Huff, Co. E, 5th Michigan Cavalry, aged 48 years, received, in an engagement near Cold Har 
bor, Virginia, May 28th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp from a conoidal ball. He was admitted to the Cavalry 
Corps Hospital, and, on June 3d, sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C., whence he was furloughed on June 17th, 
1864. He died while on furlough, June 23d, 1864, from wound and pneumonia. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., records the 
case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 87 

CASE. Private C. W. Johnson, Co. I, 31st Maine Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, at Spottsylvania Court House, 
Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was admitted to Harewood Hospital, Washington, on May 16th, 
transferred to Patterson Park, Baltimore, May 18th, thence to David s Island, New York Harbor, May 24th, and, finally, to 
Cony Hospital at Augusta, Maine, on June 3d, where pneumonia supervened, and the patient died, on June llth, 1864. 

CASK Private Allen H. Moore, Co. E, 1st Ohio Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, in an engagement near Dallas, 
Georgia, May 27th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the left side of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third 
Division, Fourth Corps, and, on June 1st, was sent to the Cumberland Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died, on 
June 15th, 1804, of typhoid pneumonia. Assistant Surgeon W. B. Trull. U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private John Porter, Co. D, 35th Indiana Volunteers, aged 32 years, received, in an engagement at Marietta, 
Georgia, June 18th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Fourth Corps, 
and, on June 23d, he was transferred to Hospital No. 2, Chattanooga, and, on June 30th, thence sent to the Cumberland 
Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee. Simple dressings were applied to the wound, but the patient was attacked by pleuro- 
pnenmonia, and died on July 13th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon W. B. Trull, U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private James Reardon, Co. B, 6th Missouri Volunteers, received, before Vicksburg, Mississippi, in the latter 
part of December, 1862, a scalp wcund. He was taken on board the Steamer City of Memphis, and, on January 13th, 1863, 
was admitted to the hospital at Paducah, Kentucky, where he died of wound of scalp, with pneumonia, on January 18th, 1863. 

CASE. Captain F. W. Sabine, Co. G, llth Maine Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, in an engagement at Deep 
Bottom, Virginia, August 14th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on the following day, admitted to the Chesapeake 
Hospital, at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Pneumonia of the right lung existed at time of admission, and terminated fatally on 
September 15th, 18(54. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., records the case. 

CASE. Private James Shields, Co. I, 69th New York Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Ninth Corps, on 
December 14th, was sent to the Armory Square Hospital, Washington, D. C., and. on December 19th, transferred to the De 
Camp Hospital, New York Harbor, where he died, on January 9th, 1863, of pneumonia. Surgeon T. Simons, U. S. A., 
recorded the case. 

CASE. Private George M. Snow, Co. D, 25th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Resaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was, at once, admitted to the hospital of the Sixteenth Corps. On 
May 19th, he was sent to the field hospital at Chattanooga, on May 21st, was transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, and 
thence, on May 24th, was sent to the Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky. He died, on June 9th, 1864, of pleuro-pneumonia 

CASE. Private William Spencer, Co. F, 51st Ohio Volunteers, received, at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 22d, 
1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was conveyed to Nashville, Tennessee, and admitted to the Cumberland Hospital, on 
June 26th. Typhoid pneumonia supervened, and the patient died, on July 3d, 1864. 

Three fatal cases of gunshot scalp wounds were complicated by the supervention of 
variola : 

CASK. Corporal Edgar Calkins, Co. D, 5th Michigan Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, 
Third Corps, and, on December 19th, was sent to Mansion House Hospital, Alexandria, and, on April 10th, 1863, symptoms of 
small-pox being manifested, he was transferred to hospital for eruptive diseases, at Kalorama, Washington, D. C., where he 
died, on May 27th. 1863, of varioloid with cerebral symptoms, 

CASK. Private John Crandall, Co. K, 64th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, at the engagement at North 
Anna, Virginia, May 18th, 1864, a scalp wound of the occipital region, from a musket ball. He was sent to Washington, and 
entered Carver Hospital on the 24th, and, on the 27th, was transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia. Here he 
had variola. When partially convalescent he was removed, July 14th, to Turner s Lane Hospital; again, on October 10th, to 
Filbert Street Hospital, and again, on February 16th, 1865, to Islington Lane Hospital. Here he died, on February 24th, from 
the effects of the wound, and of the sequelae of small pox. 

CASE. Sergeant Charles Harbstrutt, Co. D, 74th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, July 
2d, 1863, a shell wound of the integuments on the back of the head. He was admitted, on the same day, to the Seminary 
Hospital, at Gettysburg, to be transferred on the 18th, to the hospital at York, Pennsylvania. On October 8th, variola super 
vened, and the patient died, November 6th, 1863, from the conjoined effects of the wound and fever. 

In one case of gunshot scalp wound hepatitis is adduced as the cause of death : 

CASK. Private Edward McDole, Co. G, 7th New York Heavy Artillery, received, in an engagement before Petersburg, 
Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a scalp wound, caused by a fragment of shell. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, 
Second Army Corps; on June 21st, he was sent to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on June 28th, to the 
Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died, on July 9th, 1864, "of hepatitis." 

Diarrhoea is reported as a fatal complication in four cases : 

. CASK. Private Joseph Coad, Co. F, 3d Maine Volunteers, aged 35 years, was wounded, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Virgin!;), May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which lacerated the right side of the scalp. He was sent to Washington, and 
admitted, on May 27th, to Carver Hospital, where simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on June 18th, 
1864, from "chronic diarrhoea." Surgeon O. A. Judson, U. S. V., recorded the case. 



88 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

CASE. Private A. F. Dana, Co. E, United States Marine Corps, aged 22 years, was wounded, at the assault on Fort 
Fisher, January 15th, 18(55, by a fragment of shell, which lacerated the right side of the scalp and caused a transitory concussion 
of the hrain. He was made a prisoner, but was shortly afterwards exchanged, and, on February 3d, 1865, admitted to the 
hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland. Here he died, on July 18th, 1865, of " chronic diarrhoea." Surgeon G. L. Sutton, 
U. S. V., records the case. 

CASE. Private Alvah 13. Small, Co. C, 20th Maine Volunteers, received, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, a 
gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, at once, admitted to a field hospital, and, on July 8th, was transferred to the Satterlee 
Hospital, at Philadelphia. Simple dressings were applied to the wound, and tonics and astringents were administered internally. 
Chronic diarrhoea, from which he was suffering, persisted, and death ensued August 28th, 1863. 

CASE. Corporal Richard H. Van Devine, Co. K, 1st New Jersey Infantry, aged 28 years, received, at the battle of 
Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp He was admitted, on June llth, to the Mount Pleasant 
Hospital, Washington, D. C., and, on June 20th, transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia. At the period of 
his admission he was very much reduced, and he died, on July lOtli, 1864, "of diarrhoea. Surgeon J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., 
records the case. 

Privation in prison is assigned as the cause of death in one case : 

CASE. Private John A. Brown, Co. B, 73d Illinois Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Chickamauga, September 
19th, 1863, by a musket ball, which produced a lacerated wound of the scalp. He was made a prisoner, and was sent to 
Andersonville, Georgia, where he died, on August 17th, 1864. 

The following case terminated fatally in consequence of the supervention of 
diphtheritis : 

CASE. Private Julius McKnight, Co. D. 27th U. S. Colored Troops, aged 23 years, received, on July 30th, 1864, at the 
eiege of Petersburg, Virginia, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was sent to the hospital for Colored Troops, a few miles in 
the rear, at City Point. Here little importance was attached to the wound of the head, and the patient was entered on the 
register as suffering from remittent fever. On August 14th, he was sent to Philadelphia, to the Summit House Hospital, where 
the scalp wound was regarded as serious. As it was progressing favorably, light, simple dressings were applied. In Septem 
ber, symptoms of diphtheria were manifested, and the disease making very rapid progress, the patient died, on September 20th, 
1864. At the autopsy, the mucous coat of the fauces and trachea appeared to be ulcerated and disorganized. A tough tubular 
membrane lined the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, even to the smaller ramifications; and in the larger air passages, this 
pseudo-membrane was detached. It was of a yellowish gray or ash colored hue. The lungs were much engorged. An abscess 
containing half an ounce of pus was found in the right lung. Entangled among the columna} carnese of the right ventricle of 
the heart was a concretion, half an ounce in weight, very similar in appearance to the membranous exudation in the lung. It 
was very unlike the ordinary fibrinous coagula or heart clots so frequently observed in autopsies, and, under the microscope, 
presented the same histological elements as the exudations in the air passages. Surgeon J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., records the case. 

In another of the one hundred and sixty-two fatal gunshot scalp wounds, the fatal 
result was probably due to delirium tremens: 

CASE. Corporal William Quinn, Co. A, 95th New York Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
July 2d, 1863, a gunshot scalp wound of the frontal region. After a few days treatment in field hospital, he was sent to Phila 
delphia, and admitted into Satterlee Hospital on July llth. He died "from mania a potu" on August 23d, 1863. At the 
autopsy, an extensive discoloration of the forehead and face was observed; but no fracture of the cranium or injury of the 
brain could be detected after most careful exploration. There was cirrhosis of the liver; but the other viscera showed no 
organic alteration. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., records the case. 

The five following cases are reported as slight gunshot wounds of the head. From 
the evidence derived from prescription books, hospital registers, monthly reports, and 
other sources, it is inferred that the injuries were diagnosticated as gunshot wounds of the 
scalp only, and that no lesions of the bony walls of the skull were discovered after death : 

CASE. Corporal Isaac Foster, Co. H, 98th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 3d, 1864, a gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Eighteenth 
Corps, and was thence transferred to hospital Division, No. 2, Alexandria, Virginia, where he died, on June 21st, 1864, from 
wound. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V., records the case 

CASE. Corporal Henry French, Co. I, 173d New York Volunteers, received, on May 12th, 1863, a gunshot wound of 
the head. He was admitted to the Alexander Hospital, Brashear City, Louisiana, where he died, on May 25th, 1863. Surgeon 
C. Powers, 160th N. Y. Vols., reports the case. 

CASE. Private W. 1L Gri/ttJi, Co. H, 20th Virginia Regiment, was brought to the Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, 
Virginia, on December 10th, 1864, with a gunshot wound of the head. He died on December 25th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon 
J. B. Wily, C. S. A., records the case. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 

CASK. Private Charles Russell, Co. B, 3?th Massachusetts Volunteers, was wounded at the hattle of Winchester, Sep 
tember 19th, 18G4, and is reported by Assistant Surgeon Elisha M. White, 37th Massachusetts Volunteers, as "killed in battle. 
He was not killed, however, but was conveyed to the general field hospital of the Sixth Corps, whence the case is reported by 
Surgeon S. A. Holman, II. S. V., as a flesh wound of the scalp, produced by a fragment of shell. On October 4th, the patient 
was transferred to Sheridan Hospital, where the diagnosis is recorded by Surgeon F. V. Hay den, U. S. V., as a gunshot wound 
of the scalp, involving the integument only; and by Surgeon W. A. Barry, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, as a gunshot wound 
of the head with injury of the skull. The patient died on October 7th, 18G4. 

CASE. Private Edward Wilmore, Co. K, 1st Missouri Volunteers, received, at the battle of Wilson s Creek, Missouri, 
August 10th, 1861, a gunshot wound of the head and the face. He was, on the same day, admitted to the hospital at Spring 
field, where he died, on August 25th, 1861. 

As contused or lacerated wounds of the scalp are rarely fatal, unless followed by 
secondary disease of the cranium or its contents, or by haemorrhage, sloughing, pyaemia, 
or tetanus, numerical estimates of the results of gunshot injuries of the integuments of 
the head can teach us little more than the relative frequency and fatality of such compli 
cations. The foregoing brief abstracts of two hundred cases include thirty-eight recoveries 
and one hundred and sixty-two fatal cases. The tabular statement, on page 70, of 7,739 
cases of gunshot scalp wounds gives a near approximation to the truth regarding the 
results of such injuries, every allowance being made for errors in diagnosis and imperfec 
tion in the returns.* The histories of 3,420 cases have been traced from hospital to 
hospital until the complete recovery of the patients and their return to duty was ascer 
tained. In like manner, the histories of 132 Confederates who recovered and were 
exchanged, released, or paroled, and of 127 United States enlisted men who were sent to 
modified duty,